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Boycr; and afterwards commanded an Irish regiment in the Fresth service, and died in 1704.
Daniel O'neill (c. 1612-1664), son of Conn MacNeill WacFigartach O'Neill, a member of the Clanaboy branch of the family, whose wife was a sister of Owen Roe, was prominent in the Civil Wars. He spent much of his early life at the court of Charles I., and became a Protestant. He commanded a troop of horse in Scotland in 1639; was involved in army plots in 1641, for which he was committed to the Tower, but escaped abroad; and on the outbreak of the Civil War returned to England and served with Prince Rupert, being present at Marston Moor, the second battle of Newbury and Nascby. He then went to Ireland to negotiate between Ormonde and his uncle, Owen Roe O'Neill. He was made a major-general in 1649, and but for his Protestantism would have succeeded Owen Roe as chief of the O'Neills, He joined Charles II. at the Hague, and took part in the expedition to Scotland and the Scotch invasion of England in 1652. At the Restoration he received many marks of favour from the king, including grants of land and lucrative monopolies. He died in 1664.
Hcch O'neill (d. c. 1660), son of Owen Roc's brother Art Qge, and therefore known as Hugh Mac Art, had served with some distinction in Spain before he accompanied his uncle, Owen Roe, to Ireland in 1642. In 1646 he was made a majorgeneral of the forces commanded by Owen Roc; and after the death of the latter he successfully defended Clonmel in 1650 against Cromwell, on whom he inflicted the lattcr's most severe dsfeat in Ireland. In the following year he so stubbornly resisted Ireton's attack on Limerick that he was excepted from the benefit of the capitulation, and, after being condemned to death and reprieved, was sent as a prisoner to the Tower of London. Released in 1652 on the representation of the Spanish ambassador that O'Neill was a Spanish subject, he repaired to Spain, whence he.wrote to Charles II. in 1660 claiming the earldom of Tyrone. He probably died in Spain, but the date of hU death is unknown.
The Clanaboy (or Clandcboyc) branch of the O'Neills descended from the ancient kings through Ncill Mor O'Neill, lord of Clanaboy in the time of Henry VIII., ancestor (as mentioned above) of the Portuguese O'Neills. Ncill Mor's great-greatgrandson, Henry O'Neill, was created baronet of Killelcngh in 1656. His son, Sir Ncill O'Neill fought for James II. in Ireland, and died of wounds received at the battle of the Boync. Through an elder line from Neill Mor was descended Brian Mac Phelim O'Neill, who was treacherously seized in 1573 by the carl of Esse*. whom he was hospitably entertaining, and executed together with his wife and brother, some two hundred of his clan being at the same time massacred by the orders of Essex. (Sec Essex, Walter Devereux, ist earl of.) Sir Brian Mac Phelim's son, Shane Mac Brian O'Neill, was the last lord of Clanaboy, and from him the family castle of EdcndufTcarrick, on the shore of Locgb Neagh in Co. Antrim, was named Shane's Castle. He joined the rebellion of his kinsman Hugh, carl of Tyrone, but submitted in 1586.
In the 18th century the commanding importance of the O'Neills in Irish history had come to an end. But John O'Neill (1740-1708), who represented Randalstown in the Irish parliament 1761-1783, and the county of Antrim from the latter year Ifll bis death, took an active part in debate on the popular side, being a strong supporter of Catholic emancipation. He was one of the delegates in 1780 from the Irish parliament to George, prince of Wales, requesting him to assume the regency as a matter of right. In 1793 he was raised to the peerage of Ireland as Baron O'Neill of Shane's Castle, and in 1795 was created a viscount. In defending the town of Antrim against the rebels in 1708 O'Neill received wounds from which he died on the iSth of June, being succeeded as Viscount O'Neill by bis son Charles Htnry St John (1770-1841), who in iSoo was created Earl O'Neill. Dying unmarried, when the earldom therefore became otinct, Charles was succeeded as Viscount O'Neill by his brother John Bruce Richard (1780-1855), a general in the British army; ca whose death without issue in 1855 the male line in the United
Kingdom became extinct. The estates then devolved on William Chichester, great-grandson of Arthur Chicheslcr and his wife Mary, only child and heiress of Henry (d. 1721), eldest son of John O'Neill of Shane's Castle.
William Ciiichester (1813-1883), ist Baron O'Neill, a clergyman, on succeeding to the estates as heir-general, assumed, by royal licence the surname and arms of O'Neill; and in 1868 was created Baron O'Neill of Shane's Castle. On his death in 1883 he was succeeded by his son Edward, and Baron O'Neill (b. 1830), who was member of parliament for Co, Antrim 1863-1880, and who married in 1873 Louisa, daughter of the nth carl of Dundonald.
For the history of the ancient Irish kings of the Hy Neill see: The Book of LeinsUr, edited with introduction by R. Atkinson (Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1880); The Annals of Ulster, edited by W. M. Hcnncssy and B. MacCarthy (4 vols., Dublin, 1887-1901); The Annals of Loch Ce, edited by W. M. Hennessy (Rolls Scries, London, 1871). For the later period see: P. W. Joyce, A Short History of Ireland (London, 1893), a°d A Social History of Ancient Ireland (2 yola., London, 1903); The Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters, edited by 1. O'Donovan (7 vols., Dublin, 1851); Sir J. T. Gilbert, Historyofthe Viceroys of Ireland (Dublin, 1865), and, especially for Owen Roe O'Neill, Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, 1641-1652 (Irish Archaeol. Soc., 3 vols.. Dublin, 1879); also History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland (Dublin, 1882); John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees (Dublin, 1881); The Montgomery MSS., Tl The Flight of the Earls, 1607" (p. 767), edited by George Hill (Belfast, 1878); Thomas Carte, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde (3 vols., London, 1735); C. P. Mechan, fate and Fortunes of Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and Rory O'Donel, Earl of Tyrconnel (Dublin, 1886); Richard Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors, with an Account of the Earlier History (3*vols., London, 1885-1890); J. F. Taylor, Owen Roe O'Neill (London, 1896); John Mitchell, Life and Times of Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, with an Account of his Predecessors, Con. Shane, Turlough (Dublin, 1846); L. O'Clery, Life of Hugh Roe O'J)onnell (Dublin. 1893). For the O'Neills of the i8th century, and especially the ist Viscount O'Neill, sec The Charlemont Paf*rst
by Thomas Ma thews (3 vols., Dublin, 1907). an ill-arranged and uncritical work, has little historical value, but contains a mass of traditional and legendary lore, and a number of translations of ancient poems, and genealogical tables of doubtful authority. (R. J. M.) •
O'NEILL, ELIZA (1791-1872), Irish actress, was the daughter of an actor and stage manager. Her first appearance on the stage was made at the Crow Street theatre in 1811 as the Widow Cheerly in The Soldier's Daugliter, and after several years in Ireland she came to London and made an immediate success as Juliet at Covent Garden in 1814. For five years she was the favourite of the town in comedy as well as tragedy, but in the latter she particularly excelled, being frequently compared, not to her disadvantage, with Mrs Siddons. In 1819 she married William Wrixon Bccher, an Irish M.P. who was created a baronet in 1831. She never returned to the stage, and died on the 2oth of October 1872.
ONEONTA* a city in the township of the same name, in the south-central part of Otscgo county, New York, U.S.A., on the N. side of the Susquehanna river, about 82 m. S.W. of Albany. Pop. (iSSo) 3002, (1890) 6272, (1900) 7147, of whom 456 were foreign-born, (1910, U.S. census) 9491. The city lies about 1100 ft. above sca-Icvcl. It is served by the Ulster & Delaware, by the Susquehanna division of the Delaware & Hudson, and by the Oneonta & Mohawk Valley (electric) railways. In Oneonta are a state normal school (1889), a state armoury, and the Aurclta Fox Memorial Hospital. The city is situated in a good agricultural region. The principal manufactures are machineshop products (the Delaware & Hudson has repair and machine shops at Oneonta), knit goods, silk goods, lumber and planing mill products, &c. The first settlement was made about 1780. The township was erected in 1830 from parts of Milford and Otego. Oneonta was known as Milfordvillc until 1830, when it received its present name. It was first incorporated as a village in 1848, and was chartered as a city in 1908, the charter coming into effect on the ist of January Iqoq. The name "Oneonta" is derived from Onahrcnton or Onarcnta, the Indian name of a creek flowing through the city.
See Edwin F. Bacon, Otsego County, N.Y. (Oneonta, 1002); and Dudley M. Campbell, A History of Oneonta (Oneonta, 1906).
ONESICRITUS, or Onesicrates, of Aegina or Astypaleia (probably simply the " old city " of Aegina), one of the writers on Alexander the Great. At an advanced age he became a pupil of Diogenes the Cynic, and gained such repute as a student of philosophy that he was selected by Alexander to hold a conference with the Indian Gymnosophists. When the fleet was constructed on the Hydaspes, Oncsicritus was appointed chief pilot (in his vanity he caUs himself commander), and in this capacity accompanied Nearchus on the voyage from the mouth of the Indus to the Persian gulf. He wrote a diffuse biography of Alexander, which in addition to historical details contained descriptions of the countries visited, especially India. After the king's death, Onesicritus appears to have completed his work at the court of Lysimachus, king of Thrace. Its historical value was considered small, it being avowedly a panegyric, and contemporaries (including even Alexander himself) regarded it as untrustworthy. Strabo especially takes Onesicritus to task for his exaggeration and love of the marvellous. His Poraplus (or description of the coasts of India) probably formed part of the work, and, incorporated by Juba II. of Mauretania with the accounts of coasting voyages by Nearchus and other geographers, and circulated by him under the name of Oncsicritus, was largely used by Pliny.
Sec Arrian, Anabasis, vi. 2; Indica. 32; Diogenes L-iPrtius vi. 75; Plutarch, Alexander, 46, 65; Strabo xv. 698; Pliny, Nat. Hist. vi. 26; Aulus Gcllius ix. 4; fragments and life in C. W. Muller, appendix to F. Dubncr's Arrian (1846); monograph by F. Lilie (Bonn, 1864); E. H. Bunbury, Hist, of Ancient Geography, i. (1879); Meier in Ersch and Gruber's AUgemeine Encyclopadie.
ONION (Fr. trignon, Lat. unio, liberally unity, oneness, applied to a large pearl and to a species of onion), Allium Ccpa (nat. ord. Liliaceae), a hardy bulbous biennial, which has been cultivated in Britain from time immemorial, and is one of the earliest of cultivated species; it is represented on Egyptian monuments, and one variety cultivated in Egypt was accorded divine honours. It is commonly cultivated in India, China and Japan. A. de Candollc, arguing from its ancient cultivation and the antiquity of the Sanskrit and Hebrew names, regards it as a native of western Asia.
The onion should be grown in an open situation, and on a light, rich, well-worked soil, which has not been recently manured. In England the principal crop may be so\yn at any time from the middle of February to the middle of March, if the weather is fine and the ground sufficiently dry. The seed should be sown in shallow drills, 10 in. apart, the ground being made as level and firm as possible, and the plants should be regularly thinned, hoed and kept free from weeds. At the final thinning they should be set from 3 to 6 in. apart, the latter distance in very rich soil. About the beginning of September the crop is ripe, which is known by the withering of the leaves; the bulbs are then to be pulled, and exposed on the ground till well dried, and they are then to be put away in a store-room, or loft, where they may be perfectly secured from frost and damp.
About the end of August a crop is sown to afford a supply of young onions in the spring months. Those which are not required for the kitchen, if allowed to stand, and if the flower-bud is picked out on its first appearance, and the earth stirred about them, frequently produce bulbs equal in size and quality to the large ones that are imported from the Continent. A crop of very large bulbs may also be secured by sowing about the beginning of September, and transplanting early in spring to very rich soil. Another plan is to sow in May on dry poor soil, when a crop of small bulbs will be produced; these are to be stored in the usual way, and planted in rich soil about February, on ground made firm by treading, in rows about i ft. apart, the bulbs being set near the surface, and about 6 in. asunder. The White Spanish and Tripoli are good sorts for this purpose.
To obtain a crop of bulbs for pickling, seed should be sown thickly in March, in rather poor soil, the seeds being very thinly covered, and the surface well rolled; these are not to be thinned, but should be pulled and harvested when ripe. The best sorts for this crop are the Silver-skinned, Early Silver-skinned, Noccra and Queen.
Onions may be forced like mustard and cress if required for winter salads, the seeds being sown thickly in boxes which are to be placed in a warm house or frame. The young onions are of course pulled while quite small.
The Potato Onion, Allium Ccpa var. aggregatum, is propagated by the lateral bulbs, which it throws out, under ground, in considerable numbers. This variety is very prolific, and is useful when other sons do nor. keep well. It is sometimes planted about midwinter, and then ripens in summer, but for use during the spring and early summer it is best planted in spring. It is also known as the underground onion, from its habit of producing its bulbs beneath the surface.
The Tree Onion or Egyptian Onion, Allium Ccpa var. prelifcrum, produces small bulbs instead of flowers, and a few offsets also underground. These small stem bulbs are excellent for pickling.
The Welsh Onion or Ciboule, Allium fislulosum, is a hardy perennial, native of Siberia. It was unknown to the ancients, and must have come into Europe through Russia in the middle ages or later. It forms no bulbs, but, on account of its extreme hardiness, is sown in July or early in August, to furnish a reliable supply of young onions for use in salads during the early spring. These bulblcss onions are sometimes called Scallions, a name which is also applied to old onions which have stem and leaves but no bulbs.
The following are among the best varieties of onions for various purposes:—
For Summer and Autumn.—Queen; Early White Naples; these two sorts also excellent for sowing in autumn for spring salading. Silver-skinned; Tripoli, including Giant Rocca.
For Winter.—Brown Globe, including Magnum Bonum; White Globe; Yellow Danvers; White Spanish, in its several forms; Trebons, the finest variety for autumn sowing, attaining a large size early, ripening well, and keeping good till after Christmas; Ai!-a Craig; Konsnam Park Hero; James's Keeping; Cranston's Excelsior; Blood Red, strong-flavoured.
l-\>r Pickling.—Queen, Early Silver-skinned, White Noccra. Egyptian.
ONOMACRITUS (c. 330-480 B.C.), seer, priest and poet of Attica. His importance lies in his connexion with the religious movements in Attica during the 6th century B.C. He had great influence on the development of the Orphic religion and mysteries, and was said to have composed a poem on initiatory rites. The works of Musacus, the legendary founder of Orphism in Attica, arc said to have been reduced to order (if not actually written) by him (Clem. Alex. Slromata, i. p. 143 [397); Pausanias i. 31, 7). He was in high favour at the court of the Peisistratidac till he was banished by Hipparchus for making additions of his own in an oracle of Musaeus. When the Pcisistratidae were themselves expelled and were living in Persia, he furnished them with oracles encouraging Xerxes to invade Greece and restore the tyrants hi Athens (Herodotus vii. 6). He is also said to have been employed by Peisislralus in editing the Homeric poems, and to have introduced interpolations of his own (e.g. a passage in the episode of the visit of Odysseus to the world below). According to Pausanias (viii. 3', 3137, 5;>x. 35. s) he was also the author of poems on mythological subjects.
See F. W. Ritschl, " Onomakritos von Athen," in his Opvscvla, i. (1866), and p. 35 of the same volume; U. von Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, " Hpmensche Untcrsuchungcn" (pp. 190-226 on the Orphic interpolation in Odyssey, X 566-631), in Kicssling-Mollendor0. PhUologische Untcrsuchungcn, Heft 7 (1884).
ONOMATOPOEIA, literally the making or formation of words (Gr. iroparn-oim, from «<o,ua, name, word.jroitii', to make), hence a term used in philology for the formation of words by imitation of natural sounds, e.g. **hiss," " hush," " click." Modern philologists prefer the term "echoism," "echoic " for this process, as suggesting the imitative repetition of the sounds heard. At one time there was an exaggerated tendency to find in echoism a principal source in the origin and growth of language, ridiculed as the "bow-wow" theory of language; it is now recognized that it has played only a limited part.
ONONDAGA, a tribe of North American Indians of Iroquoian stock, forming one of the Six Nations. The tribal headquarters was about the lake and creek of the same name in New York state. Their territory extended northward to Lake Ontario and southward to the Susquchanna river. They were the official guardians of the council-fire of the Iroquois. Their chief town, near the site of the present Onondaga,, consisted of some 140 houses in the middle of the i;th century, when the tribe * as «•:/-; ttd as numbering between 1500 and 1700. During
die i*tb century the tribe divided, part loyally supporting the
Imp. 35 league, while part, having come under the influence of
Frewi missionaries, migrated to the Catholic Iroquois setllc
mears in Canada. Of those who supported the league, the
AuJDrily, after the War of Independence, settled on a reservation
on Grand river, Ontario, where their descendants still are.
About 500 are upon the Onondaga reservation in New York state.
For Onondaga cosmology see zist Ann. Report Bureau Amer.
OHOSANDER, or Onasakder, Creek philosopher, lived during the isi century Aj>. He was the author of a commentary on the Republic of Plato, which is lost, but we still possess by him 2 short but comprehensive work (SrpanrytKOj) on the duties of a general. It is dedicated to Quintus Vcranius Ncpos, consul 49, aad legate of Britain. It was the chief authority for the military writings of the emperors Maurice and Leo, and Maurice of Saxony, who consulted it in a French translation, expressed a high opinion efit.
Edition by H. Kochly (1860); sec also G. Rathgeber in Ersch and Gruber's Augfmeiite Encyclopedic.
OMSLQW, EARL OF, a title borne by an English family claiming descent from Roger, lord of Ondcslowe in the liberty of Shrewsbury in the i$th century. Richard Onslow (1528-1571), solicitor-general and then Speaker of tbe House of Commons ia the reign of Elizabeth, was grandfather of Sir Richard Onslow (1601-1664), *'bo inherited the family estate on the death of his trotter. Sir Thomas Onslow, in 1616. Sir Richard was a member of the Long Parliament, and during the great Rebellion was a colonel in the parliamentary army. He was a member of Cromwell's parliament in 1654 and again in 1656, and was also a nemberof bis House of Lords, His son, Sir Arthur Onslow (1621i6SS), succeeded in 1687 by special remainder to the baronetcy of hb father-in-law, Sir Thomas Foot, lord mayor of London. Sir Arthur's son, Sir Richard (1654-1717), was Speaker of the House of Commons from 1708 to 1710, and chancellor of the exchequer in 1715. In 1716 he was created Baron Onslow of Onsksw and of Clandon. He was unde of Arthur Onslow, the famous Speaker (see below), whose only son George became 4th Baron Onslow on the death of his kinsman Richard in October 1776. The 4th baron (1731-1814) had entered parliament a 1/54, and was very active in the House of Commons; and in May 1776, just before he succeeded'to the family barony, he was created Baron Cranlcy of Imbercourt. He was comptroller led then treasurer of the royal household, and was present at the marriage of the prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., wkh Mrs Fitzherbert in 1785. In 1801 he was created Viscount Cranky and carl of Onslow, and he died at his Surrey residence, Clzadcn Park, on the i7th of May 1814. The second earl was his eliest son Thomas (1754-1827), whose son Arthur George (1777-1870), the 3rd earl, died without surviving male issue in October 1870. He was succeeded by his grand-nephew, WiDiam Hillier, 4th earl of Onslow (b. 1853), who was governor of New Zealand from 1888 to 1892; under-secretary for India from 1895 to 1000; and under-secretary for the Colonies from 1500 to 1003. From 1003 to 1905 he was a member of the Conservairve cabinet as president of the board of agriculture.
OHSLOW, ARTHUR (1691-1768), English politician, elder son of Foot Onslow (d. 1710), was born at Chelsea on the ist of October 1691. Educated at Winchester and at Wadham College, Oxford, he became a barrister and in 1720 entered parliament as a member fortfee borough of Guildford. Seven years later he became one of tla members for Surrey, and he retained this seat until 1761. In 172? he was elected Speaker of the House of Commons, being tbe third member of his family to hold this office; he was also tbiaceflor to George II.'s queen, Caroline, and from 1734 to 1743 he was treasurer of the navy. He retired from the position ^Speaker and from parliament in 1761,'and enjoyed an annuity of £3000 until his death on the i7th of February 1768. As Speaker, Onslow was a conspicuous success, displaying know£oige, tact and firmness in his office; in his leisure hours he was a ct Hector of books.
Speaker Onslow's nephew, George Onslow (1731-1792), a son of his brother Richard, was a lieutenant-colonel and member of parliament for Guildford from 1760 to 1784. He had a younger brother Richard (1741-1817), who entered the navy and was made an admiral in 1799.
ONTARIO, a province of Canada, having the province of Quebec to the E.r the stales of New York, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota to the S., Manitoba to the W., and the district of Kcewatin with James Bay to the N. In most cases the actual boundary consists of rivers or lakes, the Ottawa to the north-cast, the St Lawrence and its chain of lakes and rivers to the south as far as Pigeon river, which separates Ontario from Minnesota. From this a canoe route over small rivers and lakes leads to the Lakc-of-t he-Woods, which lies between Ontario, Minnesota and Manitoba; and English and Albany rivers with various lakes carry the boundary to James Bay. From Lake Tcmiscaming northwards the boundary is the meridian of 79° 30'.
Physical Geography.—Ontario extends 1000 m. from E. to W. and more than 700 m. from N. to S., between latitudes 55° and 42°, including the most southerly point in Canada. Its area is 260,862 sq. m. (40,354 water), and it is the most populous of the provinces, nine-tenths of its inhabitants living, however, in onetenth of its area, between the Great Lakes, the Ottawa and the St Lawrence. This forms part of the plain of the St Lawrence, underlain by Palaeozoic limestones and shales, with some sandstone, all furnishing useful building material and working up into a good soil. The lowest part of the plain, including an area of 4500 sq. m. lying between elevations of ico and 400 ft., was covered by the sea at the close of the Ice Age, which left behind broad deposits of day and sand with marine shells.
The south-western part is naturally divided into two tracts by the Niagara escarpment, a line of cliffs capped by hard Silurian limestones, running from Quecnston Heights near the falls of Niagara west to the head of Lake Ontario near Hamilton, and then northwest to the Bruce Peninsula on Georgian Bay. The tract north-cast of the escarpment has an area of 9000 sq. m. and an altitude of 400 to 1000 ft., and the south western tract includes 15,000 sq. m. with an elevation of 600 to 1700 .ft. In the last petroleum, natural gas, salt and gypsum arc obtained, but elsewhere in southern Ontario no economic minerals except building materials are obtained. Covering the higher parts of the south-western Palaeozoic area in most places arc rolling hills of boulder clay or stony moraines; while the lower levels are plains gently sloping toward the nearest of the Great Lakes and sheeted with silt deposited in more ancient lakes when the St Lawrence outlet was blocked with ice at the end of the glacial period. The old shore cliffs and gravel bars of these glacial lakes are still well-marked topographical features, and provide favourite sites for towns and cities. London, for example, is built on the old shore of Lake Warren, the highest of the extinct lakes; and St Catharines, Hamilton and Toronto are on the old shore of Lake Iroquois, the lowest. The Niagara escarpment mentioned above, generally called " the mountain 'in Ontario, is the cause of waterfalls on all the rivers which plunge over it, Niagara Falls being, of course, the most Important; and in most cases these falls have eaten their way back into the tableland, forming deep gorges or canyons like that below Niagara itself, through which the watef pours as violent rapids. Between the Palaeozoic area near Ottawa, and Georgian Bay to the north of the region just referred to, there is a southward projection of the Archaean protaxis consisting of granite and gneiss of the Laurcntian, enclosing bands of crystalline limestone and schists, which are of interest as furnishing the only mines of "Old Ontario." From these rocks in the Ottawa valley are quarried or mined granite, marble, magnificent blue sodalite, felspar, talc, actinolite, mica, apatite, graphite and corundum; the latter rrtineral, which occurs on a larger scale here than elsewhere, is rapidly replacing emery as an abrasive. Several metals have been mined also, including gold, copper, It-ad, iron and arsenic; but the amounts produced have not been great, and many of the mines are no longer working.
While all the larger cities and most of the' manufacturing and farming districts ot the province belong to old Ontario, there is now in process of development a "New Ontario," stretching for hundreds of miles to the north and north-west of the region just described and covering a far larcer area, chiefly made up of Laurentian and Huronian rocks of the Archaean protaxis. The rocky hills of the tableland to the north long repelled settlement, the region being looked on by the thrifty farmers of the south as a wilderness useless except for its forests and its furs; and unfortunate settlers who ventured into it usually failed and went west or south in search of better land. Gradually, however, areas of good soil were opened up, in the Rainy river valley, near Lake Temiscaming and elsewhere, and mines of various kinds were discovered, as the Canadian Pacific railway and its branches extended through the region, and at length the finding of very rich silver mines attracted world-wide attention to northern Ontario. In the better explored parts along the great lakes and the railways, ores of gold, silver, nickel, cobalt, antimony, arsenic, bismuth and molybdenum have been obtained, and several important mines have been opened up. Gold has been found at many points across the whole province, from the mines of the Lakeof-the-Woods on the west to the discoveries at Larder Lake on the east; but, in most cases the returns have n unsatisfactory, and only a few of the gold mines are working. Silver mines have prov of far greater importance, in early days near Thunder Bay on Lake Superior, more recently in the cobalt region near Lake Temiscaming on the east side of the province. Silver Islet mine in Lake Superior produced in all $3,250,000 worth of silver, but this record will no doubt be surpassed by some of the mines in the extraordinarily rich cobalt district. The veins are small, but contain native silver and other rich silver ores running sometimes several thousand ounces per ton, the output being §: oz. in 1906. Associated with the silver minerals are rich ores of cobalt and nickel, combined with arsenic, antimony and sulphur, which would be considered valuable if occurring alone, but are not paid for under present conditions, since they are difficult to separate and refine. The cobalt silver ores are found mainly in Huronian conglomerate, but also in older Keewatin rocks and younger diabase, and the silverbearing region, which at first included only a few square miles, is found to extend 25 m. to the west and as much to the north. . Up to the present the most important mineral product of Ontario is nickel, which is mined only in the neighbourhood of Sudbury, where the ores occur in very large deposits, which in 1905 produced 9503 tons, more than half of the world's supply of the metal. With the nickel copper is always found, and copper ores are worked on their own account in a scw localities, such as Bruce mines. Iron ores have been discovered in many places in connexion with the “iron formation" of the Keewatin, but nowhere in amounts comrable with those of the same formation in Michigan and Minnesota. o: total mineral output of Ontario, including building materials and cement, is larger than that of any other province of the dominion, and as more careful exploration is carried on in the northern parts, no doubt many more deposits of value will be discovered. It has been found that northern Ontario beyond the divide between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay possesses many millions, of acres of arable land, clay deposits in a post-glacial lake, like those in the southern part of the province, running from east to west from Lake Abitibbi to a point north of *No. Railways are opening up this tract. The clay belt is in latitudes south of Winnipeg, with a good summer climate but cold winters. The spruce timber covering much of the area is of great value, compensating for the labour of clearing the land. Lakes and Rivers.--All parts of Ontario, are well provided with lakes and rivers, the most important chain being that of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes with their tributaries, which drain the more populous southern districts, and, with the aid of canals, furnish communication g fairly *f; vessels between the lower St Lawrence and the Lake Superior. ke Nipigon, a beautiful body of water 852 ft. above the sea, 70 m. long and 50 m. wide, may be looked upon as the headwaters of the St Lawrence, since Nipigon river is the largest tributary of Lake Superior, though several other important rivers, such as the Kaministiquia, the Pic and the Michipicoten, enter it from the north. All these rivers have o falls not far from Lake Superior, and Kakebeka Falls on the Kamin
Niagara Falls, with rapids above and below, the waters of the upper lakes over the Niagara escarpment. Power from the falls is put to use in New York state and Ontario, a large amount being sent to Toronto.80 m; away. Welland canal, between Port Colborne on Lake Erie and Dalhousie on Lake Ontario, carries vessels of g st draught from one lake to the other. From Lake Qntario the St Lawrence emerges through the meshes of the Thousand Islands, where it crosses Archacan rocks, after which follow several rapids separated by quieter stretches before Montreal is reached at the head of ocean"navigation. Steamers not of too great draught can run the rapids going down, but vessels must come up through the canals. All the other rivers in southern Ontario are tributaries of the lakes or of the St Lawrence, the Ottawa, navigable in many ; being the largest, and the Trent next in importance. In northern Ontario lakes are innumerable and often very picturesque, forming favourite summer resorts, such as Lake Temagami, the Muskoka Lakes, and Lake-of-the-Woods. The latter Lake with Rainy Lake and other connected bodies of water belong to the Hudson Bay system of waters, their outlet being by Winnipeg river to Lake Winnipeg, from which flows Nelson river. In Ontario the Albany, Moose, Missanabi and Abitibbi flow into Hudson Bay, but none of these rivers is navigable except for canoes. Climate;—The climate of Ontario varies greatly, as might be expected from its wide range in latitude and o: relationships of the Great Lakes to the southern peninsula of the province. The northern parts as far south as the north shore of Lake Superior have long and cold but bright winters, sometimes with temperatures reaching 50°F. below zero; while their summers are delightful, with much sunshine and some hot days but pleasantly cool nights. Between ian Bay and Ottawa the winters are less cold, but usually with a plentiful snowfall; while the summers are warm, and sometimes even hot The south-west peninsula of Ontario has its climate greatly modified É. the lakes which almost enclose it. As the lakes never freeze, the prevalent cold north-west winds of North America are warmed in their passage over them, and often much of the winter precipita. tion is in the form of rain, so that the weather has much less certainty than in the north. The summers are often sultry, though the presence of the lakes prevents the intense heat experienced in the states to the west and south. Owing to the mildness of its winters, the south-west peninsula is a famous fruit country with many vineyards and orchards of apples, plums and peaches. . Indian corn (maize) is an important field crop, and tobacco is cultivated on a large scale. Small fruits and tomatoes are widely grown for the city markets and for canning, giving rise to an important industry. The normal temperatures (Fahr.) for three points in the southwestern, eastern and north-western portions are given below:—
istiquia supplies power to the twin cities of Fort William and Port *. lo. the deep water of its mouth makes the great shippi rt for western, wheat during the summer. The north ke Superior is bold and rugged with many islands, such as Ignace and Michipicoten, but with very few settlements, except stations, owing to its rocky cter. At the south-eastern end St Mary's river carries its waters to Lake Huron, with a fall of 602 to 81 ft., most of which takes place at Sault Sainte Marie, where the argest locks in the world permit vessels of Ioooo tons to pass from one lake to the other, and where water-power has been greatly developed for use in the rolling mills and wood pulp industry. The north-east shores of Lake Huron and its large expansion Georgian Bay are fringed with thousands of islands, mostly small, but one of them, Manitoulin Island, is 80 m. long and 30 m. broad. French river, the outlet of Lake Nipissing, and Severn river, draining Lake Simcoe, come into Georgian Bay from the east, and canals have been projected to connect Lake Huron with the St Lawrence by each of these routes, the northern one to make use of the Ottawa and the southern one of Trent, river. The Trent Valley canal, is rtly in operation. Georgian Bay is cut off from the main lake by o Island and the long promontory of Bruce Peninsula. Lakes Superior and Huron both reach depths hundreds of feet below sea-level, but the next lake in the series, St Clair, towards which Lake Huron drains southward through St Clair river, is ve shallow and marshy. Detroit river connects Lake St Clair wit Lake Erie at an elevation of 570 ft.; and this comparatively shallow lake, running for 240 m. east and west, empties northwards by Niagara river into Lake Ontario, which is only 247 ft. above the sea.
* The name given to the rural municipalities. * Any town in Canada can become incorporated as a city on attaining a population of Io,000.
Ontario is thus pre-eminently an agricultural province, though the growth of manufactures has increased the importance of the towns and cities, and many of the farmers are seekingnew homes in the provinces of Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan. This emigration accounts in large measure for the slow increase of the population, though there has also been a slight decrease in the birth-rate. The population was long entirely confined to the southern and eastern sections of the province, which comprise an area of about 33,000 sq. m.; but in these districts it is now stationary or decreasing, whereas the northern and western portions are filling up rapidly. Toronto, the provincial capital, has grown from 59,000 in 1871 to about 300,ooo, partly through the absorption of neighbouring towns and villages. Other