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Leon Jacqces Maximi: Pmnet.

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of
France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of L Industrie- du stl en
Francke-ComU; franfois Let It comte dc liourgagnc; &c.

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Oswald Barron, F.S.A.

Editor of ll-.c Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon.Genealogist to Standing Council of the-; Paulet: Family.
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. I

Osbert John RADCLmrE Howarth, M.A. (

Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the "j Oxford.
British Association. I

Oldtield Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z.S.

Senior Assistant, Natural History Department of the British Museum. Author of
Catalogue of Marsupialia in the British Museum.

Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.

Sec the biographical article: Kropoiun, Prince P. A.

Peter Chaluers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com-
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Author
of Outlines of Biology; Ac.

Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Lrrr.D.

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College. Cambridge, and University
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo-
logical Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; Ac.

Paul George Konody.

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist.
Author of The Art of Waller Crane; Vclasyua, Life and Work; Ac.

Robert Alexander Stewart Macauster, M.A., F.S.A.

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora-
tion Fund.

Ronald Brunlees Mckerrow, XI.A.

Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of the Works of Thomas Nashe; Ac.

Sir Richard Claverhoose Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L.

See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhocss.

Richard Garnett, LL.D., D.C.L.

See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.

Robert Holford Macdowall Bosanquet, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.C.S.
Fellow of St John's College, Oxford. Author of Musical Temperament; Ac.

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LL.D. (

lurry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Boston. 4
I Mining Engineers, 1886. Authorof Ore*lrcssing;&c. L

I

-{

Robert Hallowell

Professor of Mining and Metalli
President American Institute of

R. J. Grewtnc, Captain, Reserve of Officers.

Ronald John Mcneill. M.A.

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James'
CaKtte, London.

Sir Robert Kennaway Dodglas.

Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. in the British Museum; and
Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Author of The Language and Litera-
ture of China; Ac.

Richard Lydekxer, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882.
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum;
all Lands; ike Came Animals of Africa; &C.

Author of.
The Deer of

Richard Muther (1860-1009).

Professor of the History of Art, Breslau University, 1895-1909. Author of The.
History of Modem Painting.

nsity off

Richard Mont.

Demonstrator of Pathological and Bacteriological Technique, Universii
Edinburgh.

Robert Nisbet Batn (d. 1909)

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, iflj-rgoo; The First Romanovs,
1613-17«; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469
to 1796; Ac.

Six Richard Owen. K.C.B.

See the biographical article: Owes, Sir Richard.

R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.

_„... .'sponding Me1.

HiOory of Archisechm. Author of Architecture: East and West; etc.

! Panlzil.
[organ.
Ore-dressing.

! Officers.

O'Donnell: Family;
O'Neill: Family.

Parkes, Sir H. S.

Okapi; Opossum;

Otter (in part);

Ox; Palaeotherlum;

Pangolin (in part).

Painting: Recent Dutch, Ger-
man, Austrian, Italian,
Spanish, Danish, Swedish,
Norwegian, Russian and
Balkan States.

Pathology (in part).

Oleg; Olgierd;
Orduin-Nashchokln;
Orlov; Osterman;
Oxenstjerna; Panln; Patkul.

; Oken.

Order; Orientation.

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Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Lirr. (Cantab.). ( „ ,. ,

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Pliilolosy in the University of Manchester. J FaeHKn
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College. Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville I Osca Lingua,
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. *•

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Paget, Sir James.

Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Lrrr.

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography
of the Roman Campagna.

Thohas Allan Incram, M.A., 1.I..I).
Trinity College. Dublin.

Simon Newcomb, D.Sc., LL.D. / Orbit;

See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon. 1 Parallax.

Stephen Facet, F.R.C.S.

Surgeon to Throat and Ear Department, Middlesex Hospital. Hon. Secret
Research Defence Society. Author of Memoirs and Letters of Sir James Pagel

Olbla: Sardinia;
Orbetello; Orlstano;
Ortona a Mare; Orvleto;
Ostia; Otranto; Paestum;
Palermo (in part);
Pantellerla; Patavlum;
Pavia.

[Patents (in part);
I Payment;

1 Payment ol Members.
Sir Thomas Barclay. f

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of I n .,, „, , ,
the Congo Free State. Officer ol the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of] TMeinc Blockade.
International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.

Rt. Hon. Lord Farnborough.

See the biographical article: Farnborough, Thomas Erskine May, Baronj

Theodore Freylinchuysen Collier, Ph.d.

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.

Thomas Hodgkin, Lm. D., LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Hodgkin, T.

Sir Thomas Huncerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc. .

Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S.J Oman; OXU»;
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's \ Pamirs.
AmirJ; India; Tibet.

Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, M.A., D.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Cueyne, T. K.

'I

I Parliament (in part).

I Orange: France;

\ Paul III., IV, V. (Popes).

< Odoacer.

Paradise.

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Ophiclelde (in paA

Thomas Okey.

Examiner in Basket Work for the City and Guilds of London Institute.

Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Pn.D

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the
Pali Text Society. Fellow of tnc British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of
Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of Ike
Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.

Victor Charles Mahillon.

Principal of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique at Brussels. Chevalier of the .
Legion of Honour.

Sir Walter Armstrong. e

Director of National Gallery of Ireland. Author of Art in the British Isles; &c. J Orchardson.
Joint-editor of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters; &c.

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., PH.D. f

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's Olivier, J. D.;
College, Lamnctcr, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haul Dauphine; The Range I Orta, Lake Of;
of Ihe Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and I /wtl«r
in History ;SK. Editor to The Alpine Journal. 1880-1881 ; &c. J^uihu.

William Alfred Hinds. I n . .

President of the Oncida Community, Ltd.: Author of Amtruan Communities; &c. \Unel'

W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.

Formerly Exhibitioner of Mcrton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College,
Oxford. Author of Modem Europe; &c.

W. A. S. V. i:';•.•• Augustus Simpson.

Colonel and Acting Adjutant-General, U.S. Army.

W. B." William Burton, M.A., F.C.S.

Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturer! of Great Britain. Author of
Er.f.lr.h Slmanre and Earthenware; He.

W. E. A.* Rev. Williah E. Addis, M.A.

Professor of Old Testament Criticism, Manchester College, Oxford. Author of
Christianity and the Raman Empire; &c.

W. E. C. F. Wtluaii Edward Garrett Fisher, M.A.
Author of The Transvaal and the Bans.

W. H. T. Snt Williaii Henry Flower, F.R.S.

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.

W. L. G. Wiluah Lawson Gkant, M.A.

Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Colonial
Series); Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration).

W. M. B. Win i• •• Michael Rossetti.

See the biographical article: Rossetti. Dante Gabriel.

W. P. A. Lrxur.-CoLONEL Wiluah Patrick Anderson, M.lNST.C.E., F.R.G.S.

Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the
Geographic Board of Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers.

W. P. C. Winnu Prideaux Courtney.

See the biographical article: Courtney, L. H., Baron.

W. S. R. Wiluah Shyth Rockstro.

Author of A General History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama to the
Present Period; and other works on the history of music.

W. W. R.* Will:(ii Walker Rockwell, Lic.theol.

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.

f Papacy: 1900-1910.

| Paris: History (in part).

I Officers: United States.
Pallssy.

\ Order, Holy.

•' Paper: India Paper.
jotter (ib part).

Ontario.

f Palma, Jacopo; Parmiglano; I. Paul Veronese.

Ontario, Lake.

f Orford, 1st Earl of (Sir Robert \ Walpole); Oxford, 1st Earl of.

Palestrlna (in part).

•Papacy:
Paschal III.

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XX

ODE (Gr. tf&it, from fc&cuv, to sing), a form of stately and elaborate lyrical-verse. As its name shows, the original significatioa of an ode was a chant, a poem arranged to be sung to an instrumental accompaniment. There were two great divisions of the Greek mclos or song; the one the personal utterance of the poet, the other, as Professor G. G. Murray says, " the choric song of his band of trained dancers." Each of these culminated in what have been called odes, but the former, in the hands of Alcaeus, Anacreon and Sappho, came closer to what modern criticism knows as lyric, pure and simple. On the other hand, tie choir-song, in which the poet spoke for himself, but always supported, or interpreted, by a chorus, led up to what is now known as ode proper. It was AJcman, as is supposed, who first gave to his poems a strophic arrangement, and the strophe his come to be essential to an ode. Stcsichorus, Ibycus and Stmonides of Ceos led the way to the two great masters of ode among the ancients, Pindar and Bacchylides. The form and verse-arrangement of Pindar's great lyrics have regulated the type of the heroic ode. It is now perceived that they are consciously composed in very elaborate measures, and that each is the result of a separate act of creative ingenuity, but each preserving an absolute consistency of form. So far from being, as critics down to Cowley and Boileau, and indeed to the time of August Bdckh, supposed, utterly licentious in their irregularity, they are more like the canzos and sirxnlcs of the medieval troubadours than any modem verse. The Latins themselves teem to have lost the secret of these complicated harmonies, and they made no serious attempt to imitate the odes of Pindar and Bacchylides. It is probable that the Greek odes gradually lose their musical character; they were accompanied on the flute, and then declaimed without any music at all. The ode, as it was practised by the Romans, returned to the personally lyrical form of the Lesbian lyrists. This was cxemplifii-d, in the most exquisite way, by Horace and Catullus; the former imitated, and even translated, Alcaeus and Anacreon, the latter was directly inspired by Sappho.

The earliest modern writer to perceive the value of the antique ode was Ronsard, who attempted with as much energy as he ccuM exercise to recover the fire and volume of Pindar; his principal experiments date from 1550 to 1552. The poets of the Pleiad recognized in the ode one of the forms of verse with which French prosody should be enriched, but they went too far, and in their use of Greek words crudely introduced, and in quantitative experiments, they offended the genius of

the French language. The ode, however, died in France almost as rapidly as it had come to life; it hardly survived the i6th century, and neither the examples of J. B. Rousseau nor of Saint-Amant nor of Malherbc possessed much poetic life. Early in the igth century the form was resumed, and we have the Odes composed between 1817 and 1824 by Victor Hugo, the philosophical and religious odes of Lamartine, those of Victor de Laprade (collected in 1844), and the brilliant Odes funambutesqius of Theodore de Banville (1857).

The earliest odes in the English language, using the word in its strict form, were the magnificent Epilhdamiitm and Prolhalamium of Spenser. Ben Jonson introduced a kind of elaborate lyric, in stanzas of rhymed irregular verse, to which he gave the name of ode; and some of his disciples, in particular Randolph, Cartwright and Herrick, followed him. The great "Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity," begun by Milton in 1629, may be considered an ode, and his lyrics " On Time" and "At a Solemn Music" may claim to belong to the same category. But it was Cowley who introduced into English poetry the ode consciously built up, on a solemn theme and as definitely as possible on the ancient Greek pattern. Being in exile in France about 1645, and at a place where the only book was the text of Pindar, Cowley set himself to study and to imitate the Epinlkia. He conceived, he says, that this was "the noblest and the highest kind of writing in verse," but he was no more perspicacious than others in observing what the rules were which Pindar had followed. He supposed the Greek poet to be carried away on a storm of heroic emotion, in which all the discipline of prosody was disregarded. In 1656 Cowley published his Pindaric odes, in which he had not even regarded the elements of the Greek structure, with strophe, antistrophe and cpode. His idea of an ode, which he impressed with such success upon the British nation that it has never been entirely removed, was of a lofty and tempestuous piece of indefinite poetry, conducted " without sail or oar " in whatever direction the enthusiasm of the poet chose to take it. These shapeless pieces became very popular after the Restoration, and enjoyed the sanction of Dryden in three or four irregular odes which are the best of their kind in the English language. Prior, in a humorous ode on the taking of Namur (1695), imitated the French type of this poem, as cultivated by Boileau. In 1705 Congreve published a Discourse on lite Pindariqvc Ode, in which many of the critical errors of Cowley were corrected; and Congreve wrote odes, in strophe, antistrophe and cpode,

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