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OPIE. AMELIA (1769-1853), English author, daughter of James Alderson, a physician in Norwich, and was born there on tiie 12th of November 1769. Miss Alderson had inherited radical principles and was an ardent admirer of Home Tookc. She was intimate with the Kemblcs and with Mrs Siddons, with Godwin and Mary Wollstonccraft. In 1798 she married John Opie, the painter. The nine years of her married life were very happy, although her husband did not share her love of society. He encouraged her to write, and in 1801 she produced a novel entitled Father and Daughter, which showed genuine fancy and pathos. She published a volume of graceful verse in 1802; Adeline Movibray followed in 1804, Simple Totes in 1806, Temper in 1812, Tales of Real Life in 1813, Valentine's Ese in 1816, Tales of the Heart in 1818, and Madeline in 1822. At length, in 1825, through the influence of Joseph John Gurney, she joined the Society of Friends, and beyond a volume entitled Detraction Displayed, and contributions to periodicals, she wrote nothing more. The rest of her life was spent in travelling and in the exercise of charity. Mrs Opie retained her vivacity to the last, dying at Norwich on the 2nd of December 1853. A Lift, by Miss C. L. Brightwell, was published in 1854. OPIE. JOHN (i76i-r8o7), English historical and portrait painter, was bom at St Agnes near Truro in May 1761. He early showed a taste for drawing, besides having at the age of twelve mastered Euclid and opened an evening school for arithmetic and writing. Before long he won some local reputation by portrait-painting; and in 1780 he started for London, under the patronage of Dr Wolcot (Peter Pindar). Opie was introduced to the town as " The Cornish Wonder," a self-taught genius. The world of fashion, ever eager for a new sensation, was attracted; the carriages of the wealthy blocked the street in which the painter resided, and for a time he reaped a rich harvest by his portraits. But soon, the fickle tide of popularity flowed past him, and the painter was left neglected. He now applied himself with redoubled diligence to correcting the defects which marred his art, meriting the praise of his rival Northcote—" Other artists paint to live; Opie lives to paint." At the same time he sought to supplement his early education by the study of Latin and French and of the best English classics, and to polish the rudeness of his provincial manners by mixing in cultivated and learned circles. In 1786 he exhibited his first important historical subject, the " Assassination of James I., "and in the following year the " Murder of Rizzio," a work whose merit was recognized by the artist's immediate election as associate of the Academy, of which he became a full member in 1788. He was employed on five subjects for Boydell's "Shakespeare Gallery"; and until his death, on the pth of April 1807, his practice alternated between portraiture and historical work. His productions are distinguished by breadth of handling and a certain rude vigour, individuality and freshness. They are wanting in grace, elegance and poetic feeling. Opie is also favourably known as a writer on art by his Life of Reynolds in Wokot's edition of Pilkington, his Letter on the Cultivation ff tlit Fixe Arts in England, in which he advocated the formation of a national gallery, and his Lectures as professor of painting to the Royal Academy, which were published in 1809, with a memoir of the artist by his widow (sec above).

OPINION (Lat. opinio, from opinart, to think), a term used loosely in ordinary speech for an idea of an explanation of facts which is regarded as being based on evidence which is good but not conclusive. In logic it is used as a translation of Or. £i{a, which plays a prominent part in Greek philosophy as the opposite of knowledge («rt<rrwn) or AXii&ia). The distinction is drawn by Parmenidcs, who contrasts the sphere of truth or knowledge with that of opinion, which deals with mere appearance, error, not-being. So Plato places oo£a between a2c07?u and Stavom, as dealing with phenomena contrasted with non-being and being respectively. Thus Plato confines opinion to that which is subject to change. Aristotle, retaining the same idea, assigns to opinion (especially in the Ethics) the ipberc of things contingent, i.e. the future: hence opinion deals with that which is probable. More generally be uses

popular opinion—that which is generally held to be true (io«uO —as the starting-point of an inquiry. In modern philosophy the term has been used for various conceptions all having much the same connotation. The absence of any universally acknowledged definition, especially such as would contrast "opinion" with "belief," "faith" and the like, deprives it of any status as a philosophic term.

OPITZ VON BOBERFELD. MARTIN (1597-1639), German poet, was born at Bunzlau in Silesia on the 23rd of December 1597, the son of a prosperous citizen. He received his early education at the Gymnasium of his native town, of which his uncle was rector, and in 1617 attended the high school— "Schonaichianum "—at Beuthen, where he made a special study of French, Dutch and Italian poetry. In 1618 he entered the university of Frankfort-on-Odcr as a student of Itlerae humaniarcs, and in the same year published his first essay, Arislarchus, site De eontemptu linguae Teutonicae, a plea for the purification of the German language from foreign adulteration. In 1619 he went to Heidelberg, where he became the leader of the school of young poets which at that time made that university town remarkable. Visiting Leiden in the following year he sat at the feet of the famous Dutch lyric poet Daniel Heinsius (1580-1655), whose Lobgesang Jesu Ckrisli and Lobgesang Bacchi he had already translated into alexandrines. After being for a short year (1622) professor of philosophy at the Gymnasium of Wcissenburg (now Karlsburg) in Transylvania, he led a wandering life in the service of various territorial nobles. In 1624 he was appointed councillor to Duke George Rudolf of Lic'gnitz and Bricg in Silesia, and in 1625, as reward for a requiem poem composed on the death of Archduke Charles of Austria, was crowned laureate by the' emperor Ferdinand II. who a few years later ennobled him under the title " von Bobcrfeld." He was elected a member of the Fruchlbringende Gescllschajl in 1629, and in 1630 went to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Hugo Grotius. He settled in 1635 at Danzig, where Ladislaus IV. of Poland made him his historiographer and secretary. Here he died of the plague on the 2Oth of August 1639.

Opitz was the head of the so-called First Silcsian School of pocts(sec Germany '.Literature), and was during his life regarded as the greatest German poet. Although he would not to-day be considered a poetical genius, he may justly claim to have been the " father of German poetry " in respect at least of its form; his BucH ton der deutschen Poetcrcy (1624) put an end to the hybridism that had until then prevailed, and established rules for the "purity" of language, style, verse and rhyme. Opitz's own poems are in accordance with the rigorous rules which he laid down. They are mostly a formal and sober elaboration of carefully considered themes, and contain little beauty and less feeling. To this didactic and descriptive category belong his best poems, Trost-Cediclite in Widcrwarlig/ieit dcs Kriegcs (written 1621, but not published till 1633); Zlatno, oder von Ruhe da Cemuts (1622); Lob dcs Fcldlebens (1623); Vielgut, odcr torn walircn Cluck (1629), and Vesuvius (1633). These contain some vivid poetical descriptions, but arc in the main treatises in poetical form. In 1624 Opitz published a collected edition of his poetry under the title AM Backer deutscher Poematum (though, owing to a mistake on the part of the printer, there are only five books); his Dafnc (1627), to which Heinrich Schiltz composed the music, is the earliest German opera. Besides numerous translations, Opitz edited (1639) Das Annolicd, a Middle High German poem of the end of the i ith century, and thus preserved it from oblivion.

Collected editions of Opitz's works appeared in 16251 1629, 1637, 1641, 1690 and 1746. His Ausgcwaldle Dichlunvcn have been edited by J. Tittmann (1869) and by H. Ocsterley (Klirschner's Deutsche Nalionclliterolur. vol. xxvii. 1889). There arc modern reprints of the Buck von der deutschen Poetcrey by W. Braunc (2nd ed., 1882), and, together with Ariitarchus, by G. Witkowski (1888), and also of the Teulsche Poemala, of 1624, by G. Witkowski (1902). Sec H. Palm, Beitrage zur Cfsckichte der deutschen Littratur des l6ten und lytrn Jahrhunderts (1877); K. Borinski. Die Poctik dtr Renaissance (1886); R. Bcckherrn, Opitz. Ransard und Hfinsius (1888). niblioRraphy by H. Oestcrlcy in the Zenlralblalt fur Bibliotiieksvicscn for 1885.

OPIUM (Gr. <'-u-'f', dim. from 0x0$. juice), a narcotic drug prepared from the juice of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, a plant probably indigenous in the south of Europe and western Asia, but now so widely cultivated that its original habitat is uncertain. The medicinal properties of the juice have been recognized from a very early period. It was known to Theophrastus by the name of prii&vwv, and appears in his time to have consisted of an extract of the whole plant, since Dioscorides, about A.d. 77, draws a distinction between itifiaJjvttov, which he describes as an extract of the entire herb, and the more active 6ir«, derived from the capsules alone. From the isl to the 12th century the opium of Asia Minor appears to have been the only kind known in commerce. In the ijth century opium thebatium is mentioned by Simon Januensis, physician to Pope Nicholas I V.r while mec&nium was still in use. In the i6th century opium is mentioned by Pyres (1516) as a production of the kingdom of Cous (Kuch Bchar, south-west of Bhutan.) In Bengal, and of Malwa.1 Its introduction into India appears to have been connected with the spread of Islam. The opium monopoly was

the property of the Great Mogul and was regularly sold. In the i;ih century KiempCer describes the various kinds of opium prepared in Persia, and states that the best sorts were flavoured with spices and called "theriaka." These preparations were held in great estimation during the middle ages, and probably supplied to a large extent the place of the pure drug. Opium is said to have been introduced into China by the Arabs probably in the ijth century, and it was originally used there as a medicine, the introduction of opium-smoking being assigned to the i 7th century. In a Chinese Herbal compiled before 1700 both the plant and its inspissated juice are described, together with the mode of collecting it, and in the General History of the Southern Provinces oj Yunnan, revised and rcpublishcd in 1736, opium is noticed as a common product. The first edict prohibiting opium-smoking was Issued by the emperor Yung Cheng in 1729. Up to that date the amount imported did not exceed 200 chests, and was usually brought from India by junks as a return cargo. In the year 1757 the monopoly of opium cultivation in India passed into the hands of the East India Company through the victory of Clive at Plassey. Up to 1773 the trade with China had been in the hands of the Portuguese, but in that year the East India Company took the trade under their own charge, and in 1776 the annual export'reached 1000 chests, and 5054 chests in 1790. Although the importation was forbidden by the Chinese imperial authorities in 1796, and opium-smoking punished with severe penalties (ultimately increased to transportation and death), the trade continued and had increased during 1820-1830 to 16,877 chests per annum. The trade was contraband, and the opium was bought by the Chinese from dep6t ships at the ports. Up to 1839 no effort was made to stop the trade, but in that year the emperor Tao-Kwang sent a commissioner, Lin Tsze-su, to Canton to put down the traffic. Lin issued a proclamation threatening hostile measures if the British opium ships serving as depots were not sent away. The demand for removal not being complied with, 20,291 chests of opium (of 149$ Ib each), valued at £2,000,000, were destroyed by the Chinese commissioner Lin; but still the British sought to 1 Aromatum Historta (cd. Clusius, Ant., 1574).

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smuggle cargoes on shore, and some outrages committed on both sides led to an open war, which was ended by the treaty of Nanking in 1842. The importation of opium continued and was legalized in 1858. From that time, in spite of the remonstrances of the Chinese government, the exportation of opium from India to China continued, increasing from 52,925 piculs (of 133! tb) in 1850 to 96,839 piculs in iSSo. While, however, the court of Peking was honestly endeavouring to suppress the foreign trade in opium from 1839 to 1858 several of the provincial viceroys encouraged the trade, nor could ihe central government put a stop to the home cultivation of the drug. The cultivation increased so rapidly that at the beginning of the 2olh century opium was produced in every province of China. The western provinces of Sze-ch'ucn, Yun-nan and Kwei-chow yielded respectively 200,000, 30,000 and 15,000 piculs (of 133$ Ib); Manchuria 15,000; Shen-si, Chih-li and Shan-tung 10,000 each; and the other provinces from 5000 to 500 piculs each, the whole amount produced in China in 1906 being estimated at 330,000 piculs, of which the province of Sze-ch'ucn produced nearly twothirds. Of this amount China required for home consumption 325,270 piculs, the remainder being chiefly exported to IndoChina, whilst 54,225 piculs of foreign opium were imported into China. Of the whole amount of opium used in China, equal to 22,588 tons, only about one-seventh came from India.

The Chinese government regarding the use of opium as one o£ the most acute moral and economic questions which as a nation they have to face, representing an annual loss to the country of 856,250,000 tacls, decided in 1906 to put an end to the use of the drug within ten years, and issued an edict on the 2oth of September 1906, forbidding the consumption of opium and the cultivation of the poppy. As an indication of their earnestness of purpose the government allowed officials a period of six months in which to break off the use of opium, under heavy penalties if they failed to do so. In October of the same year the American government in the Philippines, having to deal with the opium trade, raised the question of the taking of joint measures for its suppression by the powers interested, and as a result a conference met at Shanghai on the ist of February 1909 to which China, the United States of America, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal and Russia sent delegates. At this meeting it was resolved that it was the duly of the respective governments to prevent the export of opium to any countries prohibiting its importation; that drastic measures should be taken against the use of morphine; that anti-opium remedies should be investigated; and that all countries having concessions in China should close the opium divans in their possessions. The British government made an offer in 1907 to reduce the export of Indian opium to countries beyond the seas by 5100 chests, i.e. ^th of the amount annually taken by China, each year until the year 1910, and that if during these three years the Chinese government had carried out its arrangements for proportionally diminishing the production and consumption of opium in China, the British government were prepared to continue the same rate of reduction, so that the export of Indian opium to China would cease in ten years; the restrictions of the imports of Turkish, Persian and other opiums being separately arranged for by the Chinese government, and carried out simultaneously. The above proposal was gratefully received by the Chinese government. A non-official report by Mr E. S. Little, after travelling through western China, which appeared in the newspapers in May 1910, stated that all over the province of Sze-ch'uen opium had almost ceased to be produced, except only in a few remote districts on the frontier (see further China: § History).

The average annual import of Persian and Turkish opium into China is estimated at 1125 piculs, and if this quantity were to be reduced every year by one-ninth, beginning in 1909, in nine years the import into China would entirely cease, and the Indian, Persian and Turkish opiums no longer be articles of commerce in that country. One result of these regulations was that the price of foreign opium in China rose, a circumstance which was calculated to reduce the loss to the Indian revenue. Tocsin 1909-1910, with only 350,000 acres under cultivation and 40,000 chests of opium in stock, the revenue was £4,420,600 as *&iost £3,572.944 in 1005-1906 with 613,996 acres under cultivation and a stock of 76,063 chests. No opium dens have been allowed since 1907 in their possessions or leased territories ia China by Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia or Japan

The difficulties of the task undertaken by the Chinese government to eradicate a national and popular vice, in a country whose population is generally estimated at 400,000,000, are increased by the fact that the opium habit has been indulged in by all classes of society, that opium has been practically the principal if not the only national stimulant; that it must involve a considerable loss of revenue, which will have to be made up by other taxes, and by the fact that its cultivation is more profitable than that of cereals, for an English acre will on the average produce raw dry opium of the value of £5, i6s. 8d. while it will yield grain valued only at £4, 55. 6d.

Various remedies for the opium habit have been experimented with in China, but with doubtful success. Under the name of anti-opium cure various remedies containing morphine in the form of powder, or of little pills, have been introduced, as well as the subcutaneous injection of the alkaloid, so that the use of morphine is increasing in China to an alarming extent, and considerable difficulty is experienced in controlling the illicit traffic in it, especially that sent through the post. Its comparative cheapness, one dollar's worth being equal to three dollars* worth of opium in the effect produced, its portability and the facilities offered in obtaining it, arc all in its favour A good deal of morphine is exported to Japan from Europe, tod generally passes into China by way of Manchuria, where Japanese products have a virtual monopoly. The effects of norphine are much more deleterious than those 'of opiumsmoking. The smoke of opium, as shown by H. Moissan, contains only a trifling amount of morphia, and the effect produced by it is apparently due, not to that alkaloid, but to such decomposition products as pyrrol, acetone and pyridine and hydropyridine bases. F. Browne finds that after smoking " chandoo," containing 8-98 % of morphine, 7-63 % was left in the dross, so that only 1-35% of morphia was carried over in the smoke or decomposed by the heat.

For many years two Scotch firms, Messrs J. D. Macfarlan and T. and H. Smith of Edinburgh, and T. Whiffen of London manufactured practically the world's supply of this alkaloid, bat it is now made in the United States and Germany, although the largest amount is still probably made in Great Britain. A Email amount of morphine and codeine is also manufactured in India for medicinal use. The prohibition of the general importation of morphia into China except on certain conditions was agreed to by the British government in Act XI. of the Mackay treaty, but only came into force on the ist of January 1909. Unless the indirect importation of morphine into China from Europe and the United Slates is stopped, a worse habit and more difficult to cure than any other (except perhaps that of cocaine) may replace that of opium-smoking in China. It is worse even than opium-eating, in proportion as morphine is more active than opium. The sale and use of morphine in India and Burma is now restricted. The quantity of morphine that any one may legally possess, and then only for medicinal purposes, is in India 10 grams, and in Burma five. The possession of morphine by medical practitioners is also safeguarded by ••fil-defined limitations.

Production and Commerce.—Although the collection of opium is possible in all places where there is not an excessive rainfall aad the climate is temperate or subtropical, the yield is smaller in temperate than in tropical regions and the industry can only be profitably carried on where labour and land arc sufficiently cbeap and abundant; hence production on a large scale is limited to comparatively few countries. The varieties of poppy grown, ihc mode of cultivation adopted and the character of the opium produced differ so greatly that it will be convenient to consider the opiums of each country separately. Tmrkfy,—The poppy cultivated in Asia Minor is the variety distinguished by the sub-globular shape of the capsule

and by the stigmata or rays at the top of the fruit being ten or twelve in number. The flowers arc usually of a purplish colour, but are sometimes white, and the seeds, like the petals, vary in tint from dark violet to white. The cultivation is carried on, botn on the more elevated and lower lands, chiefly by peasant proprietors. A naturally light and rich soil, further improved by manure, is neccs* sary, and moisture is indispensable, although injurious in excess, Bo that after a wet winter the best crops arc obtained on hilly ground, and in a dry season on the plains. The land is ploughed twice, the second time crosswise, so that it may be thoroughly pulverized; and the seed, mixed with four times its quantity of sand, to prevent its being sown too thickly, is scattered broadcast, about f to I Ib being used for every toloom (1600 sq. yds.). The crop is very uncertain owing to droughts, spring frosts and locusts, and, in order to avoid a total failure and to allow time for collecting 'the produce, there are three sowings at intervals from October to March —the crops thus coming to perfection in succession. But notwithstanding these precautions quantities of the drug are wasted when the crop is a full one, owing to the difficulty of gathering the whole in the short time during which collection is possible. The first sowing produces the hardiest plants, the yield of the other two depending almost entirely on favourable weather. In localities where there is hoar Im t in autumn and spring the seed is sown in September or at latest in the beginning of October, and the yield of opium and seed is then greater than if sown later. After sowing, the land is harrowed, and the young plants are hoed and weeded, chiefly by women and children, from early spring until the time of flowering. In the plains the flowers expand at the end of May, on the uplands in July. At this period gentle showers arc of great value, as they cause an increase in the subsequent yield of opium. The petals fall in a few hours, and the capsules grow so rapidly that in a short time—generally from nine to fifteen days—the opium is fit for collection. This period is known by the capsules yielding to pressure with the fingers, assuming a lighter green tint and exhibiting a kind of bloom called " cougak," easily rubbed off with the fingers; they are then about ij in. in diameter. The incisions are made by holding the capsule in the left hand and drawing a knife two-thirds round it, or spirally beyond the starting-point (sec fig. 2, a), great care being taken not to let the incisions penetrate to the interior lest the juice should flow inside and be lost. (In this case also it is said that the seeds will not ripen, and that no oil can be obtained from them.) The operation is usually performed after the heat of the day, commencing early in the afternoon and continuing to nightfall, and the exuded juice is collected the next morning. This is done by scraping the capsule with a knife and transferring the concreted juice to a poppy-leaf held in the left hand, the c. !i;i of the leaf being turned in to avoid spilling the juice, and the knife-blade moistened with saliva by drawing it through the mouth after every alternate scraping to prevent the juice from adhering to it. When as much opium has been collected as the size of the leaf will allow, another leaf is wrapped over the top of the lump, which is then placed in the shade to dry for several days. The pieces vary in size from about 2 oz. to over 2 tb, being made larger in some districts than in others. The capsules are generally incised only once, but the fields are visited a second or third time to collect the opium from the poppy-heads subsequently developed by the branching of the stem. The yield of opium vanes, even on the same piece of land, from i to 7' chequis (of 1-62 tb) per toloom (1600 sa. yds.), the average being ij chequis of opium and 4 bushels (of 50 Ib) of seed. The seed, which yields 35 to ^3 % of oil, is worth about two-thirds of the value of the opium. The whole of the operation must, of course, be completed in the few days— five to ten—during which the capsules are capable of yielding the drug. A cold wind or a chilly atmosphere at the time of collection lessens the yield, and rain washes the opium off the capsules. Before the crop is all gathered in a meeting of buyers and sellers takes place in each district, at which the price to be asked is discussed and settled, and the opium handed to the buyers, who in many instances have advanced money on the, standing crop. When sufficiently solid the pieces of opium are packed in cotton bags, a quantity of the fruits of a species of Rumex being thrown in to prevent the cakes from adhering together. The bags arc then scaled up, packed in oblong or circular baskets and sent to Smyrna or other ports on mules. On the arrival of the opium at its destination, in the end of July or beginning of August, it is placed in cool warehouses to avoid loss of weight until sold. The opium is then of a mixed character and is known as talcquale. When transferred to the buyer's warehouses the bags are opened and each piece is examined by a public inspector in the presence of both buyer and seller, the quality of the opium being judged by appearance, odour, colour and weight. It is then sorted into three qualities: (i) driest quality; (2) current or second; (3) chicanti or rejected pieces. A fourth sort consists of the very bad or wholly factitious pieces. The substances used to adulterate opium arc grape-juice thickened with flour, fig-paste, liquorice, half-dried apricots, inferior gum tragacanth and sometimes clay or pieces of lead or other metals. The chicanti is returned to the seller, who disposes of it at 20 to 30% discount to French and German merchants. After inspection the opium is hermetically scaled in tin-lined boxes containing about 150 tb. Turkey opium is principally used in medicine on account of its purity and the large percentage of morphia that it contains, a comparatively small quantity being exported for smoking purposes.

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About three-auarters of the opium prepared in Turkey is produced in Anatolia, and is exported by way of Smyrna, and the remainder is produced in the hilly districts of the provinces near the southern coast of the Black Sea, and finds its way into Constantinople, the commercial varieties bearing the name of the cKstrict where they are produced. The Smyrna varieties include the produce of Ahum Karahissar, Uschak, Akhissar, Taoushanli, Isbarta, Konia, Bulvadan, Hamid, Magnesia and Yerli, the List name being applied to opium collected in the immediate neighbourhood of Smyrna. The opium exported by way of Constantinople includes that of Hadjikeuy and Malatia; the Tokat kind, of good quality, including that produced in Yosgad, Site and Niksar, and the current or second quality derived from Amasia and Ocrck; the Karahissar kind including the produce of Mykalitch. Carabazar, Sivrahissar, Eskichehir and Nachlihan; the Balukcsri sort, including that of Balukhissar and Bogaditch; also the produce of Beybazar and Angora. The average amount of Turkish opium exported is 7000 chests, but in rare seasons amounts to 12,000 chests, but the yield depends upon fine weather in harvest time, heavy rains washing the opium off the capsules, and lessening the yield to a considerable extent.

These commercial varieties differ in appearance and quality, and arc roughly classified as Soft or Shipping opium, Druggists' and Manufacturers' opium. Shipping opium is distinguished by its soft character and clean paste, containing very little debris, or chaff, as it is technically called. The Hadjikeuy variety is at present the best in the market. The Malatia, including that of Kharput. second, and the Silc, third in quality. The chief markets for the soft or shipping varieties of opium ate, China, Korea, the West Indian Islands, Cuba, British Guiana, Japan and Java; the United States also purchase for re-exportation as well as for home consumption. Druggists' opium includes the kinds purchased for use in medicine, which tor-Great Britain should, when dried and powdered, contain 9i-ioJ% of morphine. That generally sold in this country for the purpose includes the Karahissar and Adet, Balukhissar, Amasia and Akhissar kinds, and for making the tincture and extract, that of Tokat. But the produce of Gheve, Bilcdjik, Mondourlan, Konia, Tauschanli, Kutahlia and Karaman is often mixed with the kinds first mentioned. The softer varieties of opium are preferred in the American market, as being richer in morphine. In all Turkey opium the pieces vary much in size. On the continent of Europe, especially in Belgium, Germany and Italy, where pieces of small size are preferred, the Ghcve,1 and the Yoghourma, i.e. opium remade into cakes, at the port of shipment, to contain 7, 8,0, or 10% of morphine, are chiefly sold. Manufacturers' opium includes any grade yielding not less than iu J % of morphine, but the Yoghourma or " pudding " opium, on account of its paste being more difficult to work, is not used for the extraction of the active principles. For the extraction of codeine, the.Persian opium is preferred when Turkey opium is dear, as it contains on the average 2j% of that alkaloid, whilst Turkey opium yields only £-}%. But codeine can also bp made from morphine.

The ordinary varieties of Turkish opium are recognized in commerce by the following characteristics: Hadjikeuy opium occurs in pieces of about 5 N>-M Ib; it has an unusually pale-coloured paste of soft consistence, and is very rich in morphia. Malatia opium is in pieces of irregular size usually of a broadly conical shape, weighing from 1-2 Ib. It has a soft paste with irregular layers of light and dark colour and is covered with unusually green poppy leaves. Tokat opium .resembles that of Malatia, but the cakes are flatter, and the paste is similar in character, though the leaves covering it are of a yellower tint of green. Bogaditz opium occurs in smaller pieces, about 3 or 4 oz. in weight, but sometimes larger pieces of i-ii Ib in weight are met with, approaching more nearly to the Kurgagatsch and Balukissar varieties. The surface is covered with a yellowish green leaf and many Rumex fruits. Karahissar opium, which usually includes the produce of Adet, Akhissar and Amasia, occurs in rather large shortly conical or more or less irregular lumps. Angora opium is met with in small smooth pieces, has generally a pale paste and is rich in morphia. Yerli opium is of good quality, variable in size and shape; the surface is usually rough with Rumex capsules. Gheve opium formerly came over as a distinct kind, but is now mixed with other varieties; the pieces form small rounded cakes, smooth and shining like those of Angora, about 3-6 oz. in weight, with the midrib of the leaf they are wrapped in forming a median line on the surface. The interior often shows layers of light and dark colour.

In Macedonia opium culture was begun in 1865 at Istip with seed obtained from Karahissar in Asia Minor, and extended subsequently to the adjacent districts of Kotchava, Stroumnitza, Tikvish and Kinprulu-vcies, most of the produce being exported under the name of Salonica opium. Macedonian opium, especially that

1 GheVe is the commercial name for opium from Geiveh on the river Sakaria, running into the Black Sea. It appears to find Its way to Constantinople via the port of Istnid, and hence is known also by the latter name.

produced at Istip, Is very pure, and Is considered equal to the Malatia opium, containing about 11 % of morphine. The pieces vary from j Ib to ij Ib in weight. For some years past, however, it has been occasionally mixed with pieces of inferior opium, like that of Yoghourma, recognizable on cutting by their solidity and heavy character. The Turkish government encourage the development of the industry by remitting the tithes on opium and poppy-seed for one year on lands sown for the first time, and oy distributing printed instructions for cultivating the poppy and preparing the opium. In these directions it is pointed out that the opium crop is ten times as profitable as that of wheat. Four varieties of poppy are distinguished—two with while flowers, large oval capsules without holes under their "combs" (stigmas) and bearing respectively yellow and white seed, and the other two having red or purple flowers and seeds of the same colour, one bearing small capsules perforated at the top, and the other larger oval capsules not perforated. The white varieties are recommended as yielding a more abundant opium of superior quality. The yellow seed is said to yield the best oil; that obtained by hot pressure is used for lamps and for paint, and the cold-pressed oil for culinary purposes.

Opium is also grown in Bulgaria, but almost entirely for home consumption; any surplus produce is, however, bought by Jews and Turks at low prices and sent to Constantinople, where it is sold as Turkish opium. It is produced in the districts of Kustendil, Lowtscha and Halitz, and is made into lumps weighing about 4 at., of a light-brown colour internally and containing a few seeds; it is covered with leaves which have not been identified. Samples have yielded from 7 to Iq% of morphia, and only 2 to 3% of ash, and are therefore of excellent quality.

India.—The poppy grown in India is usually the white-flowered variety, but in the Himalayas a red-flowered poppy with dark seeds is cultivated. The opium industry in Bengal is a government monopoly, under the control of officials residing respectively at Patna and Ghazipore. Any one may undertake the industry, but cultivators are obliged to sell the opium exclusively to the government agent at a price fixed beforehand by the latter, which, although small, is said to fully remunerate the grower. It is considered that with greater freedom the cultivator would produce too great a quantity, and loss to the government would soon result. Advances of money are often made by the government to enable the ryots to grow the poppy. The chief centres of production are Bihar in Bengal, and the district of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh lying along the Gangetic valley, and north of it, of which the produce is known as Bengal opium. The opium manufactured at Patna is of two classes, viz. Provision opium manufactured for export, and Excise or Akbari opium intended for local consumption in India. These differ in consistence: Excise opium is prepared to contain 90% of non-volatile solid matter and made up into cube

[graphic]

matter, and that of Ghazipore, which is known as Benares opium. 71 % only. Each ball consists of a little over 3) tb of fine opium, in addition to other poppy products. The Benares ball opium has about 1J oz. less of the external covering than the Patna sort. Forty of these balls are packed in each chest. The Excise opium not having a covering'of poppy petals lacks the aroma of Provision opium. Malwa opium is produced in a large number of states in the Central India and Rajputaha Agencies, chiefly Gwalior, Indore and Bhopal, in the former, and Mcwar in the latter. It is also produced in the native state of Baroda, and in the small British territory of Ajmer Merwara. The cultivation of Malwa opium is free and extremely profitable, the crop realizing usually from three to seven times the value of wheat or other cereals, and in exceptionally advantageous situations, from twelve to twenty times as much. On its entering British territory a heavy duty is imposed on Malwa opium, so as to raise its price to an equality with the government article. It is shipped from Bombay to northern China, where nearly the whole of the exported Nialwa opium is consumed. The poppy is grown for opium in the Punjab to a limited extent, but it has been decided to entirely abolish the cultivation there within a short time. In Nepal, Bashahr and Rampur,-and at Doda Kashtwar in the Tammu territory, opium is produced and exported to Yarkand, Khotan and Aksu. The cultivation of the poppy is also carried on in Afghanistan, Kashmir, Nepal and the Shan states of Burma, but the areas and production are not known.

A small amount of opium alkaloids only is manufactured in India. The surplus above that issued to government medical institutions in India is sold in London. The amount manufactured in I>k>*v19x17 was 346 Ib of morphine hydrochloratc, 12 tb of the acetate and 61 tb of codeia.

The land intended for poppy culture is usually selected near villages, in order that it may be more easily manured and irrigated. On a rich soil a crop of maize or vegetables is grown during the rainy season, and after its removal in September the ground is prepared for the poppy-culture. Under less favourable circumstances the land is prepared from July till October by ploughing, weeding and manuring. The seed is sown between the 1st and

iStb of November, and germinates in ten or fifteen days. The fields arc divided for purposes of irrigation into beds about 10 ft. square, vAiofc Mually are irrigated twice between November and February, bn if the season be cold, with hardly any rain, the operation is /tpeiied five or* six times. When the seedlings are 2 or 3 in. high ihfv we thinned out and weeded. The plants during growth are littik to injury by severe frost, excessive rain, insects, fungi and the growth of a root-parasite (Orobanchc indica). The poppy blossoms aboui the middle of February, and the petals when about lo fall are collected for the purpose of making "leaves" for the spherical coverings of the balls of opium. These arc made by heating a circular ridged earthen plate over a slow fire, and spreading the petals, a few at a time, over its surface. As the juice exudes, mere petals are pressed on to them with a cloth until a layer of sufficient thickness is obtained. The leaves are forwarded to the opium-factories, where they are sorted into three classes, according to size and colour, the smaller and dark-coloured being reserved for the inside of the shells of the opium-balls, and the larger and least coloured for the outside. These are valued respectively -at 10 *.o 7 and 5 rupees per maund of 82? Ib. The collection of opium commences in Behar about 25th February, and continues to about ?5th March, but in Malwa is performed in March and April. The capsules are scarified vertically (fig. 2, 6) in most districts (although in some the incisions are made horizontally, as in Asia Minor), the "nushtur" or cutting instrument being drawn twice upwards for etch incision, and repeated two to six times at intervals of two or lluee days. The nusntur (fig. 2, c) consists of three to five flattened

[graphic]

Fie. 2.—Opium Poppy Capsules, &c.; o, capsule showing mode of incision practiced in Turkey; b, capsule as incised in India; f. nu»htur. or instrument used in India for making the incisions. Drawn from specimens in the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

blades forked at the larger end, and separated about one-sixteenth ci an inch from each other by winding cotton thread between them, the whole being also bound together by thread, and the protrusion of the points being restricted to one-twelfth of an inch, by which the depth of the incision is limited. The operation is usually performed about three or four o'clock in the afternoon, and the opium collected tie next morning. In Bengal a small sheet-iron scoop or " seetoah" b used for scraping off the dried juice, and, as it becomes filled, the opium is emptied into an earthen pot carried for the purpose. In Mahra a flat scraper is employed, a small piece of cotton soaked in licseed oil being attached to the upper part of the blade, and used for smearing the thumb and edge of the scraper to prevent adhesion of the juice; sometimes water is used instead of oil, but both practices injure the quality of the product. Sometimes the opium n i~ a fluid state by reason of dew, and in some places it is rendered •tiD more so by the practice adopted by collectors of washing their •craper*, and adding the washings to the morning's collection. The juice, when brought home, is consequently a wet granular mass of pinkish colour, from which a dark fluid drains to the bottom of the vessel. In order to get rid of this fluid, called " pascwa " or " pussewah." the opium is placed in a shallow earthen vessel tilted on one ade, and the pusscwah drained off. The residual mass is then exposed to the air in the shade, and regularly turned over every few days, until it has reached the proper consistence, which takes place in about three or four weeks. The drug is then taken to the government factory to be sold. It is turned out of the pots into wide tin veaiels or ' tagars," in which it is weighed in quantities not exceeding21 Ib. It b then examined by a native expert (purkhea) as to impurities, colour, fracture, aroma and consistence. To determine the amount of moisture, which should not exceed 30%, a weighed sarrtple is evaporated and dried in a plate on a metallic wrfacc heated by steam. Adulterations such as mud, sand, powdered charcoaj. soot, cow-dung, powdered poppy petals and powdered feeds of various kinds are easily detected by breaking up the drug w cold water. Flour, potato-flour, ghee and ghoor (crude dateeupr) are revealed by their odour and the consistence they impart.

Various other adulterants are sometimes used, such as the inspissated juice of the prickly pear, extracts from tobacco, stramonium and hemp, pulp of the tamarind and bad fruit, mahwah flowers and gums of different kinds. The price paid to the cultivator is regulated chiefly by the amount of water contained in the drug. When received into the government stores the opium is kept in large wooden boxes holding about 50 maunds and occasionally stirred up, if only a little below the standard. If containing much water it is placed in shallow wooden drawers and constantly turned over. During the process it deepens in colour. From the store about 250 maunds arc taken daily to be manufactured into cakes.

Various portions, each weighing 10 seers (of 2r%lb),arc selected by test assay so as to ensure the mass being of standard consistence (70% of the pure dry drug and 30% of water), and are thrown into shallow drawers and kneaded together. The mass is then packed into boxes all of one size, and a specimen of each again assayed, the mean of the whole being taken as the average. Before evening these boxes are emptied into wooden vats 20 ft. long, 34 ft. wide and ij ft. deep, and the opium further kneaded and mixed by men wading through it from end to end until it appears to be of a uniform consistence. Next morning the manufacture of the opium into balls commences. The workman sits on a wooden stand, with a brass cup before him, which he lincswith the leaves of poppy petals before-mentioned until the thickness of half an inch is reached^ a few being allowed to hang over the cup; the leaves are agglutinated by means of " lewa," a pasty fluid which consists of a mixture of inferior opium, 8% of " pusscwah "and the" dhoc "or washings of the vessels that have contained opium, and the whole is made of *uch consistence that 100 grains evaporated to dry ness over a water-bath leave 53 grains of solid residue. All the ingredients for the opium-ball are furnished to the workmen by measure. When the inside of the brass cup is ready a ball of opium previously weighed is placed on the leafy case in it, and the upper hall of it covered with leaves in the same way that the casing for the lower half was made, the overhanging leaves of the lower half being^ pressed upwards and the sphere completed by one large leaf which is placed over the upper half. The ball, which resembles a Dutch cheese in size and snape, is now rolled in " poppy trash " made from the coarselypowdered leaves, capsules and stalks of the poppy plant, and b placed in an earthen cup of the, same size as the brass one; the cups arc then placed in dishes and the opium exposed to the sun to dry for three days, being constantly turned and examined. If it becomes distended the ball is pierced to liberate the gas and again, lightly closed. On the third evening the cups arc placed in open frames which allow free circulation of the air. This operation is usually completed by the end'of July. The balls thus made consist on the average of:—

Standard opium ... . , i seer 7-50 chittacks.

Lewa . .... . . . o „ 3-75 „

Leaves (poppy petals) ., . . o „ 5-43 „
Poppy trash o „ 0-50 „

2 seers i-iS chittacks.

The average number of cakes that can be made daily by one man is about 70, although 90 to 100 arc sometimes turned out by clever workmen. The cakes are liable to become mildewed, and require constant turning and occasional rubbing in dry " poppy trash ' to remove the mildew, and strengthening in weak places with fresh poppy leaves. By October the cakes are dry and fairly solid, and are then packed in chests, which are divided into two tiers of twenty square compartments for the reception of as many cakes, which are steadied by a packing of loose poppy trash.1 E.irh case contains about 120 catties (about 160 Ib). The chests need to be kept in a dry warehouse for a length of time, but ultimately the opium ceases to lose moisture to the shell, and the latter becomes extremely solid.

The care bestowed on the selection and preparation of the drug in the Bengal opium-factories is such that the merchants who purchase it-rarely require to examine it, although permission is given to open at each sale any number of chests or cakes that they may desire.

In Malwa the opium is manufactured by private enterprise, the

fovernment levying an export duty of 600 rupees (£60) per chest, t is not made into balls but into rectangular or rounded masses, and is not cased in poppy petals. It contains as much as 95% of dry opium, but is of much less uniform quality than the Bengal drug, and, having no guarantee as to purity, is not considered so valuable. The cultivation in Malwa docs not differ in any important particular from that in Bengal. The opium is collected in March and April, and the crude drug or "chick " is thrown into an earthen vessel and covered with lineced oil to prevent evaporation. In this state it is sold to itinerant dealers. It is afterwards tied up in quantities of 25 Ib and 50 tb in double bags of sheeting, which are suspended to a ceiling out of the light and draught to allow the excess of oil to drain off. This takes place in seven to ten da^-s, but the bags are left for four to six weeks until the oil remaining on the opium has become oxidized and hardened. In Tune and July, when the rains begin, the bags are taken down and emptied

1 This is purchased from the ryots at 12 annas per maund.

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