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The main water-parting is formed by a range of hills which are composed chiefly of drift and extend W.SAV. across the state from Tnimbull county in the N.E. to Darke county, or about ^he middle of the \V. border. North of this water-parting the rivers' flow into Lake Eric; S. of it into the Ohio river. Nearly all of the streams in the N.E. part of the state have a rapid current. Those that flow directly into the lake arc short, but some of the rivers of this region, such as the Cuyahoga and the Grand, arc turned by drift ridges into circuitous courses and flow through narrow valleys with numerous falls and rapids. Passing the village of Cuyahoga frails the Cuyahoga river descends more than 200 ft. in 3 m.; a part of its course is between walls of sandstone 100 ft. or more in height, and near its mouth, at Cleveland, its bed has been cut clown through 60 ft. of drift. In the middle N. part of the state the Black, Vermilion and Huron rivers have their sources in swamps on the water-parting and flow directly to the lake through narrow valleys. The till plains of north-western Ohio are drained chiefly by the Maumee and Sandusky rivers, with their tributaries, and the average fall of the Maumee is only i • i ft. per mile, while that of the Sandusky decreases from about 7 ft. per mile at Upper Sandusky to 2-5 ft. per mile below Fremont. South of the water-parting the average length of the rivers is greater than that of those N. of it, and their average fall per mile is much less. In the S.VV. the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers have uniform falls through basins that are decidedly rolling and that contain the extremes of elevation for the entire state. The central and S. middle part is drained by the Scioto river and its tributaries. The basin of this river is formed mostly in Devonian shale, and is bounded on the W. by a limestone rim and on the E. by preglacial valleys filled with glacial drift. In its middle portion the basin is about 40 m. wide and only moderately rolling, but toward the mouth of the river the basin becomes narrow and is shut in by high hills. In the E. part of Ohio the Muskingum river and its tributaries drain an area of about 7750 sq. m. or nearly one-fifth of the entire state. Much of the ungtacial or driftless portion of the state is embraced within its limits, and although the streams now have a gentle or even sluggish flow, they have greatly broken the surface of the country. The upper portion of the basin is about loo m. in width, but it becomes quite narrow below Zancsville. The Ohio river flows for 436 m. through a narrow valley on the S. border of the state, and Lake Erie forms the N. boundary for a distance of 230 m. At the W. end of the lake are Sandusky and Maumee bays, each with a good natural harbour. In this vicinity also are various small islands of limestone formation which are attractive summer resorts. On Put-in-Bay Island arc some interesting " hydration *' caves, i.e. caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks while gypsum was forming beneath, followed by the partial collapse of those rocks when the gypsum passed into solution. Ohio has no large lakes within its limits, but there arc several small ones on the water-parting, especially in the vicinity of Akron and Canton, and a few large reservoirs in the W. central section.
Fauna.—Bears, wolves, bison, deer, wild turkeys and wild pigeons were common in the primeval forests of Ohio, but they long ago disappeared. Foxes are still found in considerable numbers in suitable habitats; opossums, skunks and raccoons are plentiful in some parts of the state; and rabbits and squirrels are still numerous. All the song-birds and birds of prey of the temperate zone are plentiful. VVhitefish, bass, trout and pickerel arc an important food supply obtained from the waters of the lake, and some perch, catfish and sunfish are caught in the rivers and brooks.
Flora.—Ohio is known as the " Buckeye State" on account of the prevalence of the buckeye (Acsculus glabra). The state was originally covered with a dense forest mostly of hardwood timber, and although the merchantable portion of this has been practically all cut away, there arc still undcrgrowths of young timber and a great variety of trees. The white oak is the most common, but there are thirteen other varieties of oak, six of hickory, five of ash, five of poplar, five of pine, three of elm, three of birch, two of locust and two of cherry. Beech, black walnut, butternut, chestnut, catalpa, hemlock and tamarack trees are also common. Among native fruits are the blackberry, raspberry, elderberry, cranberry, wild plum and pawpaw (Asimina, triloba). Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring beauties, trilliums, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, golden rod and asters are common wild flowers, and of ferns there are many varieties.
Climate.—The mean annual temperature of Ohio is about 51° F.; in the N., 49-5°, and in the S., 53-5*. But except where influenced by Lake Erie the temperature is subject to great extremes; at Coalton, Jackson county, in the S.E. part of the state, the highest recorded range of extremes is from 104° to —38* or 142°; at Wauseon, Fulton county, near the NAV. corner, it is from 104° to —32* or 136°; while at Toledo on the lake shore the range is only from 99° to —16° or 115* F. July is the warmest month, and in most parts of the state January is the coldest; in a few valleys, however, February has a colder record than January. The normal annual precipitation for the entire state is 38-4 in. It is greater in the S,E. and least in the N.W. At Marietta, for example, it is 42-1 in., but at Toledo it is only 30-8 in. Nearly 60% of it comes in the spring and summer. The average annual fall of snow is about 37 in. in the N. and 22 in. in the S. The prevailing winds in most parts are westerly, but (Hidden changes, as well as the extremes of temperature, are caused
mainly by the frequent shifting of the wind from N.W. to SAV. and from SAV. to NAV. At Cleveland and Cincinnati the winds blow mostly from the S.E.
Soil.—In the driftless area, the S.E. part of the state, the soil is largely a decomposition of the underlying rocks, and its fertility varies according to their composition; there is considerable limestone in the E. central portion, and this renders the soil very productive. In the valleys also are strips covered with a fertile alluvial deposit. In the other parts of the state the soil is composed mainly of glacial drift, and is generally deep and fertile. It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a literal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil arc covered with alluvial deposits. North of the lower course of the Maumee river is a belt of sand, but Ohio drift generally contains a large mixture of clay.
Agriculture.—Ohio ranks high as an agricultural state. Of its total land surface 24,501,820 acres or nearly 94% was, in 1900, included in farms and 78-5% of all the farm land was improved. There were altogether 276,719 farms; of these 93,028 contained lesa than 50 acres, 182,802 contained less than 100 acres, 150,060 contained less than 175 acres, 26,659 contained 175 acres or more, and 164 contained looo acres or more. The average size of the farms decreased from 125-2 acres in 1850 to 99-2 acres in 1880 and 88-5 acres in 1900. Nearly seven-tenths of the farms were worked in 1900 by owners or part owners, 24,051 were worked by cash tenants, 51,880 were worked by share tenants, and 1969 were worked by negroes as owners, tenants or managers. There is a great variety of produce, but the principal crops are Indian corn, wncat, oats, hay, potatoes, apples and tobacco. In 1900 the acreage of cereals constituted 68-4% of the acreage of all crops, and the acreage of Indian corn, wheat and oats constituted 99-3% of the total acreage of cereals. The Indian corn crop was 67,501.144 bushels in 1870; 152,055,390 bushels in 1899 and 153,062,000 in 1909, when it was grown on 3,875,000 acres and the state ranked seventh among the states of the Union in the production of this cereal. The wheat crop was 27,882,159 bushels in 1870; 50,376,800 bushels (grown on 3,209,014 acres) in 1899; and 23,532,ooooushels (grown on 1,480,000 acres) in 1909. The oat crop was 25,347,549 bushels in 1870; 42,050,910 bushels (grown on 1,115,149 acres) in 1899; and 56,225,000 bushels (grown on 1,730,000 acres) in 1909. The barley crop decreased from 1,715,221 bushels in 1870 to 1,053,240 bushels in 1899 and 829,000 busncls in 1909. The number of swine was 1,064,770 in 1850; 3,285,789 in 1900; and 2,047,000 in 1910. The number of cattle was 1,358,947 in 1850; 2,117,925 in 1900; and 1,925,000 in 1910. In 1900 there were 868,832 and in 1910 947,000 milch cows in the state. The number of sheep decreased slightly between 1870 and 1900, wlicn there were 4,030,021; in 1910 tnere were 3,203,000 sheep in the state. The number of horses was 463,397 in 1850; 1,068,170 in 1900; and 977,000 in 1910. The cultivation of tobacco was of little importance in the state until about 1840; but the product increased from 10,454,449 Ib in 1850 to 34.735-235 B> 'n 1880, and to 65,957,100 Ib in 1899, when the crop was grown on 71,422 acres; in 1909 the crop was 83,250,000 Ib, grown on 90,000 acres. The value of all farm products in 1809 was $257,065,826. Indian corn, wheat and oats are grown in all parts, but the W. half of the state produces about three-fourths of the Indian corn and two-thirds of the wheat, and in the N. half, especially in the N.W. corner, are the best oat-producing counties. The N.E. quarter ranks highest in the production of hay. Domestic animals are evenly distributed throughout the state; in no county was their total value, in June 1900, less than $500,000, and in only three counties (Licking, Trumbull and Wood) did their value exceed $2,000,000; in 73 counties their value exceeded $1,000,000, but was less than $2,000,000. Dairying and the production of eggs are also important industries in all sections. Most of the tobacco is grown in the counties on or near the SAV. border.
Fisheries.—Commercial fishing is important only in Lake Erie. In 1903 the total catch there amounted to 10,748,986 Ib, valued at §317,027. Propagation facilities are being greatly improved, and there are stringent laws for the protection of immature fish. Inland streams and lakes arc well supplied with game fish; state laws
Prohibit the sale of game fish and their being taken, except with ook and line.
Mineral Products.—The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum. The coal fields, comprising a total area of 10,000 sq. m. or more, are in the E. half of the state. Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5,315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1008—m 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons. There are 29 counties in which coal is producen, but 81-4% of it in 1908 came from Bclmont, Athens, Jefferson, Guernsey, Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas and Jackson counties. Two of the most productive petroleum fields of the United States are in part in Ohio; the Appalachian field in the E. and S. parts of the state, and the Lima-Indiana field in the N.W. part. Some petroleum was obtained in the S.E. as early as 1859, but the state's output was comparatively small until after petroleum
was discovered in the N.W. in 1884; in 1883 the output was only 47,632 barrels, four years later it was 5,022,632 barrels, and in 1896 it was 23,941,169 barrels, or 39% of the total output in the United State*. For the next ten years, however, there was a decrease, and in 1908 the output had fallen to 10,658,797 barrels, of which 6.748.676 barrels (valued at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima district, 4.109,935 barrels (valued at $7,315.667) from the southeast di>tnct, and 186 barrels (valued at $950), suitable for lubricating purposes, from the Mecca-Bclden district in Trumbull and Lorain counties. Natural gas abounds in the eastern, central and north-western parts of the state. That in the E. was first used in 1866, the N.W. field was opened in 1884, and the central field was opened in 1887. The value of the state's yearly flow increased steadily from $100,000 in 1885 to $5,215,669 in 1889, decreased from the latter year to $1,171,777 in 1897, and then increased to $8,244,835 in 1908. Some of the best sandstone in the United States is obtained from Cuyahoga and Lorain counties; it is exceptionally pure in texture (about 97% being pure silica), durable and evenly coloured light buff, grey or blue grey. From the Ohio sandstone known as Berea grit a very large portion of the country's grindstones and pulpstoncs has been obtained; in 1908 the value of Ohio's output of these stones was $482,128. Some of the Ik-rca grit is also suitable for making oilstones and scythestones. Although the state has a great amount of limestone, especially in Eric and Ottawa counties, its dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building purposes. It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron and for making quick lime. The quantity of Portland cement made in Ohio increased from 57,000 barrels in 1890 to 563,113 barrels in 1902 and to 1.521.764 barrels in 1908. Beds of rock gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa county. There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state, and the mining of it was begun early in the Kjth century; but the output decreased from 254,294 lone tons in 1889 to only 26,585 lone tons (all carbonate) in 1908. Ohio, in 1908, produced 3,457,478 l>arrels of salt valued at $864,710. Other valuable minerals are clay suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in 1908 the value of the clay working products was $26,622.490) and »and suitable for making glass. The total value of the state's mineral products in 1908 amounted to $134,499.335.
Manufacture*.—The total value of the manufactures increased from $348,298,390 in 1880 to $641,688,064 in 1890, and to $832,438.113 in 1900. The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 m Ioxk> and $960,811.857 in I9O5-1 The most important manufacturing Industry is that of iron and steel. This industry was established ocar Youngstown in 1804. The value of the producr increased from $65.206,828 in 1800 to $138,935,256 in 1900 and to $152,859.124 in 1905- Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting largely of engines, boiler*, metal-working machinery, wood-working machinery, pumping machinery, mining machinery and stoves, rank second among the state's manufactures; their value increased from $43.617,072 in 1890 to $72.399,632 in 1900, and to $04,507,691 in 1905. Flour and grist mill products rank third in the state; the value of the products decreased from $39,468,409 in 1890 to J^7-39p.3^7 m 1900. and then increased to $40.855,566 in 1905. Meat (slaughtering and packing) was next in the value of the product, and increased from $20.660,780 in 1900 to $28,729,044 in 1905. Clay products rank fifth in the state; they increased in value from $16.480.812 in 1900 to $25,686,870 in 1905. Boots and shoes rank sixth; their value increased from $8,480,728 in 1890 to $17,920,854 in 1900 and to $25,140,220 in 1905. Other leading manufactures arc malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing milt products ($17.725.711), carriages and wagons ($16.096,125), distilled liquors ($13,976,523), rubber and clastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture^ (513.322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12.891,197), women's clothing ($12,803,582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles
811,791.223), electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies 11.019.235). paper and wood pulp ($10,961,527) and refined petroleum ($10.948,864).
The great manufacturing centres arc Cleveland, Cincinnati, Youngstown, Toledo, Columbus, Dayton and Akron, and in 1905 the value of the products of these cities amounted to 56-7% of that for the entire state. A large portion of the iron and steel is manufactured in Cleveland, Youngstown, Steubcnvillc, Bcllaire, Lorain and Ironton. Most of the automobiles are manufactured in Cleveland; most of the cash registers and calculating machines in Dayton; most of the rubber and clastic goods in Akron; nearly one-half of the liquors and about three-fourths of the men's clothing in Cincinnati. East Liverpool leads in the manufacture of pottery; Toledo in flour and grist mill products; Springfield in agricultural implements; Cincinnati and Columbus in boots and shoes; Cleveland in women's clothing,
Transportation and Commerce.—The most important natural means of transportation arc the Ohio river on the S. border and Lake
'The statistics of 1905 were taken under the direction of the United States Census Bureau, but products other than those of the factory system, Mich, for example, as those of the hand trades, were cxdudeO.
Erie on the N. border/ One of the first great public improvements made within the state was the connexion of these waterways by two canal*—the Ohio & Eric Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth, and the Miami & Erie Canat from Toledo to Cincinnati. The Ohio & Erie was opened throughout its entire length (309 m.) in 1832. The Miami & Erie was completed from Middlctown to Cincinnati in 1827; in 1845 it was opened to the take (250 m. from Cincinnati). The national government began in 1825 to extend the National Road across Ohio from Bridgeport, opposite Wheeling. West Virginia, through Zanesviltc and Columbus, and completed it to Springfield in 1837. Before the completion of the Miami & Erie Canal to Toledo, the building of railways was begun in this region, and in 1836 a railway was completed from that city to Adrian. Michigan. By the close of 1850 the railway mileage had increased to 575 m., and for the next forty years, with the exception of the Civil War
Kriod, more than 2000 m. of railways were built during each decade, the close of 1908 there was a total mileage of 0.300-45 m. Among the railways are the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania), the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago (Pennsylvania), the Nypano (Eric), the Wheeling & Lake Eric, the Cincinnati, Hamilton « Dayton, the Detroit, Toledo & Irpnton. and the Norfolk & Western. As the building of steam railways lessened, the building of suburban and intcrurban electric railways was begun, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended until all the more populous districts arc connected by them.
Ohio has six p^>rts of entry. They are Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, Cincinnati, Columbus and Day ton, and the value of the foreign commerce passing through these in 1009 amounted to $9.483,974 in imports (more than one-half to Cleveland) and $10,920,083 in exports (nearly eight-ninths from Cleveland). Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes.
Population.—The population of Ohio in the various census years was: (1800) 45.365; (1810) 230,760; (1820) 581,434; (1830) 937,903; (1840) 1,519,467; (1850) 1,980,329; (1860) 2.339,5"; (1870) 2,665,260; (1880) 3,198,062; (1890) 3,672,316; (1900) 4,157,545; (191°) 4,767,121. In 1900 and 1910 it ranked fourth in population among the states. Of the total population in 1000, 4,060,204 or 97-6% were white and 97,341 were coloured (96,901 negroes, 371 Chinese, 27 Japanese and 42 Indians). Of the same total 3,698,811 or 88-9% were native-born and 458,734 were foreign-born; 93-8% of the foreign-born consisted of the following: 204,160 natives of Germany, 65,553 of Great Britain, 55,018 of Ireland, 22,767 of Canada (19,864 English Canadian), 16,822 of Poland, 15,131 of Bohemia, 11,575 of Austria and 11,321 of Italy. In 1906 there were 1,742,873 communicants of different religious denominations, over one-third being Roman Catholics and about one-fifth Methodists. From 1890 to 1900 the urban population (i.e. population of incorporated places having 4000 inhabitants or more) increased from 1,387,884 to 1,864,519, and the semiurban (i.e. population of incorporated places having less than 4000 inhabitants) increased from 458,033 to 549,741, but the rural (i.e. population outside of incorporated places) decreased from 1,826,412 to 1,743.285. The largest cities are Cleveland, Cincinnati, Columbus (the capital), Toledo, Dayton, Youngstown, Akron, Canton, Springfield, Hamilton, Lima and Zancsville.
Administration.—Ohio is governed under the constitution of 1851 as amended in 1875, 1883, 1885, 1902, 1003, and 1005. An amendment may be proposed at any time by either branch of the General Assembly, and if after being approved by three-fifths of the members of both branches it is also approved at a general election by a majority of those voting on the question it is declared adopted; a constitutional convention may be called after a favourable two-thirds vote of the members of each branch of the Assembly and a favourable popular vote—a majority of those voting on the question; and the question of calling such a convention must be submitted to a popular vote at least once every twenty years. Under the constitution of 1802 and 1851 the suffrage was limited to "white male" citizens of the United States, but since the adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution (1870), negroes vote, though the constitution is unchanged. Since 1894 women who possess the usual qualifications required of men may vote for and be voted for as members of boards of education. The constitution requires that all elections be by ballot, and the Australian ballot system was adopted in 1891; registration *s required in cities having