صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

tion, which ended in his entering a convent and becoming a monk. A short experience convinced him that this was not for him the ideal Christian life (" araisi monachum, invent Christianum "), and in February 1522 he made his way to Ebernburg, near Creuznach, where he acted as chaplain to the little group of men holding the new opinions who had settled there under the leadership of Franz von Sickingen.

The second period of Oecolampadius's life opens with his return to Basel in November 1522, as vicar of St Martin's and (in 1523) reader of the Holy Scripture at the university. Lecturing on Isaiah he condemned current ecclesiastical abuses, and in a public disputation (zoth of August 1523) was so successful that Erasmus writing to Zurich said "Oecolampadius has the upper hand amongst us." He became Zwingli's best helper, and after more than a year of earnest preaching and four public disputations in which the popular verdict had been given in favour of Oecolampadius and his friends, the authorities of Basel began to see the necessity of some reformation. They began with the convents, and Oecolampadius was able to refrain in public worship on certain festival days from some practices he believed to be superstitious. Basel was slow to accept the Reformation; the news of the Peasants' War and the inroads of Anabaptists prevented progress; but at last, in 1525, it seemed as if the authorities were resolved to listen to schemes for restoring the purity of worship and teaching. In the midst of these hopes and difficulties Oecolampadius married, in the beginning of 1528, Wilibrandis Rosenblatt, the widow of Ludwig Keller, who proved to be non rixosa vet garrula vcl twgfl, he says, and made him a good wife. After his death she married Capito, and, when Capilo died, Bucer. She died in 1564. In January 1528 Oecolampadius and Zwingli took part in the disputation at Berne which led to the adoption of the new faith in that canton, and in the following year lo the discontinuance of the mass at Basel. The Anabaptists claimed Oecolampadius for their views, but in a disputation with them he dissociated himself from most of their positions. He died on the 24th of November 1531.

Occolampadius was not a great theologian, like Luther, Zwingli or Calvin, and yet he was a trusted theological leader. With Zwingli he represented the Swiss views' at the unfortunate .conference at Marburg. His views on the Eucharist upheld the metaphorical against the literal interpretation of the word "body," but he asserted that believers partook of the sacrament more for the sake of others than for their own, though later he emphasized it as a means of grace for the Christian life. To Luther's doctrine of the ubiquity of Christ's body he opposed that of the presence and activity of the Holy Spirit in the church. He did not minutely analyse the doctrine of predestination as Luther, Calvin and Zwingli did, contenting himself with the summary " Our Salvation is of God, our perdition of ourselves." Set1 J. J. Hcrzog, Leben Joh. Occolampaas u. die Reformation der Kirche zu Basel (1843); K. R. Hogcnbach, Jokann Oecolampad u. Oswald Afyconius, die Reformaloren Basrls (1859). For other literature sec W. Hadorn's art. in Hcrzog-Hauck's Realencykhpadie fur prol. Rel. u. Kirche.

OECOLOGY. or Ecology (from Gr. o*«wf house, and X6"yot, department of science), that part of the science of biology which treats of the adaptation of plants or animals to their environment {see Plants: Ecology).

OECUMENICAL (through the Lat. from Gr. otxw/imK&f. universal, belonging to the whole inhabited world, ^ oiVoujufO) 5f. yrj, oiictiv, lo dwell), a word chiefly used in the sense of belonging to the universal Christian Church. It is thus specifically applied lo the general councils of the early church (see Council). In the Roman Church a council is regarded as oecumenical when it has been summoned from the whole church under the presidency of the pope or his legates; the decrees confirmed by the pope are binding. The word has also been applied to assemblies of other religious bodies, such as the Oecumenical Methodist Conferences, which met for the first lime in 1881. "Oecumenical" has also been the title of the patriarch of Conslanlinople since the 6th century (see Orthodox Eastern Church).

OECUS, the Latinized form of Gr. ol«w, house, used by Vitruvius for the principal hall or saloon in a. Roman house, which was used occasionally as a triclinium for banquets. When of great size it became necessary to support its ceiling with columns; thus, according to Vitruvius, the tctrastyle oecus had four columns; in the Corinthian occus there was a row of columns on each side, virtually therefore dividing the room into nave and aisles, the former being covered over with a semicircular ceiling. The Egyptian oecus had a similar plan, but the aisles were of less height, so that clerestory windows were introduced to light the room, which, as Vitruvius states, presents more the appearance of a basilica than of a triclinium.

OEDIPUS (Oi&TTow, OtttirMrp, Otfuros, from Gr. wouc swell, and irofo foot, i.e. " the swollen-footed ")l in Greek legend, son of Lalus, king of Thebes, and Jocasta (locastS). Lalus, having been warned by an oracle that he would be killed by his son, ordered him to be exposed, with his feet pierced, immediately after his birth. Thus Oedipus grew up ignorant of his parentage, and, meeting Lalus in a narrow way, quarrelled with him and slew him. The country was ravaged by a monster, the Sphinx; Oedipus solved the riddle which it proposed to its victims, freed the country, and married his own mother. In the Odyssey it is said that the gods disclosed the impiety. Epicaste (as Jocasta is called in Homer) hanged herself, and Oedipus lived as king in Thebes tormented by the Erinyes of his mother. In the tragic poets the tale takes a different form. Oedipus fulfils an ancient prophecy in killing his father; he is the blind instrument in the hands of fate. The further treatment of the talc by Aeschylus is unknown. Sophocles describes in his Oedipus Tyrannus how Oedipus was resolved to pursue to the end the mystery of the death of Lalus, and thus unravelled the dark tale, and in horror put out his own eyes. The sequel of the tale is told in the Oedipus Cohncus. Banished by his sons, he is tended by the loving care of his daughlers. He comes to Allica and dies in the grove of Ihe Eumenides at Colonus, in his death welcomed and pardoned by the fate which had pursued him throughoul his life. In addition to the two tragedies of Sophocles, the legend formed the subject of a trilogy by Aeschylus, of which only the Seven against Thebes is extant; of the Pkoenissae of Euripides; and of the Oedipus and Phocnissae of Seneca.

See A. Hofer's exhaustive article in Roscher's Lexikon der Afyiko* logie; F. W. Schncidewin, Die Sage von Oedipus (1852); D. Comnarctii, Edipo e la. mitologia comparata (1867); M. Brx-al, "Le Mythe d'CEdipe," in Melanges de mythologie (1878). who explains Oedipus as a personification of light, and his blinding as the disappearance of the sun at the end of the day; J. Paulson in Eranos, Ada philologies Succana, i. (Upsala, 1896) places the original home of the legend in Egyptian Thebes, and identifies Oedipus with the Egyptian god Scth, represented as the hippopotamus " with swollen foot," which was said to kill its father in order to take its place with the mother. O. Crusius (Beitrage zur grieckischen Afytkologie, 1886, p. 21) sees in the marriage of Oedipus with his mother an agrarian myth (with special reference to Oed. Tyr. 1497), while Hufer (in Roscher's Lexikon) suggests that the episodes of the murder of his father and of his marriage are reminiscences of the overthrow of Cronus by Zeus and of the union of Zeus with his own sister.

Medieval Legends.—In the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine (i3th century) and the Afystcre de la Passion of Jean Michel dsth century) and Arnoul Grc'b,TM Osth century), the story of Oedipus is associated with the name of Judas. The main idea is the same as in the classical account. The Judas legend, however, never really became popular, whereas that of Oedipus was handed down both orally and in written national talcs (Albanian. Finnish, Cypriote). One incident (the incest unwittingly committed) frequently recurs in connexion with the life of Gregory the Grcac. TheTheban legend, which reached its fullest development in the Tkeba'is of Statius and in Seneca, reappeared in the Roman de Thebes (the work of an unknown imitator of Benoft de Saintc-Morc). Oedipus is also the subject of an anonymous medieval romance {ijjth century), Le Roman d'CEdipus, fill de Layus, in which the sphinx is depicted as a cunning and ferocious giant. The Oedipus legend was handed down to the period of the Renaissance by the Roman and its imitations, which then fell into oblivion. Even to the present day the legend has

[graphic]

1 It is probable that the story of the piercing of his feet is a subsequent invention to explain the name, or is due to a false etymology {from oIWw), oUirout in reality meaning the "wise" (from olia). chiefly in reference lo his having solved the riddle, the syllable won having no significance.

•urvived amongst the modern Greeks, without any traces of the influence of Christianity (B. Schmidt, Grieckische Marc fun. 1877). The works of the ancient tragedians (especially Seneca, in preference to the Greek) came into vogue, and were slavishly followed by French ar.d Italian imitators down to the I7th century. See L. Constans, La Ltgende d'CEdipe dans I'anliquiir, au moyen Age,

'

, , ,

mps modernes (1881): D. Comparetti s Edipo and lebb's introduction lor the Oedipus of Dryden, Corneille and Voltaire; A. Heintze, Gregorius auf dcm Steine, der mittelcJterluhe Oedipus (progr., Stolp. 1877); V. Dtedenchs, "Russische Verwandte der Legends von Grcgor auf dem Stein und der Sage von Judas Ischariot," in Rushscju Rente (1880); S. Noyakovitch, "Die Oedipussage in dcr suddaviachen Volksdichtung," in Arckiv fur slavische Philologie n. (1888).

OEHLER, CUSTAV FRIEDRICH (1812-1872), German theologian, was born on the roth of June 1812 at Ebingen, Wiirttemberg, and was educated privately and at Tubingen where he was much influenced by J. C. F. Stcudcl, professor of Old Testament Theology. In 1837, after a term of Oriental study at Berlin, he went to Tubingen as Re pf tent, becoming in 1840 professor at the seminary and pastor in Schdnthal. In 1845 he published his Prolegomena, zur Theoiogtc dcs Allen Testaments, accepted an invitation to Breslau and received the degree of doctor from Bonn. In 1852 he returned to Tubingen as director of the seminary and professor of Old Testament Theology at the university. He declined a call to Erlangen as successor to Franz Delitzsch (1867), and died at Tubingen on the igth of February 1872. Oehler admitted the composite authorship of the Pentateuch and the Book of Isaiah, and did much to counteract the antipathy against the Old Testament that had been fostered by Schleiermacher. In church polity he was Lutheran rather than Reformed. Besides his Old Testament Theology {Eng. trans,, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1874-1875), his works were Grizmimlit Seminarredcn (1872) and Lekrbuch Symbolik (1876), both published posthumously, and about forty articles for the first edition of Herzog's Rfalmcyklopddic which were largely retained by Delitzsch and von Orelli in the second.

OEHRIN'GEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wttrttemberg, agreeably situated in a fertile country, on the Ohrn, 12 m. E. from Hcilbronn by the railways to Hall and Crailshcim. Pop. (1005) 3,450. It is a quaint medieval place, and, among its ancient buildings, boasts a fine Evangelical church, containing carvings in cedar-wood of the i sth century and numerous interesting tombs and monuments; a Renaissance town hall; the building, now used as a library, which formerly belonged to a monastery, erected in 1034; and a palace, the residence of the princes of Hohenlohe-Oehringen.

Qehringen is the Vicus Aurelii of the Romans. Eastwards cf it ran the old Roman frontier wall, and numerous remains and inscriptions dating from the days of the Roman settlenent have been recently discovered, including traces of three

See Keller, Vicus Aurelii, odtr Ohnngen sur Zeit der Rdmer (Bonn, 1872).

OELS, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, formerly the capital of a mediatized principality of its own came. It lies in a sandy plain on the Oelsbach, 20 m. N.E. of Breslau by rail. Pop. (1905) 10,940. The princely chateau, Dow the property of the crown prince of Prussia, dating from 1558 and beautifully restored in 1891-1894, contains a good library and a collection of pictures. Of its three Evangelical churches, the Schlosskirche dates from the i^th century and the Propstkirche from the i4th. The inhabitants arc chiefly engaged in making shoes and growing vegetables for the Breslau

••tat.

Oeis was founded about 940, and became a town in 1255. It appears as the capital of an independent principality at the beginning of the i4th century. The principality, with an area of 700 sq. m. and about 130,000 inhabitants, passed through various hands and was inherited by the ducal family of Brunswick in 1702. Then on the extinction of this family in 1884 it lapsed to the crown of Prussia.

See W. H4usler, Geschichie des Furstentums Ols bis turn AusMerbat der piastiscken Herzogstinie (Breslau. 1883); and Schulze, Dm Succession im Furstentum Ols (Breslau, 1884).

OELSCHLACER [Oi.r.ARirsl, ADAH (1600-1671), German traveller and Orientalist, was born at Aschersleben, near Magdeburg, in 1509 or 1600. After studying at Leipzig he became librarian and court mathematician to Duke Frederick III. of Holstein-Gottorp, and in 1633 he was appointed secretary to the ambassadors Philip Crusius, jurisconsult, and Ot'o Briiggemann or Brugman, merchant, sent by the duke to Muscovy and Persia in the hope of making arrangements by which his newly-founded city of Friedrichstadt should become the terminus of an overland silk-trade. This embassy started from Gollorp on the 22nd of October 1633, and travelled by Hamburg, Llibcck, Riga, Dorpat (five months' stay), Revel, Narva, Ladoga and Novgorod to Moscow (August 14, 1634). Here they concluded an advantageous 'treaty with Michael Romanov, and returned forthwith to Gottorp (December 14, 1634April 7, 1635) to procure the ratification of this arrangement from the duke, before proceeding to Persia. This accomplished, they started afresh from Hamburg on the 22nd of October 1635, arrived at Moscow on the 29th of March 1636; and left Moscow on the 301 h of June for Nizhniy Novgorod, whither they had already sent agents (in 1634-1635) to prepare a vessel for their descent of the Volga. Their voyage down the great river and over the Caspian was slow and hindered by accidents, especially by grounding, as near Derbcnt on the i4th of November 1636; but at last, by way of Shemakha (three months' delay here), Ardebil, Sultanieh and Kasvin, they reached the Persian court at Isfahan (August 3, 1637), and were received by the shah (August 16). Negotiations here were not as successful as at Moscow, and the embassy left Isfahan on the 2ist of December 1637, and returned home by Resht, Lenkoran, Astrakhan, Kazan, Moscow, &c. At Revel Oclschlager parted from his colleagues (April 15, 1639) and embarked direct for Lubeck. On his way he had made a chart of the Volga, and partly for this reason the tsar Michael wished to persuade, or compel, him to enter his service. Once back at Gottorp, Oclschlager became librarian to the duke, who also made him keeper of his Cabinet of Curiosities, and induced the tsar to excuse his (promised) return to Moscow. Under his care the Gottorp library and cabinet were greatly enriched in MSS., books, and oriental and other works of art: in 1651 he purchased, for this purpose, the collection of the Dutch scholar and physician, Bernard ten Broccke (" Paludanus"). He died at Gottorp on the 22nd of February 1671.

It Is by his admirable narrative of the Russian and the Persian legation (Beschreibung dtr muscowitischen und persischen Reise, Schlcswig, 1647, and afterwards in several enlarged editions, 1656, &c.) that Oelschlagcr is best known, though he also publisher a history of Holstein (Kurtter Begriff einer holsteinischen Chronic, Schlcswig, 1663), a famous catalogue of the Hoist em-Gottorp • cabinet (1666), and a translation of the Gulistan (Persianisches Roscnthal, Schleswig, 1654). to which was appended a translation of the fables of Lokman. A French version of the Beschreibung was published by Abraham de Wicquefort (Voyages en Moscorie, Tartarie et Perse, par Adam Olearius, Paris, 1656), an English version was made by John Davics of Kidwelly (Travels of the Ambassadors sent by Frederic, Duke of Holstein, to the Great Duke of Muscovy and the King of Persia, London, 1662; 2nd cd., 1669), and a Dutch translation by Dietcrius van Wageningen (Betckrijvinth van de nieuwe Parciatnsche ofte Oritntaelsche Reyse, Utrecht, 1651); an Italian translation of the Russian sections also appeared (Vtaggi di Moscovia, Vitcrbo and Rome, 1658). Paul Flemming the poet and J. A. de Mandelslo, whose travels to the East Indies arc usually published with those of Oetschlagcr, accompanied the embassy. Under Oelsch lager's direction the celebrated globe of Gottorp (li ft. in diameter) and annillary sphere were executed in 16541664; the globe was given to Peter the Great of Russia in 1713 by Duke Frederick's grandson, Christian Augustus. Oelschlager s unpublished works include a Lexicon Persicum and several other Persian studies. (C. K. B.)

OELSNITZ, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Weisse Elstcr, 26 m. by rail S.W. of Zwickau. Pop. (1005) 13,966. It has two Evangelical churches, one of them being the old Gothic Jakobskirche, and several schools. There are various manufactories. Oelsnitz belonged in the nth and 15th centuries to the margraves of Meissen, and later to the electors of Saxony. Near it is the village of Voigtsberg, with the remains of a castle, once a residence of the governor (Vogt) of the Vogtland.

[graphic]

See Jahn, Chronik dtr Stadt Olsniti (1875).

OELWEIN, a city of Fayette county, Iowa, U.S.A., in the N.E. part of the state, about 132 m. N.E. of Des Moincs. Fop. (1890) 830; (1900) 5142, of whom 789 were foreign-born; (1910 U.S. census) 6028. It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and the Chicago Great Western railways, the latter having large repair shops here, where four lines of its road converge. Oelwein was named in honour of its founder, August Oclwcin, who settled here in 1873; it was incorporated in 1888, and chartered as a city in 1897.

OENOMAUS, in Greek legend, son of Ares and Harpinna, king of Pisa in Elis and father of Hippodamcia. It was predicted that he should be slain by his daughter's husband. His father, the god Ares-Hippius, gave him winged horses swift as the wind, and Oenomaus promised his.daughter to the man who could outstrip him in the chariot race, hoping thus to prevent her marriage altogether. Pelops, by the treachery of Myrtilus, the charioteer of Oenomaus, won the race and married Hippodameia. The defeat of Oenomaus by Pelops, a stranger from Asia Minor, points to the conquest of native Arcsworshippers by immigrants who introduced the new religion of Zeus.

See Diod. Sic. iy. 73; Pausantas vi. 21, and elsewhere; Sophocles, Electro, 504; Hyginus, Fab. 84. 253. Fig. 33 in article Greek Art represents the preparations for the chariot race.

OENONE, in Greek legend, daughter of the river-god Kebrcn and wife of Paris. Possessing the gift of divination, she warned her husband of the evils that would result from his journey to Greece. The sequel was the rape of Helen and the Trojan War. Just before the capture of the city, Paris, wounded by Philoctctcs with one of the arrows of Heracles, sought the aid of the deserted Oenonc, who had told him that she alone could heal him if wounded. Indignant at his faithlessness, she refused to help him, and Paris returned to Troy and died of his wound. Oenone soon repented and hastened after him, but finding that she was too late to save him slew herself from grief at the sight of his dead body. Ovid (Hmfidet, 5) gives a pathetic description of Ocnone's grief when she found herself deserted.

OERLAMS, the name (said to be a corruption of the. Dutch Oberlandcrs) for a Hottentot tribal group living in Great Namaqualand. They came originally from Little Namaqualand in Cape Colony. They are of very mixed Hottentot-Bantu blood.

OESEL (in Esthonian Kure-saare or Saare-ma), a Russian island in the Baltic, forming with Worms, Mohn and Runt), • a district of the government of Livonia, and lying across the mouth of the Gulf of Riga, 106 m. N.N.W. of the city of Riga. It has a length of 45 m., and an area of 1010 sq. m. The coasts are bold and steep, and, especially towards the north and west, form precipitous limestone cliffs. Like those of Shetland, the Oesel ponies are small, but prized for their spirit and endurance. The population, numbering 50,566 in 1870 and 60,000 in 1900, is mainly Protestant in creed, and, with the exception of the German nobility, clergy and some of the townsfolk, Esthonian by race. The chief town, Arensburg, on the south coast, is a place of 4600 inhabitants, with summer sea-bathing, mud baths and a trade in grain, potatoes, whisky and fish. In 1227 Oesel was conquered by the Knights of the Sword, and was governed by its own bishops till 1561, when it passed into the hands of the Danes. By them it was surrendered to the Swedes by the peace of Brdmscbro (1645), and, along with Livonia, it was united to Russia in 1721.

OESOPHAGUS (Gr. otffu=I will carry, and 4oyc&, to eat), in anatomy, the gullet; see Alimentary Canal for comparative anatomy. The human oesophagus is peculiarly liable to certain accidents and diseases, due both to its function as a tube to carry food to the stomach and to its anatomical situation (see generally Digestive Organs). One of the commonest accidents is the lodgment of foreign bodies in some part of the tube. The situations in which they are arrested vary with the nature of the

body, whether it be a coin, fishbone, toothplate or a portion of food. An impacted substance may be removed by the oesophageal forceps, or by a coin-catcher; if it should be impossible to draw it up it may be pushed down into the stomach. When it is in the stomach a purgative should never be given, but soft food such as porridge. Should gastric symptoms develop it may have to be removed by the operation of gastrotomy. Charring and ulceration of the oesophagus may occur from the swallowing of corrosive liquids, strong acids or alkalis, or even of boiling water. Stricture of the oesophagus is a closing of the tube so that neither solids nor liquids arc able to pass down into the stomach. There arc three varieties of stricture; spasmodic, fibrous and malignant. Spasmodic stricture usually occurs in young hysterical women; difficulty in swallowing is complained of, and a bougie may not be able to be passed, but under an anaesthetic will slip down quite easily. Fibrous stricture is usually situated near the commencement of the oesophagus, generally just behind the cricoid cartilage, and usually results from swallowing corrosive fluids, but may also result from the healing of a syphilitic ulcer. Occasionally it is congenital. The ordinary treatment is repeated dilatation by bougies. Occasionally division of a fibrous stricture has been practised, or a Symond's tube inserted. Mikulicz recommends dilatation of the stricture by the fingers from inside after an incision into the stomach or a permanent gastric fistula may have to be made. Malignant strictures are usually epithcliomatous in structure, and may be situated in any part of the oesophagus. They nearly always occur in males between the ages of 40 and 70 years. An X-ray photograph taken after the patient has swallowed a preparation of bismuth will show the situation of the growth, and Kilhan and Brlinig have introduced an instrument called the ocsophagoscopc, which makes direct examination possible. The remedy of constant dilatation by bougies must not be attempted here, the walls of the oesophagus being so softened by disease and ulceration that severe haemorrhage or perforation of the walls of the tube might take place. The patient should be fed with purely liquid and concentrated nourishment in order to give the oesophagus as much rest as possible, or if the stricture be too tight rectal feeding may be necessary. Symond's method of tubage is well borne by some patients, the tube having attached to it a long string which is secured to the cheek or car. The most satisfactory treatment, however, is the operation of gastrotomy, a permanent artificial opening being made into the stomach through which the patient can be fed.

OETA (mod. Kotawlhra), a mountain to the south of Thessaly, in Greece, forming a boundary between the valleys of the Sperchcius and the Boeotian Cephissus. It is an offshoot of the Pindus range, 7080 ft. high. In its eastern portion, called Callidromus, it comes close to the sea, leaving only a narrow passage known as the famous pass of Thermopylae (y.p.). There was also a high pass to the west of Callidromus leading over into the upper Cephissus valley. In mythology Oeta is chiefly celebrated as the scene of the funeral pyre on which Heracles burnt himself before his admission to Olympus.

OETINGER, FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH (1702-1782), German divine and thcosophist, was born at Goppingcn on the 6th of May 1702.. He studied theology at Tubingen (1722-1728), and was much impressed by the works of Jakob Bohmc. On the completion of his university course, Octinger spent some years in travel. In 1730 he visited Count Zinzcndorf at Herrnhut, remaining there some months as teacher of Hebrew and Greek. During his travels, in his eager search for knowledge, he made the acquaintance of mystics and separatists, Christians and learned Jews, theologians and physicians alike. At Halle he studied medicine. After some delay he was ordained to the ministry, and held several pastorates. While pastor (from 1746) at Waldorf near Berlin, he studied alchemy and made many experiments, his idea being to use his knowledge for symbolic purposes. These practices exposed him to the attacks of persons who misunderstood him. "My religion," he once said, "is the parallelism of Nature and Grace." Oetingcr translated Swedcnborg's philosophy of heaven and earth, and added notes of his own. Eventually (1766) he became prelate at Murrhardt, where he died on the loth of February 1782.

Otinjrer's autobiography was published by J. Hamberger in 1845. He published about seventy works, in which he expounded his tbeosophic views. A collected edition, Sdmtliche Schriften (1st Kcaoo. llomilttiscke Sckriflen, 5 veils., 1858-1666; 2nd section, rttesopkiscke Wcrkc, 6 vols.. 1858-1863), was prepared by K. F. C. Ehmann. who also wrote Oetinger's Leben und Briefe (1859). See also C. A. Auberlen. Die Theosopkie Friedr. Chr, Oelinger't (1847; 2nd rtl., 1859), and Herzog, Friedrich Christoph Otingcr (1902).

OEYNHAUSEN, a town and watering-place of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Werre, situated just above its confluence with the Wcser, 9 m. W. from Minden by the main line of railway from Hanover to Cologne, with a station on the Lohne-Hameln line. Pop. (1905) 3894. The place, which was formerly called Rehme, owes its development to the discovery in 1830 of its five famous salt springs, which are heavily charged with carbonic acid gas. The waters are used both for bathing and drinking, and are particularly efficacious for nervous disorders, rheumatism, gout and feminine complaints.

OFFA, the most famous hero of the early Angli. He is said by the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith to have ruled over Angel, and the poem refers briefly to his victorious single combat, a story which is related at length by the Danish historians Saxo and Svend Aagesen. Offa (Uffo) is said to have been dumb or silent during his early years, and to have only recovered his speech, when his aged father Wermund was threatened by the Saxons, who insolently demanded the cession of his kingdom. Offa undertook to fight against both the Saxon king 's son and a chosen champion at once. The combat took place at Rendsburg on an island in the Eider, and Offa succeeded in killing both his opponents. According to Widsilh Offa's opponents belonged to a tribe or dynasty called Myrgingas, but both accounts state that be won a great kingdom as the result of his victory. A somewhat corrupt version of the same story is preserved in the Vitae duorum Offorum, where, however, the scene is transferred to England. It is very probable that the Offa whose marriage with a lady of murderous disposition is mentioned in Beowulf is the same person; and this story also appears in the Viloe dnerstm O/arum, though it is erroneously told of a later Offa, the famous king of Mcrcia. Offa of Mercia, however, was a descendant in the nth generation of Offa, king of Angel. It is probable from this and other considerations that the early Offa lived in the latter part of the 4th century.

See H. M. Chadwick, Origin of Ike English Nation (Cambridge, 1907), where references to the original authorities will be found.

OFFA (d. 796), king of Mercia, obtained that kingdom in A.D. 757, after driving out Beornred, who had succeeded a few months earlier on the murder of /Ethelbald. He traced his descent from Pybba, the father of Pcnda, through Eowa, brother of that king, his own father's name being Thingferth. In 779 be was at war with Cynewulf of Wesscx from whom he wrested Bensington. It is not oinlikely that the Thames became the boundary of the two kingdoms about this time. In 787 the power of Offa was displayed in a synod held at a place called Ceokhyth. He deprived Jambcrht, archbishop of Canterbury, of several of his suffragan sees, and assigned them to Lichficld, wkich. with the leave of the pope, he constituted as a separate ircbbishopric under Hygeberht. He also took advantage of this meeting to have his son Ecgferth consecrated as his colleague, and that prince subsequently signed charters as Kfi Uerciorum. In 789 Offa secured the alliance of Bcrhtric of Wessex by giving him his daughter Eadburg in marriage. In 7<x» he appears to have caused the death of jEthelberht of East Anglia, though some accounts ascribe the murder to Cjrjwtaryth, the wife of Offa. In 796 Offa died after a reign of ilirty-nine years and was succeeded by his son Ecgferth. It b customary to ascribe to Offa a policy of limited scope, namely the establishment of Mercia in a position equal to that of Wessex v.j of Northumbria. This is supposed to be illustrated by his Erasures with regard to the see of Lichfield. It cannot be doubted, however, that at this time Mercia was a much more fercudablc power than Wessex. Offa, like most of his predecessors,

probably held a kind of supremacy over all kingdoms south of the Humbcr. He seems, however, not to have been contented with this position, and to have entertained the design of putting an end to the dependent kingdoms. At all events we hear of no kings of the Hwicce after about 780, and the kings of Sussei seem to have given up the royal title about the same time. Further, there is no evidence for any kings in Kent from 784 until after Offa's death. To Offa is ascribed by Asser, in his life of Alfred, the great fortification against the Welsh which is still known as " Offa's dike." It stretched from sea to sea and consisted of a wall and a rampart. An account of his Welsh campaigns is given in the Vilacduorum O/arum, but it is difficult to determine how far the stories there given have an historical basis.

See Anglo-Salon Chronicle, cd. J. Earlc and C. Plummer (Oxford, 1809), s.a. 755, 777, 785, 787, 792, 794, 796, 836: W. de G. Birch. Carlularium Saxmicum (London, 1885-1893), vol. i.; Asser, Life of Alfred, cd. W. H. Stevenson (Oxford, 1904); Vitae duorum Offarum (in works of Matthew Paris, cd. W. Wats, London, 1640).

OFFAL, refuse or waste stuff, the "off fall," that which falls off (cf. Dutch ajtal, Gcr. Abfall). The term is applied especially to the waste parts of an animal that has been slaughtered for food, to putrid flesh or carrion, and to waste fish, especially to the little ones that get caught in the nets with the larger and better fish, and are thrown away or used as manure. As applied to grain "offal" is used of grains too small or light for use for flour, and also in flour milling of the husk or bran of wheat with a certain amount of flour attaching, sold for feeding beasts (see Flour).

OFFENBACH, JACQUES (1810-1880), French composer of opera boujfc, was bom at Cologne, of German Jewish parents, on the list of June 1819. His talent for music was developed at a very early age; and in 1833 he was sent to Paris to study the violoncello at the conservatoire, where, under the care of Professor Vaslin, he became a fairly good performer. In 1834 he became a member of the orchestra of the Optra Comique; and he turned his opportunities to good account, so that eventually he was made conductor at the Theatre Francais. There, in 1848, he made his first success as a composer in the Chanson de Fortunio in Alfred de Mussel's play Le Chandelier. From this time forward his life became a ceaseless struggle for the attainment of popularity. His power of production was apparently inexhaustible. His first complete work, Pepito, was produced at the Optra Comique in 1853. This was followed by a crowd of dramatic pieces of a light character, which daily gained in favour with Parisian audiences, and eventually effected a complete revolution in the popular taste of the period. Encouraged by these early successes, Offenbach boldly undertook the delicate task of entirely remodelling both the form and the style of the light musical pieces which had so long been welcomed with acclamation by the frequenters of the smaller theatres in Paris. With this purpose in view he obtained a lease of the Theatre Comte in the Passage Choiscul, reopened it in 1855 under the title of the Bouffes Parisiens, and night after night attracted crowded audiences by a succession of brilliant, humorous trifles. Ludovic Halevy, the librettist, was associated with him from the first, but still more after 1860, when Haltvy obtained Henri Meilhac's collaboration (see Hal£vy). Beginning with Les Deux Ateugles and Le Violoneux, the series of Offenbach's operettas was rapidly continued, until in 1867 its triumph culminated in La Grande Duchesse de Gtrolstein, perhaps the most popular optra boujfe that ever was written, not excepting even his Orphie aux enjers, produced in 1858. From this time forward the success of Offenbach's pieces became an absolute certainty, and the new form of opera bouffe, which he had gradually endowed with as much consistency as it was capable of assuming, was accepted as the only one worth cultivating. It found imitators in Lecocq and other aspirants of a younger generation, and Offenbach's works found their way to every town in Europe in which a theatre existed. Tuneful, gay and exhilarating, their want of refinement formed no obstacle to their popularity, and perhaps even contributed to it. In 1866 his own connexion with the Bouffes Parisiens ceased, and he wrote for various theatres. In twenty-five years Offenbach produced no less than sixty-nine complete dramatic works, some of which were in three or even in four acts. Among the latest of these were Lt Docleur Ox, founded on a story by Jules Verne, and La Botlc au lait, both produced in 1877, and Madame Fatart (1879). Offenbach died at Paris on the sth of October 1880.

OFFENBACH, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse, on the left bank of the Main, 5 m. S.E. of Frankfort-onMain, with which it is connected by the railway to Bebra and by a local electric line. Pop. (1905) 58,806, of whom about 20,000 were Roman Catholics and 1400 Jews. The most interesting building in the town is the Renaissance chateau of the counts of Iscnburg. Offenbach is the principal industrial town of the duchy, ana its manufactures are of the most varied description. Its characteristic industry, however, is the manufacture of portfolios, pocket-books, albums and other fancy goods in leather. The earliest mention of Offenbach is in a document of 970. In 1486 it came into the possession of the counts of Isenburg, who made it their residence in 1685, and in 1816, when their lands were mediatized, it was assigned to Hesse. It owes its prosperity in the first place to the industry of the French Protestant refugees who settled here at the end of the i, i ii. and the beginning of the iSth century, and in the second place to the accession of Hesse to the German Zollverein in 1818.

See Jdst, Offenbach am Main in Vcr^anf^enheit und Cf^cn-xart (Offenbach, 1901); Hagcr, Du Ledemcrentndialrie in Ojfcntach (Karlsruhe, 1905).

OFFENBURO, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, 27 m. by rail S.W. of Baden, on the river Kinzig. Pop. (1905) 15,434. It contains a statue of Sir Francis Drake, a mark of honour due to the fact that Drake is sometimes regarded as having introduced the potato into Europe. The chief industries of the town are^hc making of cot ton, linen, hats, malt, machinery, tobacco and cigars and glass. Offcnburg is first mentioned about 1100. In 1223 it became a town; in 1248 it passed to the bishop of Strassburg; and in 1289 it became an imperial free city.. Soon, however, this position was lost, but it was regained about the middle of the i6th century, and Offcnburg remained a free city until 1802, when it became part of Baden. In 1632 it was taken by the Swedes, and in 1689 it was destroyed by the French.

See Walter. Kurzer Abriss der CeschickU der Rciclastadt Ofcnburg (Offcnburg. 1896).

OFFERTORY (from the ecclesiastical Lat. offcrtorium, Fr. ofertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. Offertory has also a special sense in the services of both the English and Roman churches. It forms in both that part of the Communion service appointed to be said or sung, during the collection of alms, before the elements are consecrated. In music, an offertory is the vocal or instrumental setting of the offertory sentences, or a short instrumental piece played by the organist while the collection is being made.

OFFICE (from Lat. ojpcium, " duty," " service," a shortened form of opifacium, Iromfacere, " to do," and cither the stem of opes, " wealth," " aid," or opus, " work "), a duty or service, particularly the special duty cast upon a person by his position; also a ceremonial duty, as in the rites paid to the dead, the " last offices." The term is Ihus especially used of a religious service, the " daily office " of the English Church or the " divine office" of the Roman Church (sec Breviary). It is also used in this sense of a service for a particular occasion, as the Office for the Visitation of the Sick, &c. From the sense of duty or function, the word is transferred to the position or place which lays on the holder or occupier the performance of such duties. This leads naturally to the use of the word for the buildings or the separate rooms in which the duties are performed, and for the staff carrying on the work or business in such offices. In the Roman curia the department of the Inquisition is known as the Holy Office, in full, the Congregation of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (see Inquisition and Cuxia Rokana).

Offices of Profit The phrase" officeof profit underthe crown" is used with a particular application in British parliamentary practice. The holders of such offices of profit have been subject in regard to the occupation of scats in the House of Commons to certain disabilities which were in their origin due to the fear of the undue influence exercised by the crown during the constitutional struggles of the i?th century. Attempts to deal with the danger of the presence of" place-men "in the House of Commons were made by the Place Bills introduced in 1672-1673,1694 and 1743- The Act of Settlement 1700 (§ 3) laid it down that no person who has an office or place of profit under the king or receives a pension from the crown shall be capable of serving as a member of the House of Commons. This drastic clause, which would have bad the disastrous effect of entirely separating the executive from the legislature, was repealed and the basis of the present law was laid down in 1706 by 6 Anne (c. 41). This first disqualifies (§ 24) from membership all holders of "new offices,"1 i.e. those created after October 1705; secondly (§ 25) it renders void the election of a member who shall accept any office of profit other than " new offices " but allows the member to stand for re-election. The disqualification attaching to many "new offices " has been removed by various statutes, and by i 52 of the Reform Act 1867 the necessity of re-election is avoided when a member, having been elected subsequent to the acceptance of any office named in a schedule of that act, is transferred to any other office in that schedule. The rules as to what offices disqualify from membership or render re-election necessary are exceedingly complicated, depending as they do on a large number of statutes (see Erskinc May, Parliamentary Practice, nth ed., pp. 632-645, and Rogers, On Elections, vol. ii., 1906). The old established rule that a member, once duly elected, cannot resign his seat is evaded by the acceptance of certain minor offices (sec Chiltekh Hundreds).

OFFICERS. Historically the employment of the word "officer " to denote a person holding a military or naval command as representative of the state, and not as deriving his authority from his own powers or privileges, marks an entire change in the character of the armed forces of civilized nations. Originally signifying an official, one who performs an assigned duty (Lat. officium), an agent, and in the isth century actually meaning the subordinate of such an official (even to-day a constable is so called), the word seems to have acquired a military significance late in the i6th century.* It was at this time that armies, though not yet "standing," came to be constituted almost exclusively of professional soldiers in the king's pay. Mercenaries, and great numbers of mercenaries, had always existed, and their captains were not feudal magnates. But the bond between mercenaries and their captains was entirely personal, and the bond between the captain and the sovereign was of the nature of a contract. The non-mercenary portion of the older armies was feudal in character. It was the lord and not a king's officer who commanded it, and he commanded in virtue of his rights, not of a warrant or commission.

European history in the late I5th century is the story of the victory of the crown over the feudatories. The instrument of the crown was its army, raised and commanded by its deputies. But these deputies were still largely soldiers of fortune and, in the higher ranks, feudal personages, who created the armies themselves by their personal influence with the would-be soldier or the unemployed professional fighting man. Thus the first system to replace the obsolete combination of feudalism and "free companies " was what may be called the proprietary system. Under this the colonel was the proprietor of his regiment, the captain the proprietor of his company. The king accepted them as his officers, and armed them with authority to raise men, but they themselves raised the men as a rule from experienced soldiers who were in search of employment, although, like

1 This section also disqualifies colonial governors and deputy governors and holders of certain other offices.

* At sea the relatively clear partition of actual duties amongst the authorities of a ship brought about the adoption of the term "officer " somewhat earlier.

« السابقةمتابعة »