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BOOK VI.

THE THRONE AND THE ARISTOCRACY

IN CONFLICT

WITH THE DEMOCRATIC SPIRIT.

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CHRISTEN the babe, Archbishop proud,

Strange servant of the lowly Christ,
Thousands are to your purse allowed-

For Him the smallest loaf sufficed.
Though holy water's scanty now,
My lord, you may

dismiss

your

fears;
Take, to baptise the infant's brow,
A starving people's bitter tears!

Starvation Anthem for the Royal Christening.

In 1835, when Sir Thomas Potter represented to the Duke of Wel-. lington the great distress of the manufacturing districts, and said, that if some remedy was not applied an outbreak would take place, the Duke replied, I have the means of putting that down.

Well may'st thou stand, when nations wheel

Their cannon towards thy throne !
But when thy starving millions feel

A foe in thee alone,
Nor throne, nor lords, nor martial power,
Can stand the onset of that hour.

Who can tell what dangers, and what calamities may lie hid within what remains of the present century! Who can tell how intense may be the distress, how fierce the animosities, or how unscrupulous the factions

be let loose upon us.Edinb. Review.

that may

THE THRONE AND THE ARISTOCRACY.

I.

THE

\HE Throne is the fountain of all Rank and Power in

the Empire. Whatever honor or emolument a subject may be clothed with, in the Church or the State, flows from the Supreme Head. Such is the theory of the British government, and such it has been since the Battle of Hastings, 1066, when William the Conqueror established the Norman Line on the Throne of England, and from whom Victoria (the fifth English Queen in her own right) traces her blood.*

* SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND SUBSEQUENT TO THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

Commence- Years Sovereigns. ment of of

To whom Espoused.

Where Buried, Reign. Reign

NORMAN LINE.
William I...

1066 21
Matilda of Flanders...

Caen, Normandy, William II... 1087 18

Winchester. Henry I... 1100 35 Matilda of Scotland..

Reading
Stephen...

1135 20
Matilda of Boulogne..

Feversham.
THE SAXON LINE RESTORED.
1154 35
Eleanor of Guienne...

Fontevrault. Richard I.

1189 10
Berengeria of Navarre.

Fontevrault.

Earl Montague's daughter...
John

1199 17
Avisa of Gloucester..

Worcester.

Isabella of Angoulême..
Henry III...

1216 56
Eleanor of Provence..

Westminster. 1272 Edward I..

85
Eleanor of Castille.

Westminster.

Mary of France..
Edward II..

1307 19
Isabella of France.

Gloucester.
Edward III

1327 50
Philippa of Hainault.

Westminster. Richard II

1877 22

Anne of Luxembourg.
Isabella of France..

Westminster.

Henry II.

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242

THE ROYAL FAMILY.

II.

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O queen was ever born to so magnificent an empire ; few

have been more prosperous in their reigns, happier in their families, or more respected and beloved by their subjects. Once only has the shadow of death fallen on the brilliant family whose record is summed up thus :

THE QUEEN (Alexandrina) VICTORIA, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, only daughter of his late Royal Highness Edward, Duke of Kent, born May 24, 1819, succeeded to the throne on the decease of her uncle, King William IV., June 20, 1837. Proclaimed, June 21. Crowned Sovereign, at Westminster, June 28, 1838. Married, Feb. 10, 1840, at the Chapel Royal, St. James', to her cousin, Field-Marshal, His Royal Higbness Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emanuel, Duke of Saxe, Prince of Saxe Cobourg and Gotha (6. Aug. 26, 1819, d. Dec. 14, 1861), K. T., G. C. B., &c. Issue--I. VICTORIA ADELAIDE MARY LOUISA, Princess Royal, b. Nov. 21, 1840, m. Jan. 25, 1858, Frederick William, Crown Prince of Prussia, K.G. 188ue-1. Frederick William Victor Albert, b. Jan. 27, 1859. 2. Victoria Elizabeth Augusta Charlotte, b. July 24, 1860. 3. Albert Wilhelm Heinrich, b. Aug. 14, 1862. 4. A Prince, b. Sept. 15, 1864. II. ALBERT EDWARD, Prince of Wales, 6. Nov. 9, 1841, m. March 10, 1863, Princess Alexandra Caroline Maria Charlotte Louisa Julia, of Denmark, b. Dec. 1, 1844. 188ue-1. Albert Victor Christian Edward, b. Jan. 8. 1864. III. Alice Maud Mary, b. April 25, 1843, m. July 1, 1862,

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Anne. George I... George II.. George III George IV. William IV. Victoria

THE UNION OF THE TWO KINGDOMS.
1702 12
George of Denmark..

Westminster. 1714 13 Sophia of Zell..

Hanover. 1727 33

Wilhelmina of Anspach.. Westminster. 1760 60

Charlotte of Meklenbg. Strelitz Windsor.
1820 10
Charlotte of Brunswick

Windsor.
1830

7

Adelaide of Saxe Meiningen... Windsor. 1837

Albert of Saxe Coburg....

LORDS, COMMONS, ARMY AND NAVY.

243

His Royal Highness Prince Frederic William Louis of Hesse. Issue-1. Victoria Alberta Elizabeth Matilda Mary, b. April 5, 1863. IV. ALFRED ERNEST ALBERT, b. Aug. 6, 1844. V. HELENA Augusta VICTORIA, 6. May 25, 1846. VI. Louisa CaroLINA ALBERTA, 6. March 18, 1848. VII. Arthur PATRICK WILLIAM ALBERT, 6. May 1, 1850. VIII. LEOPOLD GEORGE DUNCAN Albert, b. April 7, 1853. IX. BEATRICE MARY VICTORIA FEODORE, 6. April 14, 1857.

III.

A

RISTOCRACY AND ENGLAND :* they are synony

mous terms, and they will remain so until the whole fabric of Feudalism is overthrown in the British Empire.

The House of Lords consists of 425 peers and 28 bishops. There are 14 peeresses in their own right, of whom 1 is a duchess, 3 countesses, and 10 baronesses. There are 22 Scotch peers, and 88 Irish peers, who are neither peers of Parliament, nor representative peers.

The House of Commons consists of 656 members—England having 498 : Scotland, 53 ; and Ireland, 105.

The Navy has 327 admirals, 782 captains, and 1,350 cominanders.

The Army has 5 field-marshals, 71 generals, 139 lieutenantgenerals, 361 major-generals, 900 colonels, 900 lieutenant-colonels, and 1,100 majors.

The Cabinet Ministers, the Judiciary, the Diplomatic Corps,

* Debretts Peerage for 1865 shows that there are 24 dukes, 34 marquises, 197 earls, 57 viscounts, and 215 barons of the United Kingdom, 117 of whom are baronets, 430 have been married, the remaining 97 still being in a state of single blessedness; 80 have obtained academical honors at Oxford, whilst 50 have been receivers of the same from the sister university ; only 9 peers are in holy orders, 2 of whom are bishops (Bath and Wells, and Tuam, Killala and Achonry): 743 of the younger sons of peers have obtained honors of various distinctions, have had or still hold government appointments, or, like 974 of the daughters of peers, are married. There are only 14 peeresses in their own right. Last year there died 4 dukes (Athol, Newcastle, and the second and third Dukes of Cleveland), 1 marquis (Bristol), 8 earls (Aberdeen, Gosford, Poulett, Morley, Cadogan, Stair, Carlisle and Clare, this last title becoming extinct), 1 viscount (Sidmouth), 4 barons (Ashburton, Manners, Rodney and Somerville), 1 lord bishop (Ely), and one peeress in her own right (Ruthven).

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