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Orestes, freed from the guilt of blood, is enabled to take possession of the throne of his father. This is the Delphic Oresteia. But a new idea is introduced by the &ttic Orestcia. The claim that Apollo can in every case purify from sin is met by Athens with a counterclaim on behalf of the state. It is the community of which murdered and murderer were members which has the right to exact revenge and retribution, an idea which found expression in the foundation of the Areopagus. If the accused is acquitted, the state undertakes to appease the soul of the murdered person or its judicial representative, the Erinys.

Others attach chief importance to the slaying of Ncoptolcmus (Pyrrhus) by Orestes at Delphi; according to Radermacner {Da$ Jenseits im Mythos der Hcllcnen, 1903), Orcstos is an hypostasis of Apollo, Pyrrhus the principle of evil, which is overcome by the god; on the other hand, Usener (Archiv fur Religionswesen, vii., 1890, 334) takes Orestes for a god of winter and the underworld, a double ofthc Phocian Dionysus the " mountain " god (among the lonians a summer-god, but in this case corresponding to Dionysus ptXavaiytt), who subdues Pyrrhus " the light," the double of Apollo, the whole being a form of the well-known myths of the expulsion of summer by winter.^ S. Reinach (reviewing P. Mazan's L'Orcstic d'EschyU, 1902) defends the theory of Bachofen, who finds in the legend of Orestes an indication of the decay of matriarchal ideas.

Sec aiticle by Hofer in Roscher's Lfxikon dtr Afythologie; A. Olivieri, "Sul mito di Oreste nella Ictteratura classica" (with a section on modern literature) in Rivista di Filologia, xxvi. (1898), and Jebb's edition of the Electra of Sophocles.

ORFILA. MATHIEU JOSEPH BONAVENTURE (1787-1853), French lexicologist and chemist, was by birth a Spaniard, having been born at Mahon in Minorca on the 24th of April 1787. An island merchant's son, he looked naturally first to the sea for a profession; but a voyage at the age of fifteen to Sardinia, Sicily and Egypt did not prove satisfactory. He next took to medicine, which he studied at the universities of Valencia and Barcelona with such success that the local authorities of the latter city made him a grant to enable him to follow his studies at Madrid and Paris, preparatory to appointing him professor. He had scarcely settled for that purpose in Paris when the outbreak of the Spanish war, in 1807, threatened destruction to his prospects. But he had the good fortune to find a patron in the chemist L. N. Vauquelin, who claimed him as his pupil, guaranteed his conduct, and saved him from expulsion from Paris. Four years afterwards he graduated, and immediately became a private lecturer on chemistry in the French capital. In 1819 he was appointed professor of medical jurisprudence, and four years later he succeeded Vauquelin as professor of chemistry in the faculty of medicine at Paris. In 1830 he was nominated dean of that faculty, a high medical honour in France. Under the Orleans dynasty, honours were lavishly showered upon him; he became successively member of the council of education of France, member of the general council of the department of the Seine, and commander of the Legion of Honour. But by the republic of 1848 he was held in less favour, and chagrin at the treatment he experienced at the hands of the governments which succeeded that of Louis Philippe is supposed to have shortened his life. He died, after a short illness, in Paris on the i2th of March 1853.

Orfila's chief publications are Traitt des poisons, or Toxicologie gtntrale (1813); £ttments de chimie mtdicolt (1817); Lemons de mtdUine legate (1823); Trattc des exhumations juridiques (1830); and Recherche* sur I'empoisonntmfnt par I'acide arsenteux (1841). He also wrote many valuable papers,, chiefly on subjects connected with medical jurisprudence. His fame rests mainly on the firstnamed work, published when he was only in his twenty-seventh year. It is a vast mine of experimental observation on the symptoms of poisoning of all kinds, on the appearances which poisons leave in the dead body, on their physiological action, and on the means of detecting them. Few branches of science, so important on their bearings on every-day life and so difficult of investigation, can be said to have been created and raised at once to a state of high advancement by the labours of a single man.

ORFORD, EDWARD RUSSELL, Earl Of (1653-1727), British admiral, was born in 1653, the son of Edward Russell, a younger brother of the ist duke of Bedford. He was one of the first gentleman officers of the navy regularly bred to the sea. In 167,1 he was named lieutenant of the " Advice " at the age of eighteen, captain in the following year. He continued in active service against the Dutch in the North Sea in 1672-73, and in the Mediterranean in the operations against the Barbary Pirates

with Sir John Narborough and Arthur Herbert, afterwards earl of Torrington, from 1676 to 1682. In 1683 he ceased to be employed, and the reason must no doubt be looked for in the fact that all members of the Russell family had fallen into disfavour with the king, after the discovery of William, Lord Russell's connexion with the Rye House Plot. The family had a private revenge to take which sharpened their sense of the danger run by British liberties from the tyranny of King James

II. Throughout the negotiations preceding the revolution of 1688 Edward Russell appears acting on behalf and in the name of the head of this great Whig house, which did so much to bring it about, and profiled by it so enormously in purse and power. He signed the invitation which William of Orange insisted on having in writing in order to commit the chiefs of the opposition to give him open help. Edward Russell's prominence at this crisis was of itself enough to account for his importance after the Revolution. When the war began with France in 1689, he served at first under the carl of Torrington. But during 1690, when that admiral avowed his intention of retiring to the Gunfleet, and of leaving the French in command of the Channel, Russell was one of those who condemned him most fiercely. In December 1690 he succeeded Torrington, and during 1691 he cruised without meeting the French under Tourville (q.v.), who made no attempt to meet him. At this time Russell, like some of the other extreme Whigs, was discontented with the moderation of William of Orange and had entered into negotiations with the exiled court, partly out of spite, and partly to make themselves safe in ***** of a restoration. But he was always ready to fight the French, and in 1692 he defeated Tourville in the battle called La Hogue, or Barfleur. Russell had Dutch allies with him, and they were greatly superior in number, but the chief difficulty encountered was in the pursuit, which Russell conducted with great resolution. His utter inability to work with the Tories,, with whom William

III. would not quarrel altogether, made his retirement imperative for a short time. But in 1694 he was appointed to the command of the fleet which, taking advantage of the inability of the king of France to maintain a great fleet in the Channel from want oi money, followed the French into the Mediterranean, confined them to Toulon for the rest of the war, and co-operated with the Spanish armies in Catalonia. He returned in 1695, and in 1697 was created earl of Orford For the rest of his life he filled posts of easy dignity and emolument, and died on the 26th of November 1727. He married his cousin, Mary Russell; but his title became extinct on his death without issue.

See Charnock, Biog. Nov. i. 354; Campbell's Lives of tJu Admirals, ». 3'7- (D. H.)

ORFORD, ROBERT WALPOLE, Ist Earl Of (1676-1745), generally known as Sir Robert Walpole, prime minister of England from 1721 to 1742, was the third but eldest surviving son of Robert Wralpole, M.P., of Houghton in Norfolk, by Mary, only daughter and heiress of Sir Jeffcry Burwell, of Rougham, in Suffolk. The father, a jolly old squire of Whig politics who revelled in outdoor sport and the pleasures of the table, transmitted to his son the chief traits in his own character. The future statesman was born at Houghton on the 26th of August 1676, was an Eton colleger from 1690 to 1695 and was admitted at King's College, Cambridge, as scholar on the 22nd of April 1696. At this time he was destined, as a younger son, for the church, but his two elder brothers died young and he became the heir to an estate producing about £2000 a year, whereupon on the 25th of May 1698 he resigned his scholarship, and was soon afterwards withdrawn by his father from the university. la classical attainments he was excelled by Pulteney, Carterrt, and many others of his contemporaries in politics.

On his father's death in November 1700 the electors of the family borough of Castle Rising returned him (January 1701) to the House of Commons as their representative, but after two short-lived parliaments he sought the suffrages of the more important constituency of King's Lynn (July 23, 1702), and was elected as its member at every subsequent dissolution until he left the lower House. From the first his shrewdness in counsel and his zeal for the interests of the Whigs were generally recognized. In June 1705 he was appointed one of the council to Prince George of Denmark, the inactive husband of Queen Anne, and then lord high admiral of England. Complaints against the administration of the navy were then loud and frequent (Burton's Queen Anne, ii. 21-31), and the responsibilities of his new position tested his capacity for public life. His abilities justified his advancement, in succession to his lifelong rival, Henry St John, to the more important position of secretaryat-war (February 25, 1708), which brought him into immediate contact with the duke of Marlborough and the queeu. With this post he held for a short time (1710) the treasurership of the navy, and by the discharge of his official duties and by his skill in debate became admitted to the inmost councils of the ministry. He could not succeed, however, in diverting Godolphin from the great error of that statesman's career, the impeachment of Sacheverell, and when the committee was appointed in December 1709 for elaborating the articles of impeachment Walpole was nominated one of the managers for the House of Commons. On the wreck of the Whig party which ensued, Walpole shared in the general misfortune, and in spite of the flattery, followed by the threats, of Harley he took his place with his friends in opposition. His energies now shone forth with irresistible vigour; both in debate and in the pamphlet press he vindicated Godolphin from the charge that thirty-five millions of public money were not accounted for, and in revenge for his zeal his political opponents brought against him an accusation of personal corruption. On these charges, now universally acknowledged to have proceeded from party animosity, he was in January 1712 expelled from the House and committed to the Tower. His prison cell now became the rendezvous of the Whigs among the aristocracy, while the populace heard his praises commemorated in the ballads of the streets. The ignominy which the Tories had endeavoured to inflict upon him was turned into augmented reputation. In the last parliament of Queen Anne he took the leading part in defence of Sir Richard Steele against the attacks of the Tories.


After the accession of George, the Whigs for nearly half a century retained the control of English politics. Walpole obtained the lucrative if unimportant post of paymastergeneral of the forces in the administration which was formed under the nominal rule of Lord Halifax, but of which Stanhope and Townshend were the guiding spirits. A committee of secrecy was appointed to inquire into the acts of the late ministry, and especially into the Peace of Utrecht, with a view to the impeachment of Harley and St John, and to Walpole was entrusted the place of chairman. Most of his colleagues in office were members of the House of Lords, and the lead in the Commons quickly became the reward of his talents and assiduity. Halifax died on the igth of May 171 j,. and after a short interval Walpole was exalted into the conspicuous position of first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer (October u, 1715). Jealousies, however, prevailed among the Whigs, and the German favourites of the new monarch quickly showed their discontent with the heads of the ministry. Townshend was forced into resigning his secretaryship of state for the dignified eiile of viceroy of Ireland, but he never crossed the sea to Dublin, and the support which Sundcrland and Stanhope, the new advisers of the king, received from him and from Walpole was so grudging that Townshend was dismissed from the lordlieutenancy (April 9, 1717), and Walpole on the next morning withdrew from the ministry. They plunged into opposition with unflagging energy, and in resisting the measure by which it was proposed to limit the royal prerogative in the creation of peerages (March-December 1718) Walpole exerted all his powers. This display of ability brought about a partial reconciliation of the two sections of the Whigs. To Townshend was given the presidency of the council, and Walpole once again assumed the paymastership of the forces (June 1720).

On the financial crash which followed the failure of the South Sea scheme, the public voice insisted that he should assume a more prominent place in public life. At this crisis in England's fortunes Stanhope and James Craggs, the two secretaries of state, were seized by death, John Aislabic, the chancellor of

the exchequer, was committed to the Tower, and Sunderland, though acquitted of corruption, was compelled to resign the lead. Walpole, at first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer (April 1721), became with Townshend responsible for the country's government (though for some years they had to contend with the influence of Carteret), the danger arising from the panic in South Sea stock was averted by its amalgamation with Bank and East India stock, and during the rest of the reign of George I. they remained at the head of the ministry. The hopes of the Jacobites, which revived with these financial troubles, soon drooped in disappointment. Atterbury, their boldest leader, was exiled in 1723; Bolingbroke, in dismay at their feebleness, sued for pardon, and was permitted to return to his own country. The troubles which broke out in Ireland over Wood's patent for a copper coinage were allayed through the tact of Carteret, who had been banished in April 1724 as its lord-lieutenant by his triumphant rivals. The continent was still troubled with wars and rumours ol wars, but a treaty between England, Prussia and France was successfully effected at Hanover in 1725.

England was kept free from warfare, and in the general prosperity which ensued Walpole basked in the royal favour. His eldest son was raised to the peerage as Baron Walpole (June 10, 1723) and be himself became a Knight of the Bath on the 27th of May 1725, and was rewarded with the Garter in May 1726. Next year the first King George died, and Walpole's enemies fondly believed that he would be driven from office, but their expectations were doomed to disappointment. The confidence which the old king had reposed in him was renewed by his successor, and in the person of Queen Caroline, the discreet ruler of her royal spouse, the second George, the Whig minister found a faithful and lifelong friend. For three years he shared power with Townshend, but the jealous Walpole brooked no rival near the throne, and his brother-in-law withdrew from official life to Norfolk in May 1730. Before and after that event the administration was based on two principles, sound finance at home and freedom from the intrigues and wars which raged abroad. On the continent congresses and treaties were matters of annual arrangement, and if the work of the plenipotentiaries soon faded it was through their labours that England enjoyed many years of peace. Walpole's influence received a serious blow in 1733. The enormous frauds on the excise duties forced themselves on his attention, and he proposed to check smuggling and avoid fraud by levying the full tax on tobacco and wine when they were removed from the warehouses for sale. His opponents fastened on these proposals with irresistible force, and so serious an agitation stirred the country that the ministerial measure was dropped amid general rejoicing. Several of his most active antagonists were dismissed from office or deprived of their regiments, but their spirits remained unqucnched, as the incessant attacks in the Craftsman showed, and when Walpole met a new House of Commons in 1734 his supporters were far less numerous. The Gin Act of 1736, by which the tax on that drink was raised io an excessive amount, led to disorders in the suburbs of London; and the imprisonment of two notorious smugglers in the Tolbooth at Edinburgh resulted in those Portcous riots which have been rendered famous in the Heart of Midlothian. These events weakened his influence with large classes in England and Scotland, but his parliamentary supremacy remained umimpaircd, and was illustrated in 1737 by his defeat of Sir John Barnard's plan for the reduction of the interest on the national debt, and by his passing of the Playhouse Act, under which the London theatres are still regulated. That year, however, heralded his fall from power. His constant friend Queen Caroline died on the 2oth of November 1737, and the prince of Wales, long discontented with his parents and their minister, flung himself into active opposition. Many of the boroughs within the limits of the duchy of Cornwall were obedient to the .prince's will, and he quickly attracted to his cause a considerable number of adherents, of whom Pitt and the Grenvillcs were the most influential. The leading orators of England thundered against Walpole in the senate, and the press resounded with the taunts of the poet and pamphleteer, illustrious and obscure, who found abundant food for their invectives in the troubles with Spain over its exclusive pretensions to the continent of America and its claim to the right of searching English vessels. The ministei long resisted the pressure of the opposition for war, but at the close of 1739 he abandoned his efforts to stem the current, and with a divided cabinet was forced, as the king would not allow him to resign, into hostility with Spain. The Tory minority known as " the patriots " had seceded from parliament in March 1739, but at the commencement of the new session, in November 1739, they returned to i,in ir places with redoubled energies. The campaign was prosecuted with vigour, but the successes of the troops brought little strength to Walpole's declining popularity, and when parliament was dissolved in April 1741 his influence with his fellow-countrymen had faded away. His enemies were active in opposition, while some of his colleagues were lukewarm in support. In the new House of Commons political parties were almost evenly balanced* Their strength was tried immediately on the opening of parliament. After the ministry had sustained some defeats on election petitions, the voting on the return for Chippenham was accepted as a decisive test of parties, and,asWalpole-was beaten in the divisions, he resolved on resigning his places. On the 9th of February 1742 he was created earl of Orford, and two days later he ceased to be prime minister. A committee of inquiry into the conduct of his ministry for the previous ten years was ultimately granted, but its deliberations ended in nought. Although he withdrew to Houghton for a time, his influence over public affairs was unbroken and he was still consulted by the monarch. He died at Arlington Street, London, on the iSth of March 1745 and was buried at Houghton on the 2$th of March. With the permanent places, valued at £15,000 per annum, which he had secured for his family, and with his accumulations in office, he had rebuilt the mansion at great expense, and formed a gallery of pictures within its walls at a cost of £40,000, but the collection was sold by his grandson for a much larger sum in 1779 to the empress of Russia, and the estate and house of Houghton passed to Lord Cholmondeley, the third carl having married the premier's younger daughter.

Walpole was twice, married—in 1700 to Catherine, eldest daughter of John Shorter and grand-daughter of Sir John Shorter, lord mayor of London, who died in 1737, having had issue three sons and two daughters, and in March 1738 to Maria, daughter of Thomas Skerret, a lady often mentioned in the letters of Lady Mary Wortlcy Montagu. He was succeeded in his earldom and other titles by his eldest son Robert (17011751), who had been created Baron Walpole of Walpole in 1723; the 3rd earl was the lattcr's only son George (1730-1791), " the last of the English nobility who practised the ancient sport of hawking," and the 4th earl was the famous Horace Walpole (?.?.) the youngest son of the great Sir Robert. Horace Walpole died unmarried on the 2nd of March 1797, when the earldom became extinct, but the barony of Walpole of Walpole passed to his cousin, Horatio (1723-1809), who had already succeeded his father, Horatio Walpole, ist Baron Walpole of Wollerton in that barony. In 1806 he was created carl of Orford, and this title still remains in the possession of his descendants, Robert Horace Walpole (b. 1854) becoming the sth earl in 1894. When Horace Walpole died his splendid residence at Houghton and the Norfolk estates did not pass with the title, but were inherited by George James Cholmondeley, 4th carl and afterwards ist marquess of Cholmondeley.

Sir R. Walpole's life has been written by Archdeacon William Coxc (1798 and 1800, 3 vols.), A. C. Ewald (1878) and John Viscount Morley (1889). See also Walpole, a Study in Politics, by Edward Jcnks (1894); English Hist. Ka. xv. 251, 479, 665, xvi. 67.308. 439 (his foreign policy, by Basil Williams); Bdingbroke, by Walter Sichcl (1901-1902, 2 vols.); the histories, letters and reminiscence. by his son, Horace Walpole; and the other lives of the chief political personages of the period. (W. P. C.)

ORFORD, a small town, once of greater importance, in the south-eastern parliamentary division of Suffolk, England,

3i m. E. by N. of Ipswich. Pop. (1901) 087. It lies by the right bank of the river Aide, where that river flows south-westward on the inner side of the great beach which has blocked its direct outflow to the sea, and swells out seaward in the blunt promontory of Orford Ness. The church of St Bartholomew is of much interest. It retains a ruined Norman chancel of rich and unusual design, while the body of the church is Decorated. Of Orford castle the keep remains, standing high on a mound; it is partly of Caen stone and partly of flintwork, and is of Norman date.

ORGAN, in music, the name (from Gr. S/ryaiw, Lat. organmn, instrument) given to the well-known wind-instrument. The notes of the organ are produced by pipes, which are blown by air under pressure, technically called wind.

Pipes differ from one another in two principal ways—(i) in pilch, (2) in quality of tone, (i) Consider first a series of pipes producing notes of similar quality, but differing in pitch. Such a series is called a stop. Each stop of the organ is in effect a musical instrument in itself. (2) The pipes of different stops differ, musically speaking, in their quality of tone, as well as sometimes in their pitch. Physically, they differ in shape and general arrangement. The sounding of the pipes is determined by the use of keys, some of which are played by the hands, some by the feet. A complete stop possesses a pipe for every key of some one row of manuals or pedals. If one stop alone is caused to sound, the effect is that of performance on a single instrument. There are such things as incomplete stops, which do not extend over a whole row of keys; and also there are stops which have more than one pipe to each key. Every stop is provided with mechanism by means of which the wind can be cut off from its pipes, so that they cannot sound even when the keys are pressed. This mechanism is made to terminate in a handle, which is commonly spoken of as the slop. When the handle is pushed in, the stop does not sound; when the handle is pulled out, the stop sounds if the keys are pressed. An organ may contain from one to four manuals or keyboards and one set of pedals. There are exceptional instruments having five manuals, and also some having two sets of pedals. The usual compass of the manuals approximates to five octaves, from C to c"" inclusive. The compass of the pedal is two and a half octaves, from C to f. This represents the pitch in which the notes of the pedal are written; but the pedal generally possesses stops sounding one octave lower than the written note, and in some cases stops sounding two octaves below the written note. Each manual or pedal has as a rule one soundboard, on which all its pipes are placed. Underneath the soundboard is the misdchesl, by which the wind is conveyed from the bellows, through the soundboard to the pipes. The windchest contains the mechanism of valves by which the keys control the admission of wind to the soundboard. The soundboard contains the grooves which receive the wind from the valves, and the slides by which the handles of the stops control -the transmission of the wind through the soundboard to the pipes of the different stops.

The grooves of the soundboard are spaces left between wooden bars glued on to the table of the soundboard. There is usually one groove for every key. The grooves of the bass notes, which have to supply wind for large pipes, arc broader than those of the treble. The bass bars arc also thicker than those of the treble, that they may the better support the greet weight which rests on the bass portion of the soundboard. The table forms the top of the grooves. The grooves arc generally closed below witfc


Fig. I.—A portion of the Table with the open grooves seen from above

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stand. The stop-handles are pulled out, and holes are then bored straight down through the upper boards, sliders and table to admit the wind from the grooves to the pipes. When the sliders are shifted by pushing in the handles, the holes no longer correspond, and the pipes are silenced.

Pipes are divided first into flue-pipes and reed-pipes. Fluepipes arc blown by a wind mouthpiece characteristic of the organ, while in reed-pipes the wind acts on a metal tongue vibrating on a reed, and the motion of the tongue determines the speech of the pipe.

Pipes are made either of wood or of metal. Wood flue-pipes are generally of the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, metal flue-pipes of a cylindrical shape. Reed-pipes are conical or pyramidal, and widen towards the top. Some flue-pipes are made with stopped ends; these as a rule

Fig. 4,—A portion of the table as it appears from above, with the places for the sliders of the stops; the small circles show the holes for the wind.

sound a note about an octave lower than the corresponding open pipes of the same length. Such are the stopped diapason, bourdon, and stopped flute.

The general elementary theory of the resonance of a pipe is tolerably simple. The effective length of the pipe is determined by measuring from the upper lip to the open end in open pipes, aad from the upper Up to the stopper and back again in stopped

pipes, Tothisisadded an allowance for the effect of each opening, since the condition of perfect freedom from constraint does not subsist at the opening itself. The corrected length is traversed twice (backwards and forwards) by sound, in the time of one vibration of the resultant note. This describes in a rough and general manner the way in which any disturbance gives rise to the note of the pipe; but the theory

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But the resonance of the body of the pipe is generally the same as the note produced. The tongue of a reed-pipe alternately opens and closes the aperture of the reed. In this way it admits pulses of wind to the body of the pipe; these, if they recur at the proper intervals, maintain its vibration, which takes place when the note produced corresponds to the resonance of the pipe. The reed itself has its vibrating length determined by a wire which presses against it. The free end of this wire is touched with the tuning tool until a satisfactory note is produced.

The pitch of the different stops is commonly denoted by the conventional approximate length of the pipe sounded by C, the lowest key of the manual.


FlC. 6.—Mouthpieces in somewhat greater detail.

Even in incomplete stops which have no bass, the length of the pipe which C would have if the stop were extended down serves to indicate the pitch.

The conventional length of the C-pipc for stops having the normal pitch of the keys is 8 ft.; a pipe having twice this length sounds the octave below, a pipe having half that length the octave above, and soon. Thus stops which sound the octave below the normal pitch of the keys are spoken of as i6-foot stops. Even where the pipes are stoppedsothat the actual length is onlySft., they are spoken of as having " i6-ft. tone." Similarly 3 2-ft. stops sound two octaves below the normal pitch of the keys. But if these notes arc produced by stopped pipes, whose actual length is only 16 f t., they are spoken of as having "32-f t. tone." Sixteenfoot and 32-ft. slops are specially characteristic of the pedal, where the names also signify the length of the open pipe which would sound the note actually produced by the lowest C. Of stops higher than the normal pitch of the keys, the octave is denoted by 4 ft. if made with open pipes, 4-ft. tone if stopped; the twelfth is commonly spoken of as zj, the fifteenth or double octave as 2 ft. Higher-sounding stops are occasionally used, but these generally form part of "mixtures," and the footlengths of the separate ranks are not usually given.

The true or accurate lengths of the pipes vary within considerable limits. The base of the scales (dimensions) varies according to the standard of pitch, and the voicing and the complicated natural laws of pipes produce other deviations from simple relations, so that the conventional dimensions can only be regarded as a simple means of classifying the stops according to their pitch-relations. For this purpose they are essential; they are continually appealed to in discussion and description; and they are almost invariably marked on the stop-handles in all countries, so that a moderate knowledge of foreign nomenclatures, combined with the habit of seizing the meaning of the figures such as 16, 8, 4, on the stophandles, will frequently suffice as a key to the complexities of a foreign organ.

Each of the manuals, or rows of keys, of an organ constitutes a separate organ, which is more or less complete in itself. The names of the different manuals or organs are great organ, swell organ, choir organ and solo organ. The fifth manual, where it occurs, is the echo organ. The above is the usual order in point of development and frequency of occurrence, although the solo is sometimes preferred to the choir organ. The great organ is in a certain sense the principal department of the organ. It may be regarded as formed by a completely developed scries of those fundamental stops which constitute the solid basis of the tone of the instrument. If an instrument be constructed with only a single manual this necessarily assumes.in general, the characteristics of a great organ. The great organ is called" grandc orgue" in French, and first manual or " haupt-wcrk " in German.

It is proposed to describe the principal organ-stops under the beads of the manuals to which they belong. The enumeration will not be exhaustive, but will include all the usual types.

The great organ begins generally with stops of 16 ft. in targe instruments. In some cases a ^2-foot sounding stop is introduced, ._- but this cannot be said to be a proper characteristic of the "' ^ great organ. The foundation tone is of 8 ft.; the stops

*** of higher pitch serve to add brilliancy; those of 16 ft.,

which sound the octave below the normal pitch, serve to add gravity and weight to the tone. Sixteen-foot stops are commonly spoken of as " doubles." their conventional length being twice that of stops of normal pitch.

The if.s it. stops are the 16 double open diapason, and the 16 bourdon or double stopped diapason, .to which, in very large instruments, there may be added a 16 double trumpet. The double open diapason on the great organ consists usually of metal pipes, having moderate " scale, or transverse dimensions. These are of the same general character as the pipes of the ordinary open diapason, though they are made somewhat less powerful. In the better instruments of the second class as to size this stop alone would probably be regarded as representing suitably and sufficiently the class of doubles on the great organ. It gives great body to tne general tone, and appears decidedly preferable to the bourdon, which frequently takes its place.

The n> Bourdon, when used on the great organ, is made of rather small scale and light tone. It gives great body to a large great organ and affords interesting combinations with other stops, such as the 4-ft. flute. It is usea cither alone in smaller organs of the second class, or in addition to a double open in larger instruments.

The 16 double trumpet is a trumpet (large reed stop) sounding the octave below the normal pitch. It is used generally in instruments of the largest size, but is somewhat more common in Germany. It is useful in giving a massive character to ihe tone of the full great organ, which is apt to become disagreeable on account of the great development of stops of a piercing character. If, however, the double trumpet is rough in tone, it is apt to communicate to the whole a corresponding impression.

We now proceed to the 8-ft. stops (the reeds come at the end according to ordinary usage). An ordinary great organ may contain 8 stopped diapason, 8 open diapason (one or more), 8 On" gamba and 8 hohlflote. The 8 stopped diapason on the ??** great organ is usually of moderate scale, and some considerablc fulness of tone. Few stops admit of more variety and individuality in their quality of tone than the stopped diapason; but too frequently the great organ stopped diapason fails to attract attention on its merits, being regarded simply as an inconsiderable portion of the foundation tone.

If there is any one stop which in itself represents the organ as a whole it is the open diapason. The pipes of this stop are the typical metal pipes which have always been characteristic of the appearance of the organ. A single open diapason stop is capable of being used as an organ of sufficient power for many purposes, though of course without variety. The pipes of this stop are called " principal " in German, this appellation apparently corresponding to the fact that they are the true and original organ-pipes. The English appellation of diapason " has been taken to mean that these are the normal pipes which run through the whole compass. This, however, docs not appear to be the actual derivation of the term; originally it is technically applied to the organ-builder's rule, which gives the dimensions of pipes; and it appears that the application to the stop followed on this meaning.

The scales, character and voicing of the open diapason vary with fashion, and are different in different countries. We may distinguish three principal types. The old English diapasons of the days before the introduction of pedal organs into England were characterized by a rich sweet tone, and were not very powerful. They were generally voiced on a light wind, having a pressure equivalent to that of a column of water of from 2 to 2\ in. The scale was in some cases very large, as in Green's two open diapasons in the old organ at St George's, Windsor; in these the wind was light, and the tone very soft. In other cases the scale was smaller and the voicing bolder, as in Father Smith's original diapasons in St Paul's Cathedral. But on the whole the old English diapasons presented a lovely quality of tone. English travellers of those days, accustomed to these diapasons. usually found foreign organs harsh, noisy and uninteresting. And there are many still in England who, while recognizing the necessity of a firmer diapason tone in view of the introduction of the heavy pedal bass, and the corresponding strengthening of the upper departments of the organ tone, lament the disappearance of the old diapason tone. However, it is possible with care to obtain diapasons presenting the sweet characteristics of the old English tone, combined with sufficient fulness and power to form a sound general foundation. And there can be no doubt that this should be one of the chief points to be kept in view in organ design.

The German diapason was of an entirely different character from the English. The heavy bass of the pedals has been an essential characteristic of the German organ for at least two or three centuries, or, as it is said, for four. The development of the piercing stops of high pitch was equally general. Thus foundation work of comparatively great power was required to maintain the balance of (one; the ordinary German diapason was very loud, and we may

almost say coarse, in its tone when compared with the old English diapason. The German stop was voiced as a rule on from 34 to 4 in. of wind, not quite twice the pressure used in England.

The French diapason is a modern variety. It may be described as presenting rather the characteristics of a loud gamba than of a diapason. In other words the tone tends towards a certain quality which may be described as " nasal " or metallic, or as approaching to that of a string instrument of rather coarse character. Some modern English builders appear to aim at the same model, and not without success.

The tone of a diapason must be strong enough to assert itself It is the foundation of the whole organ tone. It is the voicer's business to satisfy this condition in conjunction with the requirement that the tone shall be full and of agreeable quality. . The 8 spitzfiote may be regarded as a variety of open diapason. The pipes taper slightly towards the top. and the quality is slightly stringy. This stop was much used at one time in place of a sccond^ open diapason. But it appears better that, where two open diapasons are desirable, they should both be of full diapason quality, though possibly of different strengths and dimensions. The admixture of stringy qualities of tone with the diapasons is always to be deprecated.

The 8 gamba was originally an imitation of the viola da gamba. a sort of violoncello, when made of a light quality of tone it is a pleasing stop; but its use in the great organ instead of a second open diapason is greatly to be deprecated for the reasons just stated.

The 8 hohlflotc is an open flute, usually of wood, and of small scale. If made to a moderate scale and fully voiced it possesses a full pleasant tone, which is a useful support to the foundation tone of the great organ. The 8 clarabclla differs from the hohlnbtc in being usually of rather large scale, and having the open pipes only in the treble. In old organs a separate bass was generally provided; now it is more usual to supply the stop with a stopped bass.

The 4-ft. stops of the great organ comprise the 4 principal and the 4 flute. The 4 principal is the octave of the open diapason, generally of somewhat reduced scale and light but bright quality of tone. The use of the word "principal" in connexion with this stop is purely English, and is said to be connected with tne use made of it as the standard of tuning for the whole organ. The Germans and French both designate this stop as " octave."

Of the 4 flute there are several varieties—open, stopped, wood. metal and harmonic. The harmonic flute has open metal pipes of double the conventional length, which speak their octave. This is determined partly by the voicing, partly by making a small hole about the middle of the length, which determines the motion as that of the two separate lengths between which the hole lies. Harmonic flutes have a sweet but full and powerful tone. Other flutes are generally rather light, except the waldflote, which is a powerful stop of a somewhat hooting quality.

The great organ flute is frequently used to give brilliancy to light combinations. Thus it may be used with the stopped diapason alone, or with the 16 bourdon alone, or with any of these and cither or both of the open diapasons.

The ordinary use of the 4-ft. stops is to add a degree of loudness to the diapasons. This is accompanied with a certain measure of keenness, which may become disagreeable if the 4-ft. tone is disproportionately strong. The ordinary practice is to use the 4-ft. tone very freely.

The 2\ twelfth stop sounds fiddle g on the C key. It is composed of diapason pipes, rather small and gently voiced. Its use is said to be to thicken the tone, which it certainly anmt docs. But how far the particular effect produced i* desirable is another question. It is generally necessary that this stop should be accompanied by the fifteenth or other octave sounding stop of higher pitch.

The 2 fifteenth, or superoctave, of the great organ consists of diapason pipes sounding notes two octaves above the normal pitch of the keys. The 2 piccolo is a fluty stop of less power, having the same pitch. The 2-ft. tone is commonly used as giving a degree of loudness to the great organ beyond that obtainable with the 4-ft tone.

The modern great onjfan fifteenth is generally a very powerful stop, and requires great caution in its use in organs of moderate size, or m limited spaces. The old English high pitched stops had little power and their brilliancy was capable of pleasing without offence. The modern great organ up to fifteenth can only be heard with comfort in very large spaces. Under such suitable circumstances the fifteenth is capable of giving to the whole tone a ringing or silvery character, which lends itself specially to contrast with the tone erf reeds. This peculiar keen tone requires for its full development the mixtures.

Mixture, sesquialtera, furniture, cymbal, scharf, cornet, are various names applied to a description of stop which possesses several ranks or several pipes to each note. The pipes of each note sound a chord which is generally composed of concordant notes of the harmonic scries whose fundamental is the proper note of the key. Modern mixture* generally consist of fifths and octaves. Their composition is not the same throughout the whole range of the keyboard. A

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