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the issue. The Germans attach special importance to instruction in the tactical handling-of artillery.
Italy.—The Italians make a speciality of horsemanship, their cavalry officers studying (or two years at the cavalry school at Modena; later at the school at Hincrolo, and later still at the school at Tor di Ouinto. They also attach much importance to mountain warfare.
France.—The formal training of the French officer does not appear to differ seriously from that of the British officer, with this exception, that as one-third or so of French officers arc promoted from the non-commissioned ranks, a great feature of the educational system is the group of schools comprising the Saumur (cavalry), St Maixent (infantry) and Versailles (artillery and engineers), which are intended (or undcr-officcr candidates for commissions. The generality of the officers comes from the " special school " of St Cyr (infantry and cavalry) and the fade Polyieckniquc (artillery and engineers).
(R. J. C.)
United States.—The principal source from which officers are supplied to the army is the famous Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. The President may appoint forty cadets and generally chooses sons of army and navy officers. Each senator and each representative and delegate in Congress may appoint one. These appointments arc not made annually, but as vacancies occur through graduation of cadets, or their discharge before graduation. The maximum number of cadets under the Twelfth Census is 533. The commanding officer of the academy has the title of superintendent and commandant. He is detailed from the army, and has the temporary rank of cplonel. The corps of cadets is organized as a battalion, and is commanded by an officer detailed from the army, having the title of commandant of cadets. He has the temporary rank of licutcnantKroloncl. An officer of engineers and of ordnance are detailed as instructors of practical military engineering and of ordnance and gunnery respectively. The heads o? the departments of instruction have the title of professors. They are selected generally from officers of the army, and their positions are permanent. The officers above mentioned and the professors constitute the academic board. The military staff and assistant instructors are officers of the army. The course of instruction covers four years and is very thorough. Theoretical instruction comprises mathematics, French, Spanish, English. drawing, physics, astronomy, chemistry, ordnance and gunnery, art of war, civil and military engineering, law (international, constitutional and military), history and drill regulations of all arms. Practical instruction comprises the service drills in infantry, cavalry and artillery, surveying, reconnaissances, field engineering, construction of temporary bridges, simple astronomical observations, fencing, gymnastics and swimming. Cadets arc a part of the army, and rank between second lieutenants and the highest grade of noncommissioned officers. They receive from the government a rate of pay sufficient to cover all necessary expenses at the academy. About 50% of those entering are able to complete the course. The graduating class each year numbers, on an average, about 60. A class, on graduating, is arranged in order according to merit, and its members are assigned as second lieutenants to corps and arm, according to the recommendation of the academic board. A few at the head of the class go into the corps of engineers; the next in order generally go into the artillery, and the rest of the class into the cavalry and infantry. The choice of graduates as to arm of service and regiments is consulted as far as practicable. Any enlisted man who has served honestly and faithfully not less than two years, who is between twenty-one and thirty years of age, unmarried, a citizen of the United States and of good moral character, may aspire to a commission. To obtain it he must pass an educational and physical examination before a board of five officers. This board must also inquire as to the character, capacity and record of the candidate. Many well-educated young men, unable to obtain appointments to West Point, enlist in the army for the express purpose of obtaining a commission. Vacancies in the grade of second lieutenant remaining, after the graduates of the Military Academy and qualified enlisted men have been appointed, arc filled from civil life. To be eligible for appointment a candidate must be a citizen of the United States, unmarried, between the ages of twenty-one and twentyseven years, and must be approved by an examining board of five officers as to habits, moral character, physical ability, education and general fitness for the service. In time of peace very few appointments from civil life are made, but in time of war there is a large number.
There are, in addition to the Engineer School at Washington, D.C. four service schools for officers. These arc: the Coast Artillery School at Fort Monroe, Virginia; the General Service and Staff College at Fort Lcavcnworth, Kansas: the Mounted Service School at Fort Riley, Kansas; the Army Medical School at Washington. The commandants, staffs and instructors at these schools are officers specially selected. The garrison at Fort Monroe is composed of several companies of coast artillery. The lieutenants of these companies, who constitute the class, are relieved and replaced by others on 1st September of each year. The course of instruction comprises the following subjects: artillery, ballistics, engineering, steam and mechanics, electricity and mines, chemistry and explosives, military science, practical military exercises, photography, telegraphy and cordage (the use of ropes, the making of various kinds of tcnots
and lashings, rigging shears, &c., for the handling of heavy guns). July and August of each year are ordinarily devoted to artillery target practice. The course at the General Service and Staff College is for one year in each School. The class of student officen is mad« up of one lieutenant from each regiment of infantry and cavalry, and such others as may be detailed. They are assigned to the organizations comprising the garrison, normally a regiment of infantry, a squadron (lour troops) of cavalry and a battery of field artillery. The departments of instruction are: military art, engineering, law, infantry, cavalry, military hygiene. Much attsntion is paid to practical work in the minor operations of war, the troops of the garrison being utilized in connexion therewith. At the close of the final examinations of each class at Fort Monroe and Fort Leavcnworth, those officers most distinguished for proficiency are reported to the adjutant-general of the army. Two from each class of the Artillery School, and not more than five from each class at the General Service and Staff College, are thereafter, so long as they remain in the service, noted in the annual army register as " honour graduates." The work of the Mounted Service School at Fort Riley is mainly practical, and is carried on by the regular garrison, which usually, in time of peace, consists of two squadrons of cavalry and. three field batteries. The government reservation at Fort Riley comprises about 40 sq. m. of varied terrain, so that opportunities are afforded, and taken advantage of, for all kinds of field operations. The Army Medical School is established at Washington. The faculty consists of four or more instructors selected from the senior officers of the medical department. The course of instruction covers a period of five months, beginning annually in November. The student officers arc recently appointed medical officers, and such other medical officers, available for detail, as may desire to take the course. Instruction is by lecture and practical work, special attention being given to the following subjects: duties of medical officers in peace and war; hospital administration; military medicine, surgery and hygiene; microscopy and bacteriology; hospital corps drill and first aid to the wounded. (W. A. S.)
OFFICIAL (Late Lat. officialis, for class. Lat. apparitor, from qfficium, office, duty), in general any holder of office under the state or a public body. In ecclesiastical law the word " official '* has a special technical sense as applied to the official exercising a diocesan bishop's jurisdiction as his representative and in his name (see Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction). The title of "official principal," together with that of " vicar-general," is in England now merged in that of " chancellor " of a diocese (sec Chancellor).
OFFICINAL, a term appb'cd in medicine to drugs, plants and herbs, which are sold in chemists' and druggists' shops, and to medical preparations of such drugs, &c., as arc made in accordance with the prescriptions authorized by the pharmacopoeia. In the latter sense, modern usage tends to supersede " officinal" by "official." The classical Lat. officina meant a workshop, manufactory, laboratory, and in medieval monastic Laiinwas applied to a general store-room (sec Du Cange, Gloss., J.p.); il thus became applied to a shop where goods were sold rather than a place where things were made.
OGDEN, a city and the county-scat of Weber county, Utah, U.S.A., at the confluence of the Ogden and Weber rivers, and about 35 m. N. of Salt Lake City. Pop. (1800) 14,889; (1900) 16,313, of whom 3302 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 25,580. It is served by the Union Pacific, the Southern Pacific, the Oregon Short Line, and the Denver & Rio Grande railways. It is situated at an elevation of about 4300 ft. in the picturesque region of the Wasatch Range, Ogden Canon and the Great Salt Lake. Ogden is in an agricultural and fruit-growing region, and gold and silver are mined in the vicinity. It has various manufactures, and the value of the factory product increased from $1,242,214 in 1900 to 82,997,057 in 1905, or 141-3%. Ogden, which is said to have been named in honour of John Ogden, a trapper, was laid out under the direction of Brigham Young in 1850, and was incorporated in the next year; in 1861 it received a new charter, but since 1898 it has been governed under a general law of the state.
OGDENSBURG, a city and port of entry of Si Lawrence county, New York, U.S.A., on the St Lawrence river, at the mouth of the Oswegatchie, 140 m. N. by E. of Syracuse, New York. Pop. (1890) 11,662; (1900) 12,633, of whom 3222 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 15,933. It is served by the New York Central & Hudson River and the Rutland railways, and by several lake and river steamboat lines connecting with ports on the Great Lakes, the city being at the head of lake navigation on the St Lawrence. Steam ferries connect Ogdensburg with Present, Ontario. The city is the seat of the St Lawrence Slate Hospital for the Insane (1890), and has a United States Customs House and a state armoury- The city became the see of a Roman Catholic bishop in 1873, and here Edgar Philip Wadhams (18171891) laboured as bishop in 1872-1891. It is the port of entry of the Oswegatchie customs district, and has an extensive commerce, particularly in lumber and grain. The city has various manufactures, including lumber, flour, wooden-ware, brass-ware, silks, woollens and clothing. The value of the factory products increased from $2,260,889 in 1000 to $3,057,271 in 1005, or 35-2%. The site of Ogdensburg was occupied in 1749 by the Indian settlement of La Presentation, founded by the Abbe Francois Piquet (1708-1781) for the Christian converts of the Iroquois. At the outbreak of the War of Independence the British built here Fort Presentation, which they held until 1706, when, in accordance with the terms of the Jay Treaty, the garrison was withdrawn. Abraham Ogden (1743-1798), a prominent New Jersey lawyer, bought land here, and the settlement which grew up around the fort was named Ogdensburg. Daring the early part of the War of 1812 it was an important point on the American line of defence. On the 4th of October 1812 Colonel Lethbridge, with about 730 men, prepared to attack Ogdensburg but was driven off by American troops under General Jacob Brown. On the 22nd of February 1813 both fort and village were captured and partially destroyed by the British. During the Canadian rising of 1837-1838 Ogdensburg became a rendezvous of the insurgents. Ogdensburg was incorporated as a village in 1818, and was chartered as a city in 1868.
OGEE (probably an English corruption of Fr. ogive, a diagonal groin rib, being a moulding commonly employed; equivalents in other languages are Lat. cytrta-rczcrsa, Ital. sola, Fr. cyrtiaise, Ger. Kehtleisten), a term given in architecture to a moulding of a double curvature, convex and concave, in which the former 15 the uppermost (see Moulding). The name "ogee-arch" is often applied to an arch formed by the meeting of two contrasted ogees (see Arch).
OGIER THE DANE, a hero of romance, who is identified with the Frankish warrior Autchar (Autgarius, Auctarius, Otgarius, Oggc-rius) of the old chroniclers. In 771 or 772 Autchar accompanied Gerberga, widow of Carloman, Charlemagne's brother, and her children to the court of Dcsiderius, king of the Lombards, nith whom he marched against Rome. In 773 he submitted to Charles at Verona. He finally entered the cloister of St Faro it Mraux, and Mabillon (Ada 55. ord. Si Benedict!, Paris, 1677) has left a description of his monument there, which had figures of Ogitrr and his friend Benedict or Bcnolt, with smaller images of Roland and la belle Audc and other Carolingian personages. In the chronicle of the Pscudo Turpin it is stated that innumcr»ble isntilcnae were current on the subject of Ogier, and his deeds were probably sung in German as well as in French. The Ogier of romance may be definitely associated with the flight of Gerbcrga and her children to Lombardy, but it is not safe to assume that the other scattered references all relate to the sa,-ne individual. Colour is lent to the theory of his Bavarian origin by the fact that he, wilh Duke Naimes of Bavaria, led the Bavarian contingent to battle at Roncesvaux.
In the romances of the Carolingian cycle he is, on account of his revolt against Charlemagne, placed in the family of Doon de Mayence, being the son of Gaufrcy dc "Dannemarche." The Effances Ogier of Adenes le Rois, and the Clietalcrie Ogier ie Daxxemarche of Riimbert dc Paris, are doubtless based on earlier chansons. The Chnalerie is divided into twelve songs or branches. Ogier, who was the hostage for his father at Charlemagne's court, fell into disgrace, but regained the emperor's fivour by his exploits in Italy. One Easter at the court of Laon, kjrever, his son Balduinet was slain by Charlemagne's son. Chariot, wilh a chess-board (cf. the incident of Rcnaud and Benholais in the Quatre Fils Aymon). Ogier in his rage slays the queen's nephew Loher, and would have slain Charlemagne but for the intervention of the knights, who connived
at his flight to Lombardy. In his stronghold of Castelfort he resisted the imperial forces for seven years, but was at last taken prisoner by Turpin, who incarcerated him at Reims, while his horse Broiefort, the sharer of his exploits, was made to draw stones at Meaux. He was eventually released to fight the Saracen chief Brehus or Braihicr, whose armies had ravaged France, and who had defied Charlemagne to single combat. Ogier only consented to fight after the surrender of Chariot, but the prince was saved from his barbarous vengeance by the intervention of St Michael. The giant Brehus, despite his 17 ft. of stature, was overthrown, and Ogier, after marrying an English princess, the daughter of Angart (or Edgard), king of England, received from Charlemagne the fiefs of Hainaut and Brabant.
A later romance in Alexandrines (Brit. Mus. MS. Royal 15 E vi.) contains marvels added from Celtic romance. Six fairies visit his cradle, the sixth, Morgan la Fay, promising that he shall be her lover. He has a conqueror's career in the East, and after two hundred years in the " castle " of Avalon returns to France in the days of King Philip, bearing a firebrand on which his life depends. This he destroys when Philip's widowed queen wishes to marry him, and he is again carried off by Morgan la Fay. The prose romance printed at Paris in 1498 is a version of this later poem. The fairy element is prominent in the Italian legend of Uggieri ft Dancse, the most famous redaction being the prose Libra dele bataglic del Danesc (Milan, 1498), and in the English Famous and rcrtcrwned history of Monirtc, son to Oger the Dane, translated by J. M. (London, 1612). The Spanish Urgel was the hero of Lope dc Vega's play, the Marques de Mantua. Ogier occupies the third branch of the Scandinavian Karlamagnus saga; his fight with Brunamont (Enfances Ogier) was the subject of a Danish folk-song; and as Holgcr Danske he became a Danish national hero, who fought against the German Dietrich of Bern (Thcodoric "of Verona "), and was invested wilh the common tradition of the king who sleeps in a mountain ready to awaken at need. Whether he had originally anything to do with Denmark seems doubtful. The surname le Danois has been explained as a corruption of 1'Ardennois and Dannemarche as the marches of the Ardennes.
Bibliography.—La Cnrcalerie Outer de Daneinarche, cd. J. B. Barrois (2 vols., Paris, 1842); Lfs Enfances Ogier, cd. A. Scheler (Brussels, 1874): Hist. lilt, de la France, vols. xx. and xxii.; G. Paris, Hist. poll, de Charlemagne (Paris, 1856); L. Gautier, Les Epopees franfaisei (2nd cd., 1878-1896); L. Pio, Sagnet om Holgcr Danske (Copenhagen, 1870); H. L. Ward, Catalogue of Romances, vol. i. pp. 604-610: C. Voretzsch, Uber die Sage von Ogier dent Danen (Halle. 1891); P. Paris, " Kecherches sur Ogicr le Danois," Bibt. de I'Ecole dts Charles, vol. iii.; P. Rajna, Le Ortgini dell' epopea francese (1884); Riezler, "Naimes v. Baycm und Ogier der Dane," in Silzunfiberichte der phil. hist. Classe der tl. Atad. d. Wiss., vol. iv. (Munich, 1892).
OGILBY, JOHN (1600-1676), British writer, was born in or near Edinburgh in November 1600. His father was a prisoner within the rules of King's Bench, but by speculation the son found money to apprentice himself to a dancing master and to obtain his father's release. He accompanied Thomas Wentworlh, earl of Strafford, when he went to Ireland as lord deputy, and became tutor to his children. Strafford made him deputy-master of the revels, and he built a little theatre in St Werburgh Street, Dublin, which was very successful. The outbreak of the Civil War ruined his fortunes, and in 1646 he returned to England. Finding his way to Cambridge, he learned Lalin from kindly scholars who had been impressed by his industry. He then ventured to translate Virgil into English verse (1649-1650), which brought him a considerable sum of money. The success of this attempt encouraged Ogilby to learn Greek from David Whitford, who was usher in the school kept by James Shirley the dramatist. Homer his Iliads translated . . , appeared in 1660, and in 1665 Homer his Odysses translated . . . Anthony a Wood asserts that in these undertakings he had the assistance of Shirley. At the Restoration Ogilby received a commission for the "poetical part " of the coronation. His property was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, but he rebuilt his house in Whitcfriars, and set up a printing press, from which he issued many magnificent books, the most important of which were a series of atlases, with engravings and maps by Hollar and others. He styled himself " His Majesty's Cosmographer and Geographic Printer." He died in London on the 4th of September 1676.
Ogilby also translated the fables of Aesop, and wrote three epic poems. His bulky output was ridiculed by John Drydcn in Mac/•:,'! ::i: and by Alexander Pope in the Dunaad.
OCILV1E (or Ocilby), JOHN (c. 1580-1615), English Jesuit, was born in Scotland and educated mainly in Germany, where he entered the Society of Jesus, being ordained priest at Paris in 1613. As an emissary of the society he returned to Scotland in this year disguised as a soldier, and in October 1614 he was arrested in Glasgow. He defended himself stoutly when he was tried in Edinburgh, but he was condemned to death and was hanged on the 28th of February 1615.
A True Relation of the Proceedings against John Ogilvie, a Jesuit (Edinburgh, 1615), is usually attributed to ArchbishopSpottiswoodc. See also James Forbes L Eglise catholique en Ecosse: martyre de Jean Ogilvie (Paris, 1885); and W. Forbes-Leith, Narratives of Saltish Catholics (1885).
OGILVT, the name of a celebrated Scottish family of which the earl of Airlie is the head. The family was probably descended from a certain Gillcbridc, earl of Angus, who received lands from William the Lion. Sir Walter Ogilvy (d. 1440) of Lintrathen, lord high treasurer of Scotland from 1435 to 1431, was the son of Sir Walter Ogilvy of Wester Powrie and Auchterhouse, a man, says Andrew of Wyntoun, "stout and manful], bauld and wycht," who was killed in 1392. He built a castle at Airlie in Forfarahire, and left two sons. The elder of these, Sir John Ogilvy (d. c. 1484), was the father of Sir James Ogilvy (c. 1430-^. 1504), who was made a lord of parliament in 1491; and the younger, Sir Walter Ogilvy, was the ancestor of the carls of Findlatcr. The earldom of Findlater, bestowed on James Ogilvy, Lord Ogilvy of Deskford, in 1638, was united in 1711 with the earldom of Scaficld and became dormant after the death of James Ogilvy, the 7th earl, in October 1811 (see SeaField, Earls Of).
Sir James Ogilvy's descendant, James Ogilvy, 5th Lord Ogilvy of Airlie (c. 1541-1606), a son of James Ogilvy, master of Ogilvy, who was killed at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, took a leading part in Scottish politics during the reigns of Mary and of James VI. His grandson, James Ogilvy (c. 1593-1666), was created earl of Airlie by Charles I. at York in 1639. A loyal partisan of the king, he joined Montrose in Scotland in 1644 and was one of the royalist leaders at the battle of Kilsyth. The destruction of the earl's castles of Airlie and of Forther in 1640 by the earl of Argyll, who " left him not in all his lands a cock to crow day," gave rise to the song " The bonny house o'Airlic." His eldest son, James, the 2nd earl (c. i6is-c. 1704) also fought among the royalists in Scotland; in 1644 he was taken prisoner, but he was released in the following year as a consequence of Montrose's victory at Kilsyth, He was again a prisoner after the battle of Philiphaugh and was sentenced to death in 1646, but he escaped from his captivity at St Andrews and was afterwards pardoned. Serving with the Scots against Cromwell he became a prisoner for the third time in 1651, and was in the Tower of London during most of the years of the Commonwealth. He was a fairly prominent man under Charles II. and James II., and in 1689 he ranged himself on the side of William of Orange. This earl's grandson, James Ogilvy (d. 1731), took part in the Jacobite rising of 1715 and was attainted; consequently on his father's death in 1717 he was not allowed to succeed to the earldom, although he was pardoned in 1725. When he died his brother John (d. 1761) became earl dejure, and John's son David (1725-1803) joined the standard of Prince Charles Edward in 1745. He was attainted, and after the defeat of the prince at Culloden escaped to Norway and Sweden, afterwards serving in the French army, where he commanded "Ic regiment Ogilvy " and was known as "If bet Ecossais." In 1778 he was pardoned and was allowed to return to Scotland, and his family became extinct when his son David died unmarried in April 1812. After this event David's cousin, another David Ogilvy
(1785-1849), claimed the earldom. He asserted that he was unaffected by the two attainders, but the House of Lords decided that these barred his succession; however, in 1826 the attainders were reversed by act of parliament and David became 6lh earl of Airlie. He died on the zoth of August 1849 and was succeeded by his son, David Graham Drummond Ogilvy (18261881), who was a Scottish representative peer for over thirty years. The latter's son, David Stanley William Drummond Ogilvy, the 8th earl (1856-1000), served in Egypt in 1882 and 1885, and was killed on the nth of June 1000 during the Boer War while at the head of his regiment, the i2th Lancers. His titles then passed to his son, David Lyulph Gore Wolseley Ogilvy, the 9th earl (b. 1893).
A word may be said about other noteworthy members of the Ogilvy family. John Ogilvy, called Powrie Ogilvy, was a political adventurer who professed to serve King James VI. as a spy and who certainly served William Cecil in this capacity. Mariota Ogilvy (d. 1575) was the mistress of Cardinal Beaton. Sir George Ogilvy (d. 1663), a supporter of Charles I. during the struggle with the Covenanters, was created a peer as lord of Banff in 1642; this dignity became dormant, or extinct, on the death of his descendant, William Ogilvy, the 8th lord, in June 1803. Sir George Ogilvy of Barras (d. c. 1679) defended Dunnottar Castle against Cromwell in 1651 and 1652, and was instrumental in preventing the regalia of Scotland from falling into his hands; in 1660 he was created a baronet, the title becoming extinct in 1837.
See Sir R. Douglas, Peerage of Scotland, new cd. by Sir J. B. Paul (1904 fol.).
OGIVE (a French term, of which the origin is obscure; auge, trough, from Lat. augere, to increase, and an Arabic astrological word for the " highest point." have been suggested as derivations), a term applied in architecture to the diagonal ribs of a vault. In France the name is generally given to the pointed arch, which has resulted in its acceptance as a title for Gothic architecture, there often called " It style agnal."
OGLETHORPE, JAMES EDWARD (1696-1785), English general and philanthropist, the founder of the state of Georgia, was bom in London on the 2ist of December 1606, the son of Sir Thcophilus Oglethorpe (1650-1702) of Weslbrook Place, Godalming, Surrey. He entered Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, in 1714, but in the same year joined the army of Prince Eugene.' Through the recommendation of the duke of Marlborough he became aide-de-camp to the prince, and he served with distinction in the campaign against the Turks, 1716-17, more especially at the siege and capture of Belgrade. After his return to England he was in 1722 chosen member of parliament for Haslemere. He devoted much attention to the improvement of the circumstances of poor debtors in London prisons; and for the purpose of providing an asylum for persons who had become insolvent, and for oppressed Protestants on the continent, he projected the settlement of a colony in America between Carolina and Florida (see Georgia). In 1745 Oglethorpe was promoted lo the rank of major-general. His conduct in connexion with the Scottish rebellion of that year was the subject of inquiry by courtmartial, but he was acquitted. In 1765 he was raised to the rank of general. He died at Cranham Hall, Essex, on the ist of July 1785.
Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe, the father, had four sons and four daughters, James Edward being the youngest son, and another James (b. 1688) having died in infancy. Of the daughters. Anne Henrietta (b. 1680-1683). Eleanor (b. 1684) and Frances Charlotte (Bolingbroke's " Fanny Oglethorpe ") may be specified as having played rather curious parts in the Jacobitism of the time; thrir careers are described in the essay on " Queen Oglethorpe " by Miss A. Shield and A. Lang, in the latter's Historical Mysteries (1904).
OGOWfi, one of the largest of the African rivers of the second class, rising in 3° S. in the highlands known as the Crystal range, and flowing N.W. and W. to the Atlantic, a little south of the equator.and some 400 m. following the coast, north of the mouth 'of the Congo. Its course, estimated at 750 m., lies wholly within the colony of Gabun, French Congo. In spite of its considerable size, the river is of comparatively little use for navigation, as rapid* constantly occur as it descends the successive steps of the interior tablelands. The principal obstructions are the falls of Dome, in 13" E.; Bunji, in 12° 35'; Chengwe, in 12° 16'; Bouf, in 11*53'; and the rapids formed in the passes by which it breaks through the outer chains of the mountainous zone, between lof ° and uj° E. In its lower course the river passes through a lacustrine region in which it sends off secondary channels. These channels, before reuniting with the main stream, traverse a series of lakes, one north, the other south, of the river. These lakes are natural regulators of the river when in flood. The Ogowe has a large number of tributaries, especially in its upper course, but of these few are navigable. The most important arc the Lolo, which joins on the south bank in 12° 10' E., and the Ivindo, which enters the Ogowe a few miles lower down. Below the Ivindo the largest tributaries are the Ofow£, 400 yds. wide at its mouth (11° 47' £.), but unnavigable except in the rains, and the Ngunye, the largest southern tributary, navigable for 60 m. to the Samba or Eugenie Falls. Apart from the narrow coast plain the whole region of the lower Ogow6 is densely forested. It is fairly thickly populated by Bantu tribes who have migrated from the interior. The fauna includes the gorilla and chimpanzee.
The Ogowe rises in March and April, and again in October amf November; it is navigable for steamers in its low-water condition as far as the junction of the Ngunye. At flood lime the river can be ascended by steamers for a distance of 235 m. to a place called N'Jole. The first person to explore the valley of the Ogow4 was Paul du Chaillu, who travelled in the country during 1857-1859. The extent of the delta and the immense volume of water carried by the river gave rise to the belief that it must either be a bifurcation of the Congo or one of the leading rivers of Africa. However, in 1882 Savorgnan dc Brazza (the founder of French Congo) reached the sources of the river in a rugged, sandy and almost treeless plateau, which forms the watershed between h* basin and that of the Congo, whose main stream is only 140 m. distant. Since that time the basin of the Ogowe has been fully explored by French travellers.
OGRE, the name in fairy tales and folk-lore of a malignant monstrous giant who lives on human flesh. The word is French, and occurs first in Charles Perrault's Histoires ou contes du Itxfs passt (1697). The first English use is in the translation of a French version of the Arabian Nights m 1^13, where it is spelled k??rf. Attempts have been made to connect the word with i/£ri, tie racial name of the Magyars or Hungarians, but it is generally accepted that it was adapted into French from the 0. Span, kucrco, hucrgo, uergo, cognate with Ital. orco, :.*:. Orcus, the Latin god of the dead and the infernal regions (see Pluto), vbo in Romance folk-lore became a man-eating demon of the woods.
OCYGES, or Ogygus, in Greek mythology, the first king of Thebes. During his reign a great flood, called the Ogygian ddoge, was said to have overwhelmed the land. Similar legends «tre current in Attica and Phrygia. Ogyges is variously described as a Boeotian autochthon, as the son of Cadmus, or of Poseidon.
O'HAGAH, THOMAS O'HAGAN. Ist Baron (1812-1885), lord chancellor of Ireland, was born at Belfast, on the 20th of May 1812. He was educated at Belfast Academical Institution, and ns called to the Irish bar in 1836. In 1840 he removed to Dublin, •here he appeared for the repeal party in many political trials. Hi? advocacy of a continuance of the union with England, lad his appointment as solicitor-general for Ireland in 1861 and jitorney-gcncral in the following year, lost him the support of the Nationalist party, but he was returned to parliament as nraber for Tralcc in 1863. In 1865 he was appointed a judge of comraan picas, and in 1868 became lord chancellor of Ireland in Gladstone's first ministry. He was the first Roman Catholic to fcoti the chancellorship since the reign of James II., an act throwing open the office to Roman Catholics having been passed a iS*7- In 1870 he was raised to the peerage, and held office until the resignation of the ministry ini874. Ini88o he again became lord fbjuy-fiw on Gladstone's return tQ office, but resigned in
r88i. He died in London on the tst of February 1885, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Towneley (1878-1900), and then by another son, Maurice Herbert Towneley (b. 1882).
O'HIGGINS, BERNARDO (1778-1842), one of the foremost leaders in the Chilean struggle for independence and head of the first permanent national government, was a natural son of the Irishman Ambrosio O'Higgins, governor of Chile (i 788-1706), and was born at Chilian on the 2oth of August 1778. He was educated in England, and after a visit to Spain he lived quietly on his estate in Chile till the revolution broke out. Joining the nationalist party led by Martinez de Rozas, he distinguished himself in the early fighting against the royalist troops despatched from Peru, and was appointed in November 1813 to supersede J. M. Carrera in command of the patriot forces. The rivalry that ensued, in spite of O'Higgins's generous offer to serve under Carrera, eventually resulted in O'Higgins being isolated and overwhelmed with the bulk of the Chilean forces at Rancagua in 1814. O'Higgins with most of the patriots fled across the Andes to Mendoza, where Jose dc San Martin (q.v.) was preparing a force for the liberation of Chile. San Martin espoused O'Higgins's part against Carrera, and O'Higgins, recognizing the superior ability and experience of San Martin, readily consented to serve as his subordinate. The loyalty and energy with which he acted under San Martin contributed not a little to the organization of the liberating army, to its transportation over the Andes, and to the defeat of the royalists at Chacabuco (1817) and Maipo (1818). After the battle of Chacabuco O'Higgins was entrusted with the administration of Chile, and he ruled the country firmly and well, maintaining the close connexion with the Argentine, co-operating loyally with San Martin in the preparation of the force for the invasion of Peru, and seeking, as far as the confusion and embarrassments of the time allowed, to improve the welfare of the people. After the overthrow of the Spanish supremacy in Peru had freed the Chileans from fear of attack, an agitation set in for constitutional government. O'Higgins at first tried to maintain his position by calling a congress and obtaining a constitution which invested him with dictatorial powers. But popular discontent grew in force; risings took place in Conccpcion and Coquimbo, and on the 28th of January 1823 O'Higgins was finally patriotic enough to resign his post of director-general, without attempting to retain it by force. He retired to Peru, where he was granted an estate and lived quietly till his death on the 24th of October 1842.
Sec B. Vicuna Machcnna, Vita de CfStiffiiu (Santiago, 1882),
croa, Diccionano bio^r<ififo de Chile, 7550-7337 (Santiago, ), and J. B. Suarez, Rasgos biogrdficos de hombrcs notables de Chile (Valparaiso, 1886).
OHIO, a north central state of the United States of America, lying between latitudes 38° 27' and 41° 57' N. and between longitudes 80° 34' and 84° 49' W. It is bounded N. by Michigan and Lake Eric, E. by Pennsylvania and by the Ohio river which separates it from West Virginia, S. by the Ohio river which separates it from West Virginia and Kentucky, and W. by Indiana. The total area is 41,040 sq. m., 300 sq. m. being water surface.
Physiography,—The state lies on the borderland between the Prairie Plains and the Alleghany Plateau. The disturbances among the underlying rocks of Ohio have been slight, and originally the surface was a plain only slightly undulating; stream dissection changed the region to one of numberless hills and valleys; glacial drift then filled up the valleys over large broken areas, forming the remarkably level till plains of northwestern Ohio; but at thesamc time other areas were broken by the uneven distribution of the drift, and south-eastern Ohio, which was unglaciated, retains its nigged hilly character, gradually merging with the typical plateau country farther S.E. The average elevation of the state above the sea is about 850 ft., but extremes vary from 425 ft. at the confluence of the Great Miami and Ohio rivers in the S.W. corner to 1540 ft. on the summit of Hogues Hill about i$ m. E. of Bellefontaiiic in the west central part.
The main water-part ing is formed by a range of hills which are composed chiefly of drift and extend W.S.W. across the state from Trumbull county in the N.E. to Darke county, or about ^he middle of the \V. border. North of this water-parting the rivers' flow into Lake Erie; S. of it into the Ohio river. Nearly all of the streams in the N.E. part of the state have a rapid current. Those that flow directly into the lake arc short, but some of the rivers of this region, such as the Cuyahoga and the Grand, are turned by drift ridges into circuitous courses and flow through narrow valleys with numerous falls and rapids. Passing the village of Cuyahoga Falls the Cuyahoga river descends more than 200 ft. in 3 m.; a part of its course is between walls of sandstone 100 ft. or more in height, and near its mouth, at Cleveland, its bed has been cut down through 60 ft. of drift. In the middle N. part of the state the Black, Vermilion and Huron rivers have their sources in swamps on the water-parting and flow directly to the lake through narrow valleys. The till plains of north-western Ohio are drained chiefly by the Maumcc and Sandusky rivers, with their tributaries, and the average fall of the Maumee is only i-i ft. per mile, while that of the Sandusky decreases from about 7 ft. per mile at Upper Sandusky to 2-5 ft. per mile below Fremont. South of the water-parting the average length of the rivers is greater than that of those N. of it, and their average fall per mile is much less. In the S.W. the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers have uniform falls through basins that are decidedly rolling and that contain the extremes of elevation for the entire state. The central and S. middle part is drained by the Scioto river and its tributaries. The basin of this river is formed mostly in Devonian shale, and is bounded on the \V. by a limestone rim and on the E. by preglacial valleys filled with glacial drift. In its middle portion the basin is about 40 m. wide and only moderately rolling, but toward the mouth of the river the basin becomes narrow and is shut in by high hills. In the E. part of Ohio the Muskingum river and its tributaries drain an area of about 7750 sq. m. or nearly one-fifth of the entire state. Much of the unglaclal or driftless portion of the state is embraced within its limits, and although the streams now have a gentle or even sluggish flow, they have greatly broken the surface of the country. The upper portion of the basin is about loq m. in width, but it becomes quite narrow below Zancsville. The Ohio river flows for 436 m. through a narrow valley on the S. border of the state, and Lake Eric forms the N. boundary for a distance of 230 m. At the W. end of the lake are Sandusky and Maumee bays, each with a good natural harbour. In this vicinity also are various small islands of limestone formation which arc attractive summer resorts. On Put-in-Bay Island are some interesting " hydration" caves, *.f. caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks while gypsum was forming beneath, followed by the partial collapse of those rocks when the gypsum passed into solution. Ohio has no large lakes within its limits, but there arc several small ones on the water-parting, especially in the vicinity of Akron and Canton, and a few large reservoirs in the W. central section.
Fauna,—Bears, wolves, bison, deer, wild turkeys and wild pigeons were common in the primeval forests of Ohio, but they long ago disappeared. Foxes arc still found in considerable numbers in suitable habitats; opossums, skunks and raccoons are plentiful in some parts of the state; and rabbits and squirrels are still numerous. AH the song-birds and birds of prey of the temperate zone are plentiful. Whitcfish, bass, trout and pickerel arc an important food supply obtained from the waters of the lake, and some perch, catfish and sunfish are caught in the rivers and brooks.
Flora.—Ohio is known as the " Buckeye State" on account of the prevalence of the buckeye (Aesculus glabra). The state was originally covered with a dense forest mostly of hardwood timber, and although the merchantable portion of this has been practically all cut away, there arc still undcrgrowths of young timber and a great variety of trees. The white oak is the most common, but there arc thirteen other varieties of oak, six of hickory, five of ash, five of poplar, five of pine, three of elm, three of birch, two of locust and two of cherry. Beech, black walnut, butternut, chestnut, catalpa, hemlock and tamarack trees are also common. Among native fruits arc the blackberry, raspberry, elderberry, cranberry, wild plum and pawpaw (Asitnina Iriloba), Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring beauties, trilliums, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, golden rod and asters arc common wild flowers, and of ferns there are many varieties.
Climate.—The mean annual temperature of Ohio is about 51° F-; in the N., 49-5°, and in the S., 53'5*. But except where influenced by Lake Eric the temperature is subject to great extremes; at Coalton, Jackson county, in the S.E. part of the state, the highest recorded range of extremes is from 104° to —38° or 142°; at Wauscon, Fulton county, near the N.W. corner, it is from 104.° to —32-* or 136°; while at Toledo on the lake shore the range is only from 99° to —16° or 115° F. July is the warmest month, and in most parts of the state January is the coldest; in a few valleys, however, February has a colder record than January. The normal annual precipitation for the entire state is 38-4 in. It is greater in the S,E. and least in the N.W. At Marietta, for example, it ii 42-1 in., but at Toledo it is only 30-8 in. Nearly 60% of it comes in the spring and summer. The average annual fall of snow is about 37 in. in the N. and 22 in. in the S. The prevailing winds in most parts are westerly, but bud Jen changes, aa well as the extremes of temperature, arc caused
mainly by the frequent shifting of the wind from N.W. to S.W.» and from S.W. to N.W. At Cleveland and Cincinnati the winds blow mostly from the S.E.
Soil.—In the driftlcsb area, the S.E. p>art of the state, the soil islargely a decomposition of the underlying rocks, and its fertility vanes according to their composition; there is considerable lime- £ stone in the E. central portion, and this renders the soil very pro- • ductivc. In the valleys also are strips covered with a fertile alluvial' deposit. In the other parts of the state the soil is composed mainly , of glacial drift, and is generally deep and fertile. It is deeper and more fertile, however, m the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil arc covered with alluvial deposits. North of the lower course of the Maumee river is a belt of sand, but Ohio drift generally contains a large mixture of clay.
Agriculture.—Ohio ranks high as an agricultural state. Of its total land surface 24,501,820 acres or nearly 94% was, in 1900, included in farms and 78-5 % of all the farm land was improved. There were altogether 276,710, farms; of these 93,028 contained less than 50 acres, 182,602 contained less than 100 acres. 150,060 contained less than 175 acres, 26,659 contained 175 acres or more, and 164 contained 1000 acrc-t or more. The average size of the farms decreased from 125-2 acres in 1850 to 99-2 acres in 1880 and 88-5 acres in 1900. Nearly seven-tenths of the farms were worked in 1900 by owners or part owners, 24,051 were worked by cash tenants, 51,880 were worked by «hare tenants, and 1969 were worked by negroes as owners, tenants or managers. There is a great variety of produce, but the principal crops are Indian corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, apples and tobacco. In 1900 the acreage of cereals constituted 68-4% of the acreage of all crops, and the acreage of Indian corn, wheat and oats constituted 99-3% of the total acreage of cereals. The Indian corn crop was 67,501,144 bushels in 1870; 152,055,390 bushels in 1899 and 153,062,000 in 1909, when it was grown on 3,875,000 acres and the state ranked seventh among the states of the Union in the production of this cereal. The wheat crop was 27,882,150 bushels in 1870; 50,376,800 bushels (grown on 3,209,014 acres) in 1899; and 23,532,000bushels (grownon 1,480,000 acres) in 1909. The oat crop was 25,347,549 bushels in 1870; 42.050,910 bushels (grown on 1,115,149 acres) in 1899; and 56,225,000 bushels (grown on 1,730,000 acres) in 1909. The barley crop decreased from 1,715,221 bushels in 1870 to 1,053,240 bushels in 1899 and 829,000 bushels in 1909. The number of swine was 1,964,770 in 1850; 3,285,789 in 1900; and 2,047,000 in 1910. The number of cattle was 1,358,947 in 1850; 2,117,925 in 1900; and 1,925,000 in 1910. In 1900 there were 868,832 and in 1910 947,000 milch cows in the state. The number of sheep decreased slightly between 1870 and 1900, wl>cn there were 4,030,021; in 1910 there were 3,203,000 sheep in the state. The number of horses was 463,397 in 1850; 1,068,170 in 1900; and 977,000 in 1910, The cultivation of tobacco was of little importance in the state until about 1840; but. the product increased from 10,454449 tb in 1850 to 34,735,235 Ib in 1880, and to 65,957,100 Ib in 1899, when the crop was grown on 71,422 acres; in 1909 the crop was 83,250.000 Ib. grown on 90,000 acres. The value of all farm products in 1899 was $257,065,826. Indian corn, wheat and oats are grown in all parts, but the W. half of the state produces about three-fourths of the Indian corn and two-thirds of the wheat, and in the N. half, especially in the N.W. corner, are the best oat-producing counties. The N.E. quarter ranks highest in the production of hay. Domestic animals are evenly distributed throughout the state; in no county was their total value, in June 1900, less than $500,000, and in only three counties (Licking, Trumbull and Wood) did their value exceed $2,000,000; in 73 counties their value exceeded $1,000,000, but was less than $2,000,000. Dairying and the production of eggs are also important industries in all sections. Most of the tobacco is grown in the counties on or near the S.W. border.
Fisheries.—Commercial fishing is important only in Lake Erie. In 1903 the total catch there amounted to 10,748,986 Ib, valued at $317.027. Propagation facilities are being greatly improved, and there are stringent laws for the protection of immature fish. Inland streams and lakes are well supplied with game ii h; state taws prohibit the sale of game fish and their being taken, except with nook and line.
Mineral Products.—The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum. The coal fields, comprising a total area of 10,000 sq. m. or more, arc in the E. half of the state. Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5.315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908—in 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons. There are 29 counties in which coal is produced, but 81-4% of it in 1908 came from Belmont, Athens, Jefferson, Guernsey, Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas and Jackson counties. Two of the most productive petroleum fields of the United States are in part in Ohio; the Appalachian field in the E. and S. parts of the state, and the Lima-Indiana field in the N.W. part. Some petroleum was obtained in the S.E. as early as iBy but tin- state's output was comparatively small until after pctrole1 ,