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mountain range of Tibet, and the fruits of their observations, submitted to the Geographical Society of Paris (and later incorporated in De Parts au Tonkin d travcrs te Tibet iiiconnu, published in 1892), brought them conjointly the gold medal of that society. In 1892 the prince made a short journey of exploration in East Africa, and shortly afterwards visited Madagascar, proceeding thence to Tongking. From this point he set out for Assam, and was successful in discovering the sources of the river Irrawaddy, a brilliant geographical achievement which secured the medal of the Geographical Society of Paris and the cross of the Legion of Honour. In 1897 he revisited Abyssinia, and political differences arising from this trip led to a duel with the comle de Turin, in which both combatants were wounded. While on a trip to Assam in 1001 he died at Saigon on the 9th of August. Prince Henri was a somewhat violent Anglophobe, and his diatribes against Great Britain contrasted rather curiously with the cordial reception which his position as a traveller obtained for him in London, where he was given the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society.

ORLEANS, HENRIETTA. Duchess Of (1644-1670), third daughter of the English king, Charles I., and his queen, Henrietta Maria, was born during the Civil War at Exeter on the i6th of June 1644. A few days after her birth her mother left England, and provision for her maintenance having been made by Charles she lived at Exeter under the care of Lady Dalkciih (afterwards countess of Morton) until the surrender of the city to the parliamentarians, when she was taken to Oatlands in Surrey. Then in July 1646 Lady Dalkciih carried the princess in disguise to France, and she rejoined her mother in Paris, where her girlhood was spent and where she was educated as a Roman Catholic. Henrietta was present at the coronation of Louis XIV., and was mentioned as a possible bride for the king, but she was betrothed, not to Louis, but to his only brother Philip. After the restoration of her brother Charles II., she returned to England with her mother, but a few months later she was again in Paris, where she was married to Philip, now duke of Orleans, on the 3oth of March 1661. The duchess was very popular at the court of Louis XIV., and was on good terms with the grand monarch himself; she shared in the knowledge of stale secrets, but was soon estranged from her husband, and at the best her conduct was very imprudent. In 1670, at the instigation oMxtuis, she visited England and obtained the signature of Charles II.*s ministers to the treaty of Dover; her success in this matter greatly delighted Louis, but it did not improve her relations with Philip, who had long refused his consent to his wife's visit to England. Shortly after returning to France, Henrietta died at St Cloud on the 3oth of June 1670. She was buried at St Denis, her funeral oration being pronounced by her friend Bossuet, and it was asserted that she had been poisoned by order of her husband. She left two daughters, Marie Louise, wife of Charles 11. of Spain, and Anne Marie, wife of Victor Amadeus II. of Savoy. According to legitimist principles, the descendants of Henrietta, through her daughter Marie of Savoy, are entitled to wear the British crown.

ORLEANS, JEAN BAPTISTE GASTON, Duke Of (1608-1660), third son of the French king Henry IV., and his wife Marie de Medici, was born at Fontaincblcau on the 2$th of April 1608. Known at first as the duke of Anjou, he was created duke of Orleans in 1626, and was nominally in command of the army which besieged La Rochclle in 1628, having already entered upon that course of political intrigue which was destined to occupy the remainder of his life. On two occasions he was obliged to leave France for conspiring against the government of his mother and of Cardinal Richelieu; and after waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc, he took refuge in Flanders. Reconciled with his brother Louis XIII., he plotted against Richelieu in 1635, fled from the country, and then submitted to the king and the cardinal. Soon afterwards the same process was repeated. Orleans stirred up Cinq-Mars to attempt Richelieu's murder, and then deserted his unfortunate accomplice. In 1643, on the death of Louis XIII., Gaston became lieutenantgeneral of the kingdom, and fought against Spain on the northern

frontiers of France; but during the wars of the Fronde he passed with great facility from one parly to the other. Then exiled by Mazarin to Blois in 1652 he remained there until his death on the 2nd of February 1660. Gaston's first wife was Marie (d. 1627), daughter and heiress of Henri de Bourbon, due de Montpensier (d. 1608), and his second wife was Marguerite (d. 1672), sister of Charles III., duke of Lorraine. By Marie he left m daughter, Anne Marie, duchesse de Montpensier (?.v.); and by Marguerite he left three daughters, Marguerite Louise (16451721), wife of Cosimo III., grand duke of Tuscany; Elizabeth (1646-1696), wife of Louis Joseph, duke of Guise; and Franchise Madeleine (1648-1664), wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy. (M. P.*)

ORLEANS, LOUIS, Duke Op (1372-1407), younger son of the French king, Charles V., was born on the 131)1 of March 1372. Having been made count of Valois and of Beaumont-sur-Oise, and then duke of Touraine, he received the duchy of Orleans from his brother Charles VI. in 1392, three years after his marriage with Valentina (d. 1408), daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke of Milan. This lady brought the county of A-'i to her husband; but more important was her claim upon Milan, which she transmitted to her descendants, and which furnished Louis XII. and Francis 1. with a pretext for interference in northern Italy. When Charles VI. became insane in 1392. Orleans placed himself in opposition to his uncle Philip II.„ duke of Burgundy, who was conducting the government; and this quarrel was not only the dominating factor in the affairs of France, but extended beyond the borders of that country. Continued after Philip's death in 1404 with his son and successor, John the Fearless, it culminated in the murder of Orleans by one of John's partisans on the 23rd of November 1407. The duke, who was an accomplished and generous prince, was suspected of immoral relations with several ladies of the royal house, among them Isabella of Bavaria, the queen of Charles VI. He had eight children by Valentina Visconti, including his successor, Charles of Orleans, the poet, and one of his natural sons was the famous bastard of Orleans, John, count of Dunois.

See E. Jarry. La Vie politiqtte de Louis d'OrUans (Paris, 1889).

ORLEANS, LOUIS, Duke Of (1703-1752), only son of Duke Philip II., the regent Orleans, was born at Versailles on the 4th of August 1703. A pious, charitable and cultured prince, he took very little part in the politics of the time, although be was conspicuous for his hostility to Cardinal Dubois in 1723. In 1730 Cardinal Fleury secured his dismissal from the position of colonel-general of the infantry, a post which he had held for nine years; and retiring into private life, he spent his time mainly in translating the Psalms and the epistles of St Paul. Having succeeded his father as duke of Orleans in 1723, he died in the abbey of St Genevieve at Paris on the 4th of February 1752. His wife Augusta (d. 1726), daughter of Louis William. margrave of Baden, bore him an only son, Louis Philippe, who succeeded his father as duke of Orleans.

ORLEANS. LOUIS PHILIPPE. Duke Of (1725-1785), son of Louis, duke of Orleans, was born at Versailles on the i2lh of May 1725, and was known as the duke of Chartrcs until his father's death in 1752. Serving with the French armies he distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1742, 1743 and 1744, and at the battle of Fontenoy in 1745, retiring to Bagnolet in 1757, and occupying his time with theatrical performances and the society of men of letters. He died at St Assise on the iSth of November 1785. The duke married Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conti, who bore him a son Philip (flgalitc), duke of Orleans, and a daughter, who married the .lost duke of BourboD. His second wife, Madame de Monlcsson, whom be married secretly in 1773, was a clever woman and an authoress of some repute. He had two natural sons, known as the abbot of St Far and the abbot of St Albin.

Sec J.'.\ ulomne fun prince, a collection of letters from the duke to his second wife, edited by J. Hermand (1910).

ORLEANS. LOUIS PHILIPPE JOSEPH, Duke Of (1747-1793). called Philippe Egaut£, son of Louis Philippe,duke of Orleans, and of Louise Hcnrietle of Bourbon-Conti, was born at St Cloud on the I3th of Aprfl 1747. Having borne the. title of duke of Montpensier until his grandfather's death in 1752, he became duke of Chartres, and in 1769 married Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon-Penthievre, daughter and heiress of the duke of Penthievrc, grand admiral of .France, and the richest heiress of the time. Her wealth made it certain that he would be the richest man in France, and he determined to play a part equal to that of his great-grandfather, the regent, whom he resembled in character and debauchery. As duke of Chartres he opposed the plans of Maupeou in 1771, and was promptly exiled to his country estate of Villers-Cotterets (Aisne). When Louis XVI. came to the throne in 1774 Chartres still found himself looked on coldly at court; Marie Antoinette hated him, and envied him for his wealih, wit and freedom from etiquette, and he was not slow to return her hatred with scorn. In 1778 he served in the squadron of D'OrvUUers, and was present in the naval battle of I'ihant on the 27th of July 1778. He hoped to see further service, but the queen was opposed to this, and he was removed from the navy, and given the honorary post of colonel-general of hussars. He then abandoned himself to pleasure; he often visited London, and became an intimate friend of the prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.); he brought to Paris the "anglo-mania," as it was called, and made jockeys as fashionable u they were in England. He also made himself very popular in Paris by his large gifts to the poor in time of famine, and by throwing open the gardens of the Palais Royal to the people. Before the meeting of the notables in 1787 he had succeeded his father as duke of Orleans, and showed his liberal ideas, which were largely learnt in England, so boldly that he was believed to be aiming at becoming constitutional king of France. In November he again showed his liberalism in the Hi de justice, which Brienne had made the king hold, and was again exiled to Villers-Cotterets. The approaching convocation of the statesgeneral made his friends very active on his behalf; he circulated in every bailliage the pamphlets which F. J. Sieves had drawn up at his request, and was elected in three—by the noblesse of Paris, Villers-Cotterets and Crepy-en-Valois. In the estate of the nobility he headed the liberal minority under the guidance of Adrien Duport, and led the minority of forty-seven noblemen »ho seceded from their own estate (June 1789) and joined the Tiers Etat. The part he played during the summer of 1789 is one of the most debated points in the history of the Revolution. The court accused him of being at the bottom of every popular movement, and saw the " gold of Orleans " as the cause of the Reveillon riot and the taking of the Bastille, as the republicans later saw the "gold of Pitt " in every germ of opposition to themselves. There can be no doubt that he hated the queen, and bitterly resented his long disgrace at court, and also that he sincerely wished for a thorough reform of the government and the establishment of some such constitution as that of England; and no doubt such friends as Adrien Duport and Choderlos de Laclos, for their own reasons, wished to see him king of France. The best testimony for the behaviour of Orleans during this summer is the testimony of an English lady, Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliott, who shared his heart with the comtesse de Buffon, and bom which it is absolutely certain that at the time of the riot of the 12th of July he was on a fishing excursion, and was rudely treated by the king on the next day when going to offer him his services. He indeed became so.disgusted with the false position of a pretender to the crown, into which he was being forced, that he wished to go to America, but, as the comtesse de Buffon would not go with him, he decided to remain in Paris. He was again accused, unjustly, of having caused the inarch of the women to Versailles, on the $th of October. La Fayette, jealous of his popularity, persuaded the king to send the duke to England on a mission, and thus get him out of France, and he accordingly remained in England from October 1789 to July 1700. On the ?th of July he took his seat in the Assembly, and on the and of October both he and Mirabeau were declared by the Assembly entirely free of any complicity in the events of October. He now tried to keep himself as much out of the political world as possible, but in vain, for the court would

suspect him, and his friends would talk about his being king. The best proof of his not being ambitious of such a doubtful piece of preferment is that he made no attempt to get himself made king, regent or lieutenant-general of the kingdom at the time of the flight to Varennes in June 1791. He, on the contrary, again tried to make his peace with the court in January 1792, but he was so insulted that he was not encouraged to sacrifice himself for the sake of the king and queen, who persisted in remembering all old enmities in their time of trouble. In the summer of 1792 he was present for a short time with the army of the north, with his two sons, the duke of Chartres and the duke of Montpensier, but had returned to Paris before the roth of August. After that day he underwent great personal risk in saving fugitives; in particular, he saved the life of the count of Champcenetz, the governor of the Tuileries, who was his personal enemy, at the request of Mrs Elliott. It was impossible for him to recede, and, after accepting the title of Citoycn Egalite, conferred on him by the commune of Paris, he was elected twentieth and last deputy for Paris to the Convention. In that body he sat as quietly as he had done in the National Assembly, but on the occasion of the king's trial he had to speak, and then only to give his vote for the death of Louis. His compliance did not save him from suspicion, which was especially aroused by the friendship of his eldest son, the duke of Chartres, with Dumouriez, and when the news of the desertion of Chartres with Dumouriez became known at Paris all the Bourbons left in France, including Egalite', were ordered to be arrested on the 5th of April. He remained in prison till the month of October, when the Reign of Terror began. He was naturally the very sort of victim wanted, and he was decreed "of accusation" on the 3rd of October. He was tried on the 6th of November and was guillotined on the same day, with a smile upon his lips and without any appearance of fear. No man ever was more blamed than Orleans during the Revolution, but the faults of ambition and intrigue were his friends', not his own; it was his friends who wished him to be on the throne. Personally he possessed the charming manners of a polished grand seigneur: debauched and cynical, but never rude or cruel, full of gentle consideration for all about him but selfish in his pursuit of pleasure, he has had to bear a heavy load of blame, but it is ridiculous to describe the idle and courteous voluptuary as being a dark and designing scoundrel, capable of murder if it would serve his ambition. The execution of Philippe Egalitl made the friend of Dumouriez, who was living in exile, duke of Orleans. Authorities.—Baschet, Histoire de Philippe Egalite; Journal of Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliott (1859); A. Ncttcment, Philippe£golitt (Paris, 1842): Laurcntie, Histoire des dues d'Orleans (Parts, 1832); G. Peignot, Precis historique de la maison d'Orleans (Paris, 1830); L. C. R(ousselet), Correspondance de Louis-Philippe Joseph d'Orleans avec Louis XVI (Paris, 1800); Rivarol, Portrait du auc d'Orltans et de Madame de Genlis; Tournois, Histoire du Louis Philippe Joseph due d'Orleans (Paris, 1842).

ORLEANS. LOUIS PHILIPPE ROBERT, Duke Of (1869), eldest son of the comte de Paris, was born at York House, Twickenham, on the 6th of February 1869. The law of exile against the French princes having been abrogated in 1871, he returned with his parents to France. He was first educated by a private tutor, and then followed the courses of the municipal college at Eu. In 1882 he entered the College Stanislas, Paris, and took a first prize in a competitive Latin translation. On the death of the comte de Chambord, the comte de Paris became head of the Bourbons; and in 1886 he and his son were exiled from France. Queen Victoria appointed the duke of Orleans a supernumerary cadet at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. After passing his examinations he received a commission in the 4th battalion of the 6oth Rifles, then quartered in India. In January 1888 the duke went out to India, accompanied by Colonel de Parseval as military governor and adviser. At Bombay he was received by the duke of Connaught and Lord Reay, and at Calcutta he became the guest of the viceroy, the marquess of Dufferin, who organized for the duke and his cousin, Prince Henry of Orleans, a grand tiger-shooting expedition in Nepaul. The duke Dow reported himself to the commander-lachief .afterwards Earl Roberts,and joined his regiment at Chakrata. After seeing service, the duke ceased his connexion with the Indian army in February 1889, and returned to England. On attaining his majority, he entered Paris (February 7, 1800), and proceeding to the rnairie, expressed his desire, as a Frenchman, to perform his military service. This act caused great excitement, and he was arrested in conformity with the law of 1886, which forbade the soil of France to the direct heirs of the families which had reigned there. He was tried, and sentenced to two years' imprisonment; but he was liberated by President Carnot after a few months' nominal incarceration (June 4), and conducted to the Swiss frontier. This escapade won for him the title of " Le Premier Consent de France." After the comtc de Paris's funeral (September 12, 1894) the duke received his adherents in London, and then removed to Brussels, as being nearer France. On the 5th of November 1896 the duke married the archduchess Maria Dorothea Amalia of Austria, the ceremony taking place at Vienna. It was alleged that some of his followers were implicated in the conspiracies against the French Republic in 1899. A letter which the duke wrote in 1900, approving the artist whose caricatures were grossly insulting to Queen Victoria, excited great indignation both in England and in many French circles, and estranged him from many with whom he had formerly been, upon friendly terms; but after Queen Victoria's death it was allowed to become known that this affair had been forgotten and forgiven by the British royal family. The duke of Orleans made several long exploring journeys, being particularly interested in polar discoveries. In 1905 he published Vnf croisiere au Spilzbcrg, and, later, another account of his travels, under the title J havers la Bjnquise.

ORLEANS, PHILIP I., Duke Of (1640-1701), son of theFrench king Louis XIII., was born at St Germain-en-Layc on the aist of September 1640. In 1661 he was created duke of Orleans, and married Henrietta, sister of Charles II. of England; but the marriage was not a happy one, and the death of the duchess in 1670 was attributed to poison. Subsequently he married Charlotte Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Louis, elector palatine of the Rhine. Having fought with distinction in Flanders in 1667, Monsieur, as Orleans was generally called, returned to military life in 1672, and in 1677 gained a great victory at Casscl and took St Omer. Louis XIV., it was said, was jealous of his brother's success; at all events Orleans never commanded an army again. He died at St Cloud on the 8th of June 1701, leaving a son, Philip, the regent Orleans, and two daughters: Anne Marie (1669-1728), wife of Victor Amadcus II., duke of Savoy; and Elizabeth Charlotte (1676-1744), wife of Leopold, duke of Lorraine. His eldest daughter, Marie Louise (1662-1689), wife of Charles II. of Spain, died before her father. (M. P.*)

ORLEANS, PHILIP II., Duke or (1674-^23), regent of France, son of Philip I., duke of Orleans, and his second wife, the princess palatine, was bom on the 2nd of August 1674, and had his first experience of arms at the siege of Mons in 1691. His marriage with Mile de Blois, the legitimized daughter of Louis XIV., won him the favour of the king. He fought with distinction at Stcinkerk, Necrwinden and Namur (1692-1695). During the next few years, being without employment, he studied natural science. He was next given a command in Italy (1706) and in Spain (1707-1708) where he gained some important successes, but he cherished lofty ambitions and was suspected of wishing to take the place of Philip V. on the throne of Spain. Louis XIV. was angry at these pretensions, and for a long time held him in disfavour. In his will, however, he appointed him president of the council of regency of the young King Louis XV. (1715). After the death of the king, the duke of Orleans went to the parlcmcnt, had the will annulled, and himself invested with absolute power. At first he made a good use of this, counselling economy, decreasing taxation, disbanding 25,000 soldiers and restoring liberty to the persecuted Janscnists. But the inquisitorial measures which he had begun against the financiers led to disturbances. He was, moreover, weak enough to countenance

the risky operations of the banker John Law (1717), whose bankruptcy led to such a disastrous crisis in the public and private affairs of France.

There existed a party of malcontents who wished to transfer the regency from Orleans to Philip V., king of Spain. A conspiracy was formed, under the inspiration of Cardinal Albcroni, first minister of Spain, and directed by the prince of Cellamare, Spanish ambassador in France, with the complicity of the duke and duchess of Maine; but in 1718 it was discovered and defeated. Dubois, formerly tutor to the duke of Orleans, and now his all-powerful minister, caused war to be declared against Spain, with the support of the emperor, and of England and Holland (Quadruple Alliance). After some successes of the French marshal, the duke of Berwick, in Spain, and of the imperial troops in Sicily, Philip V. made peace with the regent (1720).

On the majority of the king, which was declared on the i$th of February 1723, the duke of Orleans resigned the supreme power; but he became first minister to the king, and remained in office till his death on the 23rd of December 1723. The regent had great qualities, both brilliant and solid, which were unfortunately spoilt by an excessive taste for pleasure. His dissolute manners found only too many imitators, and the regency was one of the most corrupt periods in French history.

See J. B. H. R. Capefigue, Hisloire de Pailippe ^Orleans, rfrnl it France (2 vols., Paris, 1838); A. Baudrillart, Philippe V. el la cour de France, vol. ii. (Paris. 1890); and L. Wicsener, Le rfttnl, fabbi Dubois et la Anglais (3 vols., Paris, 1891-1899). (M. P.')

ORLEANS, a city of north central France, chief town of the department of Loiret, on the right' bank of the Loire, 77 m. S.S.W. of Paris by rail. Pop. (1006), town, 57,544; commune, 68,614. At Les Aubrais, a mile to the north, is one of the chief railway junctions in the country. Besides the Paris and Orleans railway, which there divides into two main lines—a western to Nantes and Bordeaux via Tours, and a southern to Bourges and Toulouse via Vicrzon—branches leave Les Aubrais eastwards for Pithiviers, Chalons-sur-Marne and Gien, north-west for Chateaudun and Rouen. The whole town of Orleans is clustered together on the right bank of the river and surrounded by fine boulevards, beyond which it sends out suburbs along the various roads. It is connected with the suburb of St Marceau on the left bank by a handsome stone bridge of nine arches, erected in t be i8th century. Farther up is the railway bridge. The river is canalized on the right, and serves as a continuation of the Orleans Canal, which unites the Loire with the Seine by the canal of the Loing.

Owing to its position on ther northernmost point of the Loire Orleans has long been the centre of communication between the Loire basin and Paris. The chief interest of the place lies in its public buildings and the historical events of which it has been the scene. Proceeding from the railway station to the bridge over the Loire, the visitor crosses Orleans from north to south and passes through the Place du Martroi, the heart of the city. In the middle of the square stands an equestrian statue of Joan of Arc, in bronze, resting on a granite pedestal surrounded by bas-reliefs representing the leading episodes in her life. In 1855 it took the place of an older statue executed in the beginning of the century, which was then transferred to the left bank of the Loire at the end of the bridge, a few paces from the spot where a simple cross marks the site of the Fort des Tourelles captured by Joan of Arc in 1429. From the Place du Martroi, the Rue Jeanne d'Arc leads to the cathedral of Ste Croix. This church, begun in 1287, was bumed by the Huguenots in 1567 before its completion. Henry IV., in 1601, laid the first stone of the new structure, the building of which continued until 1829. It consists of a vestibule, a nave with double aisles, a corresponding choir, a transept and an apse. Its length is 472 ft., its width at the transept 120 ft. and the height of the central vaults J11 ft. The west front has two fiat-topped towers, each of three storeys, of which the first is square, the second octagonal and the third cylindrical. The whole front is Gothic, but was designed and constructed in the 18th century and exhibits all the defects of the period, though its

proportions are impressive. A central spire (roth century) 328 ft. high, Od the other band, recalls the pure Gothic style of the ijth century. In the interior the choir chapels and the apse, dating from the original erection of the building, and the fine modern tomb of Mgr. F. A. P. Dupanloup, bishop from 1849 to 1878, are worthy of note. In the episcopal palace and the higher seminary are several remarkable pictures and pieces of woodcan-ing; and the latter building has a crypt of the 9th century, belonging to the church of Si Avit demolished in 1418. The church of St Aignan consists ol a transept and choir of the second half of the islh century; it contains in a gilded and carved wooden shrine the remains of its patron saint, who occupied the see of Orleans at the time of Attila's invasion. The crypt dates from the oth to the beginning of the nth century. The once beautiful sculpture of the exterior has been altogether ruined; the interior has been restored, but not in keeping with the original style. A third church, St Euverte, dedicated to one of the oldest bishops of Orleans (d. 391), is an early Gothic building dating from the I3th, completely restored in the i$th century. St Pierre-le-Puellier dates in its oldest portions from the loth or even the 9th century. To the west of the Rue Royale stand the church of St Paul, whose facade and isolated tower both bear fine features of Renaissance work, and Notre-Damc de Recouvrance, rebuilt between 1517 and 1519 in the Renaissance style and dedicated to the memory of the deliverance of the city. The hotel de villc, built under Francis I. and Henry II. and restored in the ipth century, was formerly the residence of the governors of Orleans, and was occupied by the kings and queens of France from Francis II. to Henry IV. The front of the building, with its different coloured bricks, its balconies supported by caryatides attributed to Jean Goujon, its gable-ends and its windows, recalls the Flemish style. There are several niches with statues. Beneath, between the double flight of steps leading up to the entrance, stands a bronze reproduction of the statue of Joan of Arc, a masterpiece of the princess Mary of Orleans, preserved in the Versailles museum. The richlydecorated apartments of the first storey containpaintings, interesting chimneys, and a bronze statuette (also by the princess Mary) representing Joan of Arc mounted on a caparisoned horse and clothed in the garb of the knights of the 15th century. The great haU in which it is placed also possesses a chimney decorated with three bas-reliefs of Domremy, Orleans and Reims, all associated with her life. The historical museum at Orleans is one of the roost interesting of provincial collections, the numismatic, medieval and Renaissance departments, and the collection of ancient vases being of great value. The city also possesses a separate picture gallery, a sculpture gallery and a natural history museum, which are established in the former hotel de ville. a Renaissance building of the latter half of the i;,! li century. The public library comprises among its manuscripts a number daling from the 7th century, and obtained in most cases from St Benolt on the Loire. The general hospital is incorporated with the Hotel Dieu, and forms one of the finest institutions of the kind in France. The salle da files, formerly the corn-market, stands within a vast cloister formed by 15th-century arcades, once belonging to the old cemetery. The sclle da Theses (1411) of the university is the meeting-place of the Archaeological Society of the city. Among the old private houses numerous at Orleans, that of Agnes Sorcl (isth and i6th century), which remains a large collection of objects and works of art relating to Joan of Arc, that of Francis I., of the first half of the i6th century, that occupied by Joan of Arc during the siege of 1429, and that known as the house of Diane de Poitiers (i6th century), which contains the historical museum, arc of special interest. The Uteldfla ViciUc-Intcndancc,\.t\\'\\\ in the i5th and i6th centuries, served as residence of the iatcndmUt of Orleans in later times. The " White Tower " is the last representative of the towers rendered famous by the siege. A statue to the jurisconsult, R. J. Polhier (1600-1772), one of the most illustrious of the natives of Orleans, stands in front of the hotel de ville. The anniversary of the raising of the siege in 1429 by Joan of Arc is celebrated every year with great pomp. After the English had

retired, the popular enthusiasm improvised a procession, which marched with singing of hymns from the cathedral to St Paul, and the ceremony is still repeated on the 8th of May by the clergy and the civil and military functionaries. Orleans is the seal of a bishopric, a prefect, a court of appeal, and a court of assizes and headquarters of the V. army corps. There are tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitration, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France; and training colleges for both sexes, a lycee for boys, a technical school and an ecclesiastical seminary.

The more important industries of the town are the manufacture of tobacco (by the state), blankets, hairpins, vinegar, machinery, agricultural implements, hosiery, tools and ironware, and the preparation of preserved vegetables. Wine, wool, grain and live stock arc the commercial staples of the city, round which there are important nurseries.

The site of Orleans must have been occupied very early in history by a trading post for commerce between northern and central and southern Gaul. At the time of the Roman conquest the town was known as Genabum, and was the starting-point of the great revolt against Julius Caesar in 52 B.c. In the 5th century it had taken the name . I urdionum from either Marcus Aurelius or Aurclian. It was vainly besieged in 451 by Attila, who was awed by the intercession of its bishop, St Aignan, and finally driven off by the patrician Aetius. Odoaccr and his Saxons also failed to take it in 471, but in 498 it fell into the hands of Clovis, who in 511 held here the first ecclesiastical council assembled in France. The dignity which it then obtained, of being the capital of a separate kingdom, was lost by its union with that of Paris in 613. In the loth century the town was given in fief to the counts of Paris, who in 987 ousted the Carolingian line from the throne of France. In 099 a great fire devastated the town. Orleans remained during all the medieval period one of the first cities of the French monarchy; several of the kings dwelt within its walls, or were consecrated in its cathedral; it had a royal mint, was the seat of councils, and obtained for its schools the name of university (1309), and for its soldiery an equal standing with those of Paris. Philip, fifth son of Philip VI., was the first of the dukes of Orleans. After the assassination of his successor Louis by Jean Sans-Peur, duke of Burgundy (1407), the people of Orleans sided resolutely with the Armagnacs, and in this way brought upon themselves the attacks of the Burgundians and the English. Joan of Arc, having entered the beleaguered city on the 29th of April 1429, effected the raising of the siege by means of an attack on the 7th of May on the Fort des Tourelles, in the course of which she was wounded. Early in the i6th century the town became a centre of Protestantism. After the Amboise conspiracy (1560) the statesgeneral were convoked at Orleans, where Francis II. died. In 1562 it became the headquarters of Louis I. of Bourbon, prince of Condi, the Protestant commandcr-in-chief. In 1563 Francis, duke of Guise, laid siege to it, and had captured the Iclc-du-ponl on the left bank of the Loire when he was assassinated. Orleans was surrendered to the king, who had its fortifications razed. It was held by the Huguenots from 1567 to 1568. The St Bartholomew massacre there in 1572 lasted a whole week. It was given as a lieu de surel* to the League under Henry III., but surrendered to Henry IV. in person in 1594- During the Revolution the city suffered from the sanguinary excesses of Bertrand Barere and Collot d'Hcrbois. It was occupied by the Prussians in 1815 and in 1870, the latter campaign being discussed below.

Sec E. Bimbcnet, Histoire de la vUle fOrllani (Orleans, 18841888).

The Orleans Campaign Of 1870

Orleans was the central point of the second portion of the Franco-German War (?.r.), the city and the line of the Loire being at first the rendezvous of the new armies improvised by the government of National Defence and afterwards the startingpoint of the most important attempt made to relieve Paris. The campaign has thus two well-marked phases, the first ending with the first capture of Orleans on the loth of October, and the second with the second and final capture on the night of the 4th of December.

Shortly after the fall of the empire the government of National Defence, having decided that it must remain in Paris in spite of the impending siege, despatched a delegation to Tours to direct the government and the war in the provinces. This was originally composed (10-15 September) of two aged lawyers, Cr£micux and Glais-Bizoin, and a naval officer, Vice-Admiral Fourichon, who had

of France, a number of regular units, mostly provisional regiments, squadrons and batteries, assembled from the dcpdts, and all exceedingly ill supplied and equipped; but of such forces as he could muster he constituted the ijtn corps. There were also ever-growing forces of mobiles, but these were wholly untrained and undisciplined, scarcely organized in battalions and lor the most part armed with old-pattern weapons.

In these circumstances—the relative unimportance of the provincial war, the senility of the directors, the want of numbers, equipment and training in the troops available outside the walls of Paris—the role of the delegation was at first restricted to the establishment of a cordon of weak posts just out of reach of the German cavalry, with the object of protect ing* the formation of new corps and divisions in the interior. At the time of the investment of Pans part of the provincial forces were actually called in to reinforce the garrison. Only Rcyau's weak cavalry division was sent out from Paris into the open country.

On their side the Germans had not enough forces left, after investing the capital with the III. and IV. Armies and Metz with the I. and II., to undertake a long forward stride to the Loire or the Cher. The only covering force provided on the south side of their Paris lines was the I. Bavarian corps, which had also to act as the reserve of the III. Army, and the cavalry divisions (6th ,4th, 2nd), whose chief work was the collection of supplies for the besiegers.

Shortly after this, near the end of September, francs-t incurs and small parties of National Guards became very active in Beauce, Pcrche and Gatmais, and the German 4th cavalry division between Ctampes and Toury was reinforced by some Bavarian battalions in consequence. But no important assemblies of French troops were noted, and indeed Orleans was twice evacuated on the mere rumour of the German advance. Moltke and every other German soldier gave no credence to rumours of the formation of a ijth corps behind the Loire^—Trochu himself disbelieved in its existence— and the cavalry divisions, with their infantry supports, went about their ordinary business of gathering supplies.

In reality, however, the Delegation, unready as were its troops, was on the point of taking the offensive. In deference to popular clamour, a show of force in Beauce was decided upon. This was carried out by a force of all arms under Reyau on the 5th of October. It succeeded only top well. Prince Albert of Prussia* commander of the 4th cavalry division, which engaged Reyau at Toury, was so much impressed that he gave back 20 m. and sent alarming reports to army headquarters, which thereupon lost its incredulity and announced in army orders that the French " Army of the Loire " was advancing from Orleans. Von dcr Tann, the commander of the I. Bavarian corps, was ordered to take up a defensive position at Montlh6ry and to send out a detachment to cover Prince Albert's retreat. The ?rnd infantry division was added to his command, and the 2nd and 6th cavalry divisions warned to protect his flanks. Thus the Germans were led to pay attention to the existence of the I5th corps when that corps w;is not only itself incomplete but also unsupported by the i6th, i~th and .other still merely potential formations.

The preparations of the Germans were superfluous, for the demonstration ended in nothing. Reyau drew away leisurely towards Fontaincblcau forest, and only a part of the I5th corps was sent up from Bourses to Orleans. Further, the fc-ars of a sortie from Paris, which had occupied the German headquarters for some lime, having for a moment ceased, Moltke on the 7th ordered von dcr Tann, with the I. Bavarian corps, 22nd division, and the three cavalry divisions, to advance. Next day these orders expanded. Orleans and, if possible, Tours itself were to be captured.

The punishment for the military promenade in Beauce was at hand. The main body of the isth corps, which had not been required to take part in it, was kept back at Bourgcs a Vierzon, and only the miscellaneous troops at, actually in Beauce were available to meet the blow they had provoked. On the loth von dcr Tann attacked Reyau, who had returned from Fontaineblcau towards Orleans, at Artcnay. Had it not been that von der Tann believed that the isth corps was in front of him, and therefore attacked deliberately and carefully, Reyau's resistance would have been even more brief than it was. The French were enormously outnumbered, and, after a brave resistance, were driven towards

Orleans in great disorder. Being still without any real offensive intentions, the Delegation and La Motte-Rouge decided, the same night, to evacuate Orleans. On the nth, therefore, von der Tana's advance had to deal with no more than a strong rearguard on the outskirts of Orleans. But he was no longer on the plain of Beauce; villas, hedges and vineyards, as well as the outskirts of the great forest of Orleans, gave excellent cover to the French infantry, all of which showed steadiness and some battalions true heroism, and the attack developed so slowly that the final positions of the defenders were not forced till close upon nightfall. The Germans lost at least 1000 men, and the harvest of prisoners proved to be no more than 1500. So far from pressing on to Tours, the Germans were well content with the occupation of Orleans.

The defeated enemy disappeared into Sologne, whither the assailants could not follow. Rumours of all sorts began to assail the German commander, who could not collect reliable news by means of the agencies under his own control because of the fluctuating but dense cordon of mobiles and francs-tireurs all around him. Moltke and Blumenthal wished him to strike out southward towards the arsenals of Bourges, the depots of vehicles at Chateauroux and the improvised government offices at Tours. But he represented that he could not maintain himself nine or ten marches away from his nearest supports, and he was therefore allowed to stay at Orleans. The 22nd division and the 4th cavalry division, however, were withdrawn from him, and under these conditions von der Tann became uneasy as to his prospects of retaining even Orleans. His uneasiness was emphasized by reports of the appearance of heavy masses of French troops on the Loire above and below Orleansreports that were true as regards the side of Blots, and more or leas false as regards the Gien country. This news was obtained by the III. Army headquarters on the I9th of October, and next day von der Tann was ordered " not to abandon Orleans unless threatened by a greatly superior force." Such a threat soon became pronounced.

A new directing influence was at work at Tours in the person of Leon Gambetta, who arrived there by balloon from Paris and took control of the Delegation on the nth. With dc Freycinct (who was appointed deputy minister of war) as his most valued assistant. Gambetta at once became not merely the head of the government in the provinces, but the actual director of the war, in virtue of the fact that he was the very incarnation of the spirit of resistance to the invader. De la Mottc-Rouge was replaced at the head of the 15th corps by General d'Aurelle dc Paladincs, under whom at the same time the embryo i6th corps was placed. The new commander with practically dictatorial powers occupied himself first of all with the organization and training of his motley troops. The Delegation indeca planned an advance from Gien on Fbntaincbleau, but this was given up on d'Aurellc's representations, and the I5th corps drew back to a strong position at Salbris in front of Bourges. There by dint of personal ascendancy, relentless drilling and a few severe courts-martial, d'Aurelle produced an enormous improvement in the quality of his troops. Gambetta reinforced the troops at Salbris to the figure of 60,000, for the camp there was not merely a rendezvous but a school, the atmosphere of which profoundly affected even troops that only spent three or four days within its bounds. Meantime the i6th corps was formed at Blois and Vendftme, covered by a screen of francs-tireurs and National Guards. On October 23 a Urge force was sent over to the i6th corps from Salbris. This step was the first in a new plan of campaign.

A few days before it was taken, there had occurred an incident which led Moltlcc to a fresh misunderstanding of the situation towards the Loire. As mentioned above, the 22nd infan- Qbj--^, try and 4th cavalry divisions had been withdrawn from ^^ von dcr Tann's command and ordered back to Paris, and on their way-thither they were told to clear the country round Chatcaudun and Chartres. General von Wittich, therefore, with the 22nd division and some cavalry, appeared before Chatcaudun on the i8th of October. The little town was strongly held and repulsed the first attack. Wittich then prepared a second assault so carefully that sunset was at hand when tt was made. It would seem indeed that at this rjeriod, when the Germans were hoping for a speedy return to their fatherland, fhc spirit of the offensive in all ranks had temporarily died away. The assailants carried the edge of the town, only to find themselves involved in a painful struggle in the streets. House-to-house fighting went on long after dark, but at last the inhabitants gave way, and the Germans punished the town for its unconventional resistance by subjecting it to what was practically a sack.1 After this von Wittich passed on to Charters. which, making his preparations more carefully, he was able to occupy after a few shells had been fired. These events, and the presence « a French force at Dreux, as a matter of fact signified nothing, for the 15th and i6th corps were still on the Loire and at Salbri*. but they

1 In 1879 the government added the cross of the Legion of Honour to the town arms of Chateaudun.

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