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which were the earliest of their kind in English; unhappily they were not very poetical. He was imitated by Ambrose Philips, but then the tide of Cowley-Pindarism rose again and swept the reform away. The attempts of Gilbert West (17031756) to explain the prosody of Pindar (1749) inspired Cray to write his "Progress of Poesy" (1754) and "The Bard" (1756). Collins, meanwhile, had in 1747 published a collection of odes devised in the Aeolian or Lesbian manner. The odes of Mason and Akcnside were more correctly Pindaric, but frigid and formal. The odes of Wordsworth, Coleridge and Tennyson are entirely irregular. Shelley desired to revive the pure manner of the Greeks, but he understood the principle of the form so little that he began his noble "Ode to Naples" with two cpodcs, passed on to two strophes, and then indulged in four successive antistrophes. Coventry Patmore, in 1868, printed a volume of Odes, which he afterwards enlarged; these were irregularly built up on a musical system, the exact consistency of which is not always apparent. Finally Swinburne, although some of his odes, like those of Keats, arc really elaborate lyrics, written in a succession of stanzas identical in form, has cultivated the Greek form also, and some of his political odes follow very closely the type of Bacchylides and Pindar.
Sec Philipp August BiSckh, De melris Pindari (1811); Wilhclm Christ, Metrik der Griechen und Romer (1874); Edmund Gossc, English Odes (1881). (E. G.)
ODENKIRCHEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, 2r m. by rail S.W. of Dusseldorf, and at the junction of lines to Munich, Gladbach and Stolbcrg. Pop. (1005) 16,808. It has a Roman Catholic church, an Evangelical one, a synagogue and several schools. Its principal industries are spinning, weaving, tanning and dyeing. Odenkirchen became a town in 1856.
See Wicdemann, Gcschichte der ehemaligcn HerrscJiaft und, des llauscs Odenkircken (Odenkirchen, 1879).
ODENSE, a city of Denmark, the chief town of the ami (county) of its name, which forms the northern part of the island of Fiinen (Fyen). Pop. (190:) 40,138. The city lies 4 m. from Odcnse Fjord on the Odcnsc Aa, the main portion on the north side of the stream, and the industrial Alb.mi quarter on the south side. It has a station on the railway route between Copenhagen and Jutland and Schlcswig-Holstein via Korsdr. A canal, 15} to 21 ft. deep, gives access to the town from the fjord. St Canute's cathedral, formerly connected with the great Benedictine monastery of the same name, is one of the largest and finest buildings of its kind in Denmark. It is constructed of brick in a pure Gothic style. Originally dating from 1081-1093, it was rebuilt in the ijth century. Under the altar lies Canute (Knud), the patron saint of Denmark, who intended to dispute with William of Normandy the possession of England, but was slain in an insurrection at Odcnsc in 1086; Kings John and Christian II. are also buried within the walls. Our Lady's church, built in the I3th century and restored in 1851-1852 and again in 1864, contains a carved altarpiece (i6th century) by Claus Berg of Lubcck. Odcnsc Casllc was erected by Frederick IV., who died there in 1730. In Albani arc tanneries, iron-foundries and machine-shops. Exports, mostly agricultural produce (butter, bacon, .eggs); imports, iron, petroleum, coal, yarn and timber.
Odcnsc, or Odinscy, originally Odinsoc, i.e. Odin's island, is one of the oldest cities of Denmark. St Canute's shrine was a great resort of pilgrims throughout the middle ages. In the i6th century the town was the meeting-place of several parliaments, and down to 1805 it was the scat of the provincial assembly of Fiinen.
ODENWALD, a wooded mountainous region of Germany, almost entirely in the grand duchy of Hesse, with small portions in Bavaria and Baden. It stretches between the Neckar and the Main, and is some 50 m. long by 20 to 30 broad. Its highest points arc the Katzenbuckcl (2057 ft.), the Neunkircher HShe (1985 ft.) and the Krahbcrg (1965 ft.). The wooded heights overlooking the Bergstrasse arc studded with castles and medieval ruins, some of which arc associated with some of the most memorable adventures of German tradition. Among them are
Rodenslein, the reputed home of the wild huntsman, and near GrascIIcnbacb, the spot where Siegfried of the Nibelungcnlied is said to have been slain.
See F. Montanus, Der Odtttwald (Mainz, 1884); T. Lorcntzen, Der Odermald in Wort und Bild (Stuttgart, 1904); G. Volk, Der Odea-Mild und seine NachbartebieU (Stuttgart, 1900), and Windhaus, Fuhrer durck den Odenaald (Darmstadt, 1903).
ODER (Lat. Viadua; Slavonic, Vjodr), a river of Germany, rises in Austria on the Odcrgebirgc in the Moravian tableland at a height of 1950 ft. above the sea, and 14 m. to the east of Olmiitz. From its source to its mouth in the Baltic it has a total length of 560 m., of which 480 m. are navigable for barges, and it drains an area of 43.300 sq. m. The first 45 m. of its course lie within Moravia; for the next 15 m. it forms' the frontier between Prussian and Austrian Silesia, while the remaining 500 m. belong to Prussia, where it traverses the provinces of Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania. It flows at first towards the south-cast, but on quilting Austria turns towards the north-west, maintaining this direction as far as Frankfort -onOder, beyond which its general course is nearly due north. As far as the frontier the Oder flows through a well-defined valley, but, after passing through the gap between the Moravian mountains, and the Carpathians and entering the Silesian plain, its valley is wide and shallow and its banks generally low. In its lower course it is divided into numerous branches, forming many islands. The main channel follows the left side of the valley and finally expands into the Pommersches, or Stettiner Had, which is connected with the sea by three arms, the Pecne, the Swine and the Dicvenow, forming the islands of Uscdom and Wollin. The Swine, in the middle, is the main channel for navigation. The chief tributaries of the Oder on the left bank arc the Oppa, Glatzcr Neisse, Katzbach, Bober and Lausitzcr Neisse; on the right bank the Malapane, Bartsch and Warthc. Of these the only one of importance for navigation is the Warthc, which through the Netze is brought into communication with the Vistula. The Oder is also connected by canals with the Havel and the Spree. The most importanttowns on its banks arc Ratibor, Oppcln, Bricg, Breslau, Glogau, Frankfort, ru>iiin and Stettin, with the seaport of Swincmtinde at its mouth. Glogau, Ctistrin and Swinemunde are. strongly fortified.
The earliest important undertaking with a view of improving the waterway was due to the initiative of Frederick the Great, who recommended the diversion of the river into a new and straight channel in the swampy tract of land known as the Odcrbruch, near Custrin. The work was carried out in the years 1746-1753, a large tract of marshland being brought under cultivation, a considerable detour cut off, and the main stream successfully confined to the canal, 12 m. in length, which is known as the New Oder. The river at present begins to be navigable for barges at Ratibor, where it is about ico ft. wide, and for larger vessels at Breslau, and great exertions arc made by the government to deepen and keep open the channel, which still shows a strong tendency to choke itself with sand in certain places. The alterations made of late years consist of three systems of works:—(i) The canalization of the main stream (4 m.) at Breslau, and from the confluence of the Glatzcr Neisse to the mouth of the Klodnitz canal, a distance of over 50 m. These engineering works were completed in 1896. (2) In 1887-1891 the Oder-Spree canal was made to connect the two rivers named. The canal leaves the Oder at Furstenbcrg (132 m. above its mouth) at an altitude of 93 ft., and after 15 m. enters the Fricdrich-WUhetm canal (134 ft.). After coinciding with this for 7 m., it makes another cut of 5 m. to the Spree at Furstenwalde (126 ft.). Then it follows the Spree for 12 m., and at Gross Tunkr (in ft.) passes out and goes to Lake Scddin (106 ft.), 15 m. (3) The deepening and regulation of the mouth and lower course of the stream, consisting of the Kaiscrfahrt, 3 m. long, affording a waterway between ihc Stettiner Haff and the river Swine for the largest ocean-going vessels; a new cut, 4j m. long, from Vietzig on the Stettiner Haff to Wollin Island; the Parnitz-Dunzig and Dunzig-Odcr canals, together i m. long, (instituting the immediate approach to Stettin. Vessels drawing 24 ft- are now able to go right up to Stettin. In 1005 a project was sanctioned for improving the communication between Berlin and Stettin by widening and deepening the lower course of tJie river and then connecting this by a canal with Berlin. Another project, born at the same time, is one for the canalization of the upper course of the Oder. About 4,000,000 tons of merchandize pass through Breslau (up and down) on the Oder in the year.
See Drr Oderstram, sein Stromgebitt und seine wickligsten Nebenfiiie; kyfcotTHphiKki. mssemrtidiaj/luk? tind wuumchtlichl DiusltUuxg (Berlin. 1896).
ODERBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the AJte Oder, 2 m. from Bralilz, a station 44 m. N.W. from Frankfort-on-Odcr, by the railway to AngerDunde. Pop. (1005)4.015. IthasafmcGothicchurch, dedicated to St Nicholas, and the ruins of an ancient castle, called Barenkistcn. Oderberg is an important emporium for the Russian limber trade.
ODESCALCHI-ERBA, the Dame of a Roman princely family of great antiquity. They are supposed to be descended from Enrico Erba, imperial vicar in Milan in 1165. Alcssandro Erba married Lucrezia Odescalchi sister ot Pope Innocent IX., in i;oo, who is believed to have been descended from Giorgio Odescalchi (jloruilzl Comoin 1200). The tide of prince of the Holy Roman Empire was conferred on Alessandro in 1714, and that of duke of Syrmium in Hungary in 1714, with the qualification of "serene highness." The head of the family aow bears the titles of Fiirst Odescalchi, duke of Syrmium, prince of Bassano, &c., and he is an hereditary magnate of Hungary and a grandee of Spain; the family, which is one of the most important in Italy, owns the Palazzo Odescalchi in Rome, the magnificent castle of Bracciano, besides large estates in Italy and Hungary.
See A. von Reunion!, GcschichU dcr Sladt Rum (Berlin, 1868), and the Almanack (tc Go/to.
ODESSA, one of the most important seaports of Russia, ranking by its population and foreign trade after St Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw. It is situated in 46° 28' N. and 30° 44' E., on the southern shore of a semi-circular bay, at the norl h-wcsl angle of the Black Sea, and is by rail 101 7 m. S.S.W. from Moscow and 610 S. from Kiev. Odessa is the seaport for the basins of two great rivers of Russia, the Dnieper, with its tributary the Bug, and the Dniester (20 m. to S ). The entrances to the raotilhs of both these offering many difficulties for navigation, trade has from the remotest antiquity selected this spot, which k situated half-way between the two estuaries, while the level tarface of the neighbouring steppe allows easy communication with the lower parts of both rivers. The bay of Odessa, which has an area of 14 sq. m. and a depth of 30 ft. with a soft bottom, is a dangerous anchorage on account of its exposure to easterly weds. But inside it are six harbours — the quarantine harbour, Dcw harbour, coal harbour and "practical" harbour, the Erst and last, on the S. and N. respectively, protected by moles, and the two middle harbours by a breakwater. Besides these, Ibere are the harbour of the principal shipping company — the Russian 'Company for Navigation and Commerce, and the petroleum harbour. The harbours freeze for a few days in winter, i* also does the bay occasionally, navigation being interrupted evecy year for an average of sixteen days; though this is catcrially shortened by the use of an ice-breaker. Odessa experiences the influence of the continental climate of the neighbouring steppes; its winters arc cold (the average temperatare for January being 23-2° F., and the isotherm for the entire season that of Konigsbcrg), its summers are hot (72-8° in July), »nd ihc yearly average temperature is 48'5°. The rainfall is tcanly (14 in. per annum). The city is built on a terrace 100 to 155 ft. in height, which descends by steep crags to the sea, and on the other side is continuous with the level of the " black earth" suppe. Catacombs, whence sandstone for building lus been liken, extend underneath the town and suburbs, not without some danger to the buildings.
The general aspect of Odessa is that of a wealthy westEuropean city. Its chief embankment, the Nikolai boulevard, bordered with tall and handsome houses, forms a fine promenade. The central square is adorned with a statue of Armand, due de Richelieu (1826), who was governor of Odessa in 1803-1814. A little back from the sea stands a fine bronze statue of Catherine II. (1900). A magnificent flight of nearly 200 granite steps leads from the Richelieu monument down to the harbours. The central parts of the city have broad streets and squares, bordered with fine buildings and mansions in the Italian style, and with good shops. The cathedral, founded in 1794 and finished in 1809, and thoroughly restored in 1903, can accommodate 5000 persons; it contains the tomb of Count Michael Vorontsov, governor-general from 1823 to 1854, who contributed much towards the development and embellishment of the city. The "Palais Royal," with its parterre and fountains, and the spacious public park are fine pleasure-grounds, whilst in the ravines that lead down to the sea cluster the houses of the poorer classes. The shore is occupied by immense granaries, some of which look like palaces, and large storehouses take up a broad space in the west of the city. Odessa consists (i.) of the city proper, containing the old fort (now a quarantine establishment) and surrounded by a boulevard, where was formerly a wall marking the limits of the free port; (ii.) of the suburbs Novaya and Percsyp, extending northward along the lower shore of the bay; and (iii.) of Moldavanka to the south-west. The city, being in a treeless region, is proud of the avenues of trees that line several of its streets and of its parks, especially of the Alexander Park, with a statue of Alexander II. (1891), and of the summer resorts of Fontaine, Arcadia and Langcron along the bay. Odessa is rising in repute as a summer sea-bathing resort, and its mud-baths (from the mud of the limans or lagoons) arc considered to be efficacious in cases of rheumatism, gout, nervous affections and skin diseases. The German colonies Liebcnlhal and Lustdorf are bathing-places.
Odessa is the real capital, intellectual and commercial, of so-called Novorossia, or New Russia, which includes the governments of Bessarabia and Kherson. It is the see of an archbishop of the Orthodox Greek Church, and the headquarters of the VIII. army corps, and constitutes an independent "municipal district " or captaincy, which covers 195 sq. m. and includes a dozen villages, some of which have 2000 to 3000 inhabitants each. It is also the chief town of the Novorossian (New Russian) educational district, and has a university, which replaced the Richelieu Lyceum in 1865, and now has over 1700 students.
In 1795 the town had only 2250 inhabitants; in 1814, twenty years after its foundation, it had 25,000. The population has steadily increased from 100,000 in 1850, 185,000 in 1873, 225,000 in 1884, to 449,673 in 1900. The great majority of inhabitants are Great Russians and Little Russians; but there arc also large numbers of Jews (133.000, exclusive of Karaites), as well as of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nationalities the chief merchants belong), as also of Rumanians, Servians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Armenians, Lazes, Georgians. A numerous floating population of labourers, attracted at certain periods by pressing work in the port, and afterwards left unemployed owing to the enormous fluctuations in the corn trade, is one of the features of Odessa. It is estimated [hat there arc no less than 35,000 people living from hand to mouth in the utmost misery, partly in the extensive catacombs beneath the city.
The leading occupations are connected with exporting, shipping and manufactures. The industrial development has been rather slow: sugar-refineries, tea-packing, oil-mills, tanneries, steam flour-mills, iron and mechanical works, factories of jute sacks, chemical works, tin-plate works, paper-factories are the chief. Commercially the city is the chief seaport of Russia for exports, which in favourable years are twice as high as those of St Petersburg, while as regards the value of the imports Odessa is second only to the northern capital. The total returns amount to 16 to 20 millions sterling a year, rcpre* senting about one-ninth of the entire Russian foreign trade, and 14% if the coast trade be included as well. The total exports are valued at 10 to u millions sterling annually, and the imports at 6 to 9 millions sterling, about 8J% of all the imports into Russia. Grain, and especially wheat, is the chief article of export. The chief imports are raw cotton, iron, agricultural machinery, coal, chemicals, jute, copra and lead. A new and spacious harbour, especially for the petroleum trade, was constructed in 1894-1900.
• History.—The bay of Odessa was colonized by Greeks at a very early period, and their ports—Islriattorum Portus and Isiacorum Portus on the shores of the bay, and Odessus at the mouth of the Tiligul liman—carried on a lively trade with the neighbouring steppes. These towns disappeared in the 3rd and 4th centuries, and for ten centuries no settlements in these tracts are mentioned. In the I4th century this region belonged to the Lithuanians, and in 1396 Olgerd, prince of Lithuania, defeated in battle three Tatar chiefs, one of whom, Khaji Beg or Bey, had recently founded, at the place now occupied by Odessa, a fort which received his name. The Lithuanians, and subsequently the Poles, kept the country under their dominion until the i6th century, when it was seized by the Tatars, who still permitted, however, the Lithuanians to gather salt in the neighbouring lakes. Later on the Turks left a garrison here, and founded in 1764 the fortress Yani-dunya. In 1789 the Russians, under the French captain de Ribas, took the fortress by assault. In i;<n Khaji-bcy and the Ochakov region were ceded to Russia. De Ribas and the French engineer Voland were entrusted in 1794 with the erection of a town and the construction of a port at Khaji-bcy. In 1803 Odessa became the chief town of a separate municipal district or captaincy, the first captain being Armand, due de Richelieu, who did very much for the development of the young city and its improvement as a seaport. In 1824 Odessa became the seat of the governors-general of Novorossia and Bessarabia. In 1866 it was brought into railway connexion with Kiev and Kharkov via Balta, and with Jassy in Rumania. In 1854 it was unsuccessfully attacked by the Anglo-Russian fleet, and in 1876-1877 by the Turkish, also unsuccessfully. In 10051906 the city was the scene of violent revolutionary disorders, marked by a naval insurrection. (P- A. K.; J. T. Be.)
ODEUM (Gr. Odcion), the name given to a concert hall in ancient Greece. In a general way its construction was similar to that of a theatre, but it was only a quarter of the size and was provided with a roof for acoustic purposes, a characteristic difference. The oldest known Odeum in Greece was the Skias at Sparta, so called from its resemblance to the top of a parasol, said to have been erected by Theodorus of Samos (600 B.C.); in Athens an Odeum near the spring Enncacrunus on the. Ilissus was referred to the age of Peisistratus, and appears to have been rebuilt or restored by Lycurgus (c. 330 B.c.). This is probably the building which, according to Aristophanes (Wasps, 1109), was used for judicial purposes, for the distribution of corn, and even for the billeting of soldiers. The building which served as a model for later similar constructions was the Odeum of Pericles (completed c. 445) on the south-eastern slope of the rock of the Acropolis, whose conical roof, a supposed imitation of thetent of Xerxes, was made of the masts of captured Persian ships. It was destroyed by Aristion, the so-called tyrant of Athens, at the time of the rising against Sulla (87), and rebuilt by Ariobsrzancs II., king of Cappadocia (Appian, Miihrid. 38). The most magnificent example of its kind, however, was the Odeum built on the south-west cliff of the Acropolis at Athens about A.d. 160 by the wealthy sophist and rhetorician Herodes Atticus in memory of his wife, considerable remains of which are still to be seen. It had accommodation for 8000 persons, and the ceiling was constructed of beautifully carved beams of cedar wood, probably with an open space in the centre to admit the light. It was also profusely decorated with pictures and other works of art. Similar buildings also existed in other parts of Greece; at Corinth, also the gift of Herodes Atticus; at Patrac, where there was a famous statue of Apollo; at Smyrna, Tralles, and other towns in Asia Minor. The first Odeum in Rome was built by Domitian, a second by Trajan.
ODILIENBERG, or OrmiENBEKG (called AUitma in the 8th century), a peak of the Vosges Mountains in Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, immediately W. of the town of Barr. Its crest (2500 ft.) is surmounted by the ruins of the ancient Roman wall, the Hcidcnmauer, and by the convent and church of St Odilia, or Ottilia, the patron saint of Alsace, whose remains rest within. It is thus the object of frequent pilgrimages. The convent is said to have been founded by Duke Eticho I., in honour of his daughter St Odilia, about the end of the 7th century, and it is certain that it existed at the time of Charlemagne. Destroyed during the wars of the middle ages, it was rebuilt by the Premonstrants at the beginning of the i?th century, and was acquired later by the bishop of Strassburg, who restored the building and the adjoining church, in 1853. Since 1899 the convent has contained a museum of antiquities.
Sec Reinhard. Le Mont Sit Odik (Strassburg, 1888); Pfister, Le Duche mfrorintten d'AIsace et la Ugtnde de Sainte Odile (Nancy, 1892); and R. Forrer, Der Odilicnbrrg (Strassburg, 1899).
ODIN, or Othin (0. Norse fainn), the chief god of the Northern pantheon. He is represented as an old man with one eye. Frigg is his wife, and several of the gods, including Thor and Balder, are his sons. He is also said to have been the father of several legendary kings, and more than one princely family claimed descent from him. His exploits and adventures form the theme of a number of the Eddaic poems, and also of several stories in the prose Edda. In all these stories his character U distinguished rather by wisdom and cunning than by martial prowess, and reference is very frequently made to his skill in poetry and magic. In Yiiglinga Saga he is represented as reigning in Sweden, where he established laws for his people. In notices relating to religious observances Odin appears chiefly as the giver of victory or as the god of the dead. He is frequently introduced in legendary sagas, generally in disguise, imparting secret instructions to his favourites or presenting them with weapons by which victory is assured. In return he .receives the souls of the slain who in his palace, Valhalla (j.t>.), live a life of fighting and feasting, similar to that which has been their desire on earth. Human sacrifices were very frequently offered to Odin, especially prisoners taken in battle. The commonest method of sacrifice was by hanging the victim on a tree; and in the poem I/.<,:•„••'• the god himself is represented as sacrificed in this way. The worship of Odin seems to have prevailed chiefly, if not solely, in military circles, i.e. among princely families and the retinues of warriors attached to them. It is probable, however, that the worship of Odin was once common to most of the Teutonic peoples. To the Anglo-Saxons he was known as Woden (;.;.) and to the Germans as Wodan (Wuotan), which are the regular forms of the same name in those languages. It is largely owing to the peculiar character of this god and the prominent position which he occupies that the mythology of the north presents so striking a contrast to that of Greece.
See Teutonic Peoples, ad fin.; and Woden. (H. M. C.) -.
ODO, or Eudes (d. c. 736), king, or duke, of Aquitaine, obtained this dignity about 715, and his territory included the southwestern part of Gaul from the Loire to the Pyrenees. In 718 he appears as the ally of Chilperic II., king of Ncustria, who was fighting against the Austrasian mayor of the palace, Charles Martcl; but after the defeat of Chilperic at Soissons in 719 he probably made peace with Charles by surrendering to him the Ncustrian king and his treasures. Odo was also obliged to fight the Sjaracens who invaded the southern part of his kingdom, and inflicted a severe defeat upon them at Toulouse in 721. When, however, he was again attacked by Charles Martel, the Saracens renewed their ravages, and Odo was defeated neat Bordeaux; he was compelled to crave protection from Charles, who took up this struggle and gained his momentous victory at Poitiers in 732. In 735 the king abdicated, and was succeeded by his son Hunold.
ODO, or Eudes (d. 898), king of the Franks, was a son of Robert the Strong, count of Anjou (d. 866), and is sometimes referred to as duke of France and also as count of Paris. For his skill awl bravery in resisting the attacks of the Normans Odo was chosen king by the western Franks when the emperor Qui-les the Fat was deposed in 887, and was crowned at Compiegne in February 888. He continued to battle against the Normans, whom be defeated at Montfaucon and elsewhere, but was soon involved in a struggle with some powerful nobles, who supported the claim oi Charles, afterwards King Charles III., to the Frankish kingdom. To gain prestige and support Odo owned himself a vassal of the German king, Arnulf, but in 804 Arnulf declared for Charles. Eventually, after a struggle which lasted for three years, Odo was compelled to come to terms with his rival, and to surrender to him a district north of the Seine. He died at La Fere on the ist of January 808.
See E. Lavisse, Histoire de France, tome ii. (Paris, 1903); and E. Favre. F.-jdts, comic dc Paris et roi de France (Paris, 1893).
ODO1 OP BAYEUX (r. 1036-1007), Norman bishop and English earl, was a uterine brother of William the Conqueror, from whom be received, while still a youth, the see of Baycux (1040). But his active career was that of a warrior and statesman. He found ships for the invasion of England and fought m person at Scnlac; in 1067 he became earl of Kent, and for tome years be was a trusted royal minister. At times he acted as viceroy in William's absence; at times he led the royal forces to chastise rebellions. But in 1083 be was suddenly disgraced and imprisoned for having planned a military expedition to Italy. He was accused of desiring to make himself pope; more probably he thought of serving as a papal condottiere against the emperor Henry IV. The Conqueror, when on his death-bed, reluctantly permitted Odo's release (1087). The bishop returned to his earldom and soon organized a rebellion with the object of handing over England to his eldest nephew, Duke Robert. William Rufus, to the disgust of his supporters, permitted Odo to leave the kingdom after the collapse of this design (1088), and thenceforward Odo was the right-hand man of Robert in Normandy. He took part in the agitation for the First Crusade, and started in the duke's company for Palestine, but died on the way, at Palermo (February 1097). Little good is recorded of Odo. His vast wealth was gained by extortion and robbery. His ambitions were boundless and his morals lax. But he was a patron of learning and, like most prelates of his age, a great architect. He rebuilt the cathedral of his see, and may perhaps have commissioned the unknown artist of the celebrated Baycux tapestry.
See the authorities cited for William I. and Wiluam II., the biographical sketch in Gallia Christiana, xi. 353-36O; H. Wharton Anilv. Sacra, i. 334-339 (1691); and F. R. Fowfce, Trie Bayeia Ttfcary (London, 1898). (H. W. C. D.)
ODOACER, or Odovacar (e. 434-493), the first barbarian ruler of Italy on the downfall of the Western empire, was born m the district bordering on the middle Danube about the year 434. In this district the once rich and fertile provinces of Noricum and Pannonia were being torn piecemeal from the Bcman empire by a crowd of German tribes, among whom we discern four, who seem to have hovered over the Danube from Fassau to Pest, namely, the Rugii, Scyrri, Turcilingi and Heruli. With all of these Odoaccr was connected by his subsequent career, and all seem, more or less, to have claimed him as belonging to them by birth; the evidence slightly preponderates in favour of his descent from the Scyrri.
His father was Aedico or Idico, a name which suggests Edeco the Hun, who was suborned by the Byzantine court to plot the assassination of his master Attila. There are, however,
1 Odo must be distinguished from two English prelates of the •ame name and also from an English carl. Odo or Oda (d. 959), archbishop of Canterbury, was bishop of Ramsbury from 927 to 942, and went with King ^Cthclstan to the battle of Brunanburh in 937. In 942 he succeeded Wulfhclm as archbishop of Canterbury, and he appears to have been an able and conscientious ruler of the ice. He had great influence with King Edwy, whom he had crowned in 956. Odo (d. 1200), abbot of Battle, was a monk of Christ Church. Canterbury, and was prior of this house at the time when Thomas Becfcrt was murdered. In 1175 he was chosen abbot of Battle, and on two occasions the efforts of Henry II. alone prevented him from brutff elected archbishop of Canterbury. Odo or Odda (d. 1056), a relative of Edward the Confessor, during whose reign he was an earl in ine west of England, built the minster at Deerhunt in Gloucestershire.
some strong arguments against this identification. A certain Edica, chief of the Scyrri, of whom Jordanes speaks as defeated by the Ostrogoths, may more probably have been the father of Odoaccr, though even in this theory there arc some difficulties, chiefly connected with the low estate in which he appears before us in the next scene of his life, when as a tall young recruit for the Roman armies, dressed in a .sordid vesture of skins, on his way to Italy, he enters the cell of Sevcrinus, a noted hermit-saint of Noricum, to ask his blessing. The saint had an inward premonition of his future greatness, and in blessing him said, "Fare onward into Italy. Thou who art now clothed in vile raiment wilt soon give precious gifts unto many."
Odoacer was probably about thirty years of age when he thus left his country and entered the imperial service. By the year 472 he had risen to some eminence, since it is expressly recorded that he sided with the patrician Ricimer in his quarrel with the emperor Anthemius. In the year 475, by one of the endless revolutions which marked the close of the Western empire, the emperor Nepos was driven into exile, and the successful rebel Orestes was enabled to array in the purple his son, a handsome boy of fourteen or fifteen, who was named Romulus after his grandfather, and nicknamed Augustulus, from his inability to play the part of the great Augustus. Before this puppet emperor had been a year on the throne the barbarian mercenaries, who were chiefly drawn from the Danubian tribes before mentioned, rose in mutiny, demanding to be made proprietors of one-third of the soil of Italy. To this request Orestes returned a peremptory negative. Odoacer now offered his fellow-soldiers to obtain for them all that they desired if they would seat him on the throne. On the 23rd of August 476 he was proclaimed king; five days later Orestes was made prisoner at Placentia and beheaded; and on the 4th of September his brother Paulus was defeated and slain near Ravenna. Rome at once accepted the new ruler. Augustulus was compelled to descend from the throne, but his life was spared.
Odoacer was forty-two years of age when he thus became chief ruler of Italy, and he reigned thirteen years with undisputed sway. Our information as to this period is very slender, but we can perceive that the administration was conducted as much as possible on the lines of the old imperial government. The settlement of, the barbarian soldiers on the lands of Italy probably affected the great landowners rather than the labouring class. To the herd of coloni and Jerri, by whom in their various degrees the land was actually cultivated, it probably made little difference, except as a matter of sentiment, whether the master whom they served called himself Roman or Rugian. We have one most interesting example, though in a small way, of such a transfer of land with its appurtenant slaves and cattle, in the donation made by Odoacer himself to his faithful follower Pierius.* Few things bring more vividly before the reader the continuity of legal and social life in the midst of the tremendous ethnical changes of the 5th century than the perusal of such a record.
The same fact, from a slightly different point of view, is illustrated by the curious history (recorded by Malchus) of the embassies to Constantinople. The dethroned emperor Nepos sent ambassadors (in 477 or 478) to Zeno, emperor of the East, begging his aid in the reconquest of Italy. These ambassadors met a deputation from the Roman senate, sent nominally by the command of Augustulus, really no doubt by that of Odoaccr, the purport of whose commission was that they did not need a separate emperor. One was sufficient to defend the borders of either realm. The senate had chosen Odoacer, whose knowledge of military affairs and whose statesmanship admirably fitted him for preserving order in that part of the world, and they therefore prayed Zeno to confer upon him the dignity of patrician, and entrust the " diocese " of Italy to his care. Zeno returned a harsh answer to the senate, requiring them to return to their allegiance to Nepos. In fact, however, he did nothing for the fallen emperor, but accepted the new order of things, and even addressed Odoacer as patrician. On the other hand, the latter
'Published in Marini'a Papiri diplomatic! (Rome, 1815. Nos. 82 and 83) and in Spangenbere's Juris Romani Tabula* (Leipzig. 1822. pp. 164-173}, and well worthy of careful study.
sent the ornaments of empire, the diadem and purple robe, to Constantinople as an acknowledgment of the fact thai he did not claim supreme power. Our information as to the actual title assumed by the new ruler is somewhat confused. He docs not appear to have called himself king of Italy. His kingship seems to have marked only his relation to his Teutonic followers, among whom he was " king of the Turcilingi," " king of the Heruli," and so forth, according to the nationality with which he was dealing. By the Roman inhabitants of Italy he was addressed as " dominus nosier," but his right to exercise power would in their eyes rest, in theory, on his recognition as patricius by the Byzantine Augustus. At the same time he marked his own high pretensions by assuming the prefix Flavius, a reminiscence of the early emperors, to which the barbarian rulers of realms formed out of the Roman state seem to have been peculiarly partial. His internal administration was probably, upon the whole, wise and moderate, though we hear some complaints of financial oppression, and he may be looked upon as a not altogether unworthy predecessor of Thcodoric.
In the history of the papacy Odoaccr figures as the author of a decree promulgated at the election of Felix II. in 483, forbidding the pope to alienate any of the lands or ornaments of the Roman Church, and threatening any pope who should infringe this edict with anathema. This decree was loudly condemned in a synod held by Pope Symmachus (502) as an unwarrantable interference of the civil power with the concerns of the church.
The chief events in the foreign policy of Odoacer were his Dalmatian and Rugian wars. In the year 480 the ex-emperor Ncpos, who ruled Dalmatia, was traitorously assassinated in Diocletian's palace at Spalato by the counts Viator and Ovida. In the following year Odoaccr invaded Dalmatia, slew the murderer Ovida, and reannexed Dalmatia to the Western stale. In 487 he appeared as an invader in his own native Danubian lands. War broke out between him and Feletheus, king of the Rugians. Odoacer entered the Rugian territory, defeated Feletheus, and carried him and" his noxious wife "Gisa prisoners to Ravenna. In the following year Frederick, son of the captive king, endeavoured to raise again the fallen fortunes of his house, but was defeated by Onulf, brother of Odoacer, and, being forced to flee, took refuge at the court of Theodoric the Ostrogoth, at Sistova on the lower Danube.
This Rugian war was probably an indirect cause of the fall of Odoacer. His increasing power rendered him too formidable to the Byzantine court, with whom his relations had for some time been growing less friendly. At the same time, Zeno was embarrassed by the formidable neighbourhood of Theodoric and his Ostrogothic warriors, who were almost equally burdensome as enemies or as allies. In these circumstances arose the plan of Thcodoric's invasion of Italy, a plan by whom originated it would be difficult to say. Whether the land when conquered was to be held by the Ostrogoth in full sovereignty, or administered by him as lieutenant of Zeno, is a point upon which our information is ambiguous, and which was perhaps intentionally left vague by the two contracting parties, whose chief anxiety was not to see one another's faces again. The details of the Ostrogothic invasion of Italy belong properly to the life of Thcodoric. It is sufficient to state here that he entered Italy in August 489, defeated Odoaccr at the Isontius (Isonzo) on the zSlh of August, and at Verona on the 301 h of September. Odoacer then shut himself up in Ravenna, and there maintained himself for four years, with one brief gleam of success, during which be emerged from his hiding-place and fought the battle of the Addua (nth August 400), in which he was again defeated. A sally from Ravenna (loth July 491) was again the occasion of a murderous defeat. At length, the famine in Ravenna having become almost intolerable, and the Goths despairing of ever taking the city by assault, negotiations were opened for a compromise (zsth February 403). John, archbishop of Ravenna, acted as mediator. It was stipulated that Ravenna should be surrendered, that Odoacer's life should be spared, and that he and Theodoric should be recognized as joint rulers of the Roman state. The arrangement was evidently a precarious one, and
was soon terminated by the treachery of Theodoric. He invited his rival to a banquet in the palace of the Laurelum on the i sth of March, and there slew him with his own hand. "Where is God? " cried Odoacer when he perceived the ambush into which he had fallen. "Thus didst thou deal with my kinsmen," shouted Theodoric, and clove his rival with the broadsword from shoulder to flank. Onulf, the brother of the murdered king, was shot down while attempting to escape through the palace garden, and Thelan, his son, was not long after put to death by order of the conqueror. Thus perished the whole race of Odoacer. Literature.—The chief authorities for the life of Odoaccr arc the so-called "Anonymus Valcsii." generally printed at the end of Ammianus Marccllinus; the Lift of Scvcrinut, by Eugippius; the chroniclers, Cassiodorus and "Cuspiniani Anonymus' (both in Roncalli's collection); and the Byzantine historians, Malchus and John of Antioch. A frjgment of the latter historian, unknown when Gibbon wrote, is to be found in the fifth volume of Miillcr's Fragmenla Hisloricorum Craecorum. There is a thorough investigation of the history of Odoacer in R. Pallmann's Gcschichte der Volkerwanderung, vol. ii. (Weimar, 1864). See also T. Hodgkin, Italy and her Invaders, vol. iii. (Oxford, 1885). (T. H.)
ODOFREDUS, an Italian jurist of the i3th century. He was born at Bologna and studied law under Balduinus and Accursius. After having practised as an advocate both in Italy and France, he became professor at Bologna in 1228. The commentaries on Roman law attributed to him are valuable as showing the growth of the study of law in Italy, and for their biographical details of the jurists of the i2lh and ijth centuries. Odofredus died at Bologna on the 3rd of December 1265.
Over his name appeared Lecturae in cadictm (Lyons, 1480) Lecturae in digestum vctus (Paris, 1504), Summa de libeltis formandis (Strassburg, 1510), Ltcturae in tres libros (Venice, 1514), and Lecturae in digeslum novum (Lyons, 1552).
O'DONNELL. the name of an ancient and powerful Irish family, lords of Tyrconncl in early limes, and the chief rivals of the O'Neills in Ulster. Like the family of O'Neill (q.v.), that of O'Donncll was descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages, king of Ireland at the beginning of the 5th century; the O'Neills, or Cincl1 Owen, tracing their pedigree to Owen (Eoghan).and the O'Donnells, or Cinel Connell, to Conall Gulban, both sons of Niall. Tyrconnel, the district named after the Cinel Connell, where the O'Donnells held sway, comprised the greater part of the modern county of Donegal except the peninsula of Inishowen; and since it lay conterminous with the territory ruled by the O'Neills of Tyrone, who were continually attempting to assert their supremacy over it, the history of the O'Donnells is for the most part a record of tribal warfare with their powerful neighbours, and of their own efforts to make good their claims to the overlordship of northern Connaught.
The first chieftain of mark in the family was Goffraidh (Godfrey), son of Donnell Mor O'Donncll (d, 1241). Goffraidh, who was " inaugurated " as " The O'Donnell," i.e. chief of the clan, in 1248, made a successful inroad into Tyrone against Brian O'Neill in 1252. In 1257 he drove the English out of northern Connaught, after a single combat with Maurice Fitzgerald in which both warriors were wounded. O'Donnell while still incapacitated by his wound was summoned by Brian O'Neill to give hostages in token of submission. Carried on a tiller at the head of his clan he gave battle to O'Neill, whom he defeated with severe loss in prisoners and cattle; but he died of his wound immediately afterwards near Lettcrkcnny, and was succeeded in the chieftainship by his brother Donnell Oge, who returned from Scotland in time to withstand successfully the demands of O'Neill.
In the i6lh cenlury, when the English began to make determined efforts to bring the whole of Ireland under subjection to the crown, the O'Donnells of Tyrconnel played a leading part; co-operating at times with the English, especially when such co-operation appeared to promise triumph over their ancient enemies the O'Neills, at other times joining with the latter against the English authorities.
1 The Cinel, or Kinel, was a group of related clans occupying an extensive district. See P. W. Joyce, A Social History of IreJana (London, 1903), i. 166.