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a population of 11,800 or more. The executive department consists of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and attorney-general. As a result of the dispute between Governor Arthur St Clair and the Territorial legislature, the constitution of 1802 conferred nearly all of the ordinary executive functions on the legislature. The governor's control over appointments was strengthened by the constitution of 1851 and by the subsequent creation of statutory offices, boards and commissions, but the right of veto was not given to him until the adoption of the constitutional amendments of 1003. The power as conferred at that time, however, is broader than usual, for it extends not only to items in appropriation bills, but to separate sections in other measures, and, in addition to the customary provision for passing a bill over the governor's veto by a two-thirds vote of each house it is required that the votes for rcpassage in each house must not be less than those given on the original passage. The governor is elected in November of even-numbered years for a terra of two years. He is commanderin-chicf of the state's military and naval forces, except when they are called into the service of the United States. He grants pardons and reprieves on the recommendation of the state board of pardons. If he die in office, resign or be impeached, the officers standing next in succession are the lieutenant-governor, the president of the Senate, and the speaker of the House of Representatives in the order named.
Members of the Senate and House of Representatives are elected for terms of two years; they must be residents of their respective counties or districts for one year preceding election, unless absent on public business of the state or of the United States. The ratio of representation in the Senate is obtained by dividing the total population of the state by thirty-five, the ratio in the House by dividing the population by one hundred. The membership in each house, however, is slightly above these figures, owing to a system of fractional representation and to the constitutional amendment of 1003 which allows each county at least one representative in the House of Representatives. The constitution provides for a rcapportionment every ten years beginning in 1861. Biennial sessions are held beginning on the first Monday in January of the even-numbered years. The powers of the two houses are equal in every respect except that the Senate passes upon the governor's appointments and tries impeachment cases brought before it by the House of Representatives. The constitution prohibits special, local and retroactive legislation, legislation impairing the obligation of contracts, and legislation levying a poll tax for county or state purposes or a tax on state, municipal and public school bonds (amendment of 1005), and it limits the amount and specifies the character of public debts which the legislature may contract.
The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme court of six judges, eight circuit courts1 of three judges each, ten districts (some with sub-divisions) of the common pleas court, the superior court of Cincinnati, probate courts, courts of insolvency in Cuyahoga and Hamilton counties, juvenile courts (established in 1004), justice of the peace courts and municipal courts. Under the constitution of 1802 judges were chosen by the legislature, but since 1851 they have been elected by direct popular vote—the judges of the supreme court being chosen at large. They are removable on complaint by a concurrent resolution approved by a two-thirds majority in each house of the legislature. The constitution provides that the terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature— the statutory provision is six years—that of the judges of the common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding six as may be prescribed by the legislature—the statutory provision is six years—and that of justices of the peace such even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus prescribed—the statutory provision is four years.
Local Government.—The county and the township are the units of the rural, the city and the village the units of the urban local
1 The provision for circuit courts was first made in the constitution by an amendment of 1883.
government. The chief county authority is the board of commissioners of three members elected for terms of two years. The other officials are the sheriff, treasurer and coroner, elected for two years; the auditor, recorder, clerk of courts, prosecuting attorney, surveyor and infirmary directors, elected for two years; and the board of school examiners (three) and the board of county visitors (six, of whom three are women), appointed usually by the probate judge for three years. The chief township authority is the board of trustees of three members, elected by popular vote for two years. In the parts of the state settled by people from New England township meetings were held in the early days, but their functions were gradually transferred to the trustees, and by 1820 the meetings had been given up almost entirely. The other township officials are
The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived. Of tne two chief cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government of Columbus and Toledo, also) in 1892-1902 was governed under the federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility among the council and various executive boards. The supreme court in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitutional. (State ex. rel. Kniscley vs. Jones, 66 Ohio State Reports, 453- See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491.) A special session of the legislature was called, and a new municipal code was adopted on the Mnd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it was a compromise between the Cleveland and the Cincinnati plans, with some additional features necessary to meet the conditions existing in the smaller cities. In order to comply with the court's interpretation of the constitution, municipalities were divided into only two classes, cities and villages, the former having a population of five thousand or more; the chief officials in both cities and villages were the mayor, council, treasurer and numerous boards of commissions. This was an attempt to devise a system of government that would apply to Cleveland, a city of 400,000 inhabitants, and to Painesyille with its 5000 inhabitants. The code was replaced by the Paine Law of 1909, which provided for a board of control (something like that under the " federal plan " in Cleveland, Columbus and Toledo) of three members: the mayor and the directors (appointed and removable by the mayor) of two municipal departments —public service and public safety, the former including public works and parks, and the latter police, fire, charities, correction and buildings. The mayor's appointments are many, and are seldom dependent on the consent of the council. A municipal civil service commission of three members (holding office for three years) is chosen by the president of the board of education, the president of the city council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commissioners; the pay (if any) of these commissioners is set by each city. The city auditor, treasurer and solicitor are elected, as under the code.
In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators i of I % is the minimum. Tne law docs not make the nomination of candidates for the United States Senate by this method mandatory nor such choice binding upon the General Assembly.
Laws.—The property rights of husband and wife are nearly equal; a wife may hold her property the same as if single, and a widower or a widow is entitled to the use for life of one-third of the real estate of which his or her deceased consort was seized at the time of his or her death. Among the grounds on which a divorce may be obtained are adultery, extreme cruelty, fraud, abandonment for three years, gross neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness, a former existing marriage, procurement of divorce without the state by one party. which continues marriage binding on the other, and imprisonment in a penitentiary. For every family in which there is a wife, a minor son, or an unmarried daughter, a homestead not exceeding Jiooo in value, or personal property not exceeding $500 in value, is exempt from sale for the satisfaction of debts.
In 1908 an act was passed providing for local option in regard to the sale of intoxicating liquors, by an election to be called an initiative petition, signed by at least 35 % of the electors of a county.
Charitable and Penal Institutions.—The state charitable and penal institutions are supervised by the board of charities of six members (" not more than three . . . from the same political party ") appointed by the governor, and local institutions by boards of county visitors of six members appointed by the probate judge. Each state institution in addition has its own board of trustees appointed by the governor, and each county infirmary is under the charge of three ongvie ...
a hospital for epileptics at Gallipolis, opened m 1893; institutions for feeble-minded, for the blind (opened 1839) and for the deaf (opened 1829) at Columbus; a state sanatorium for tuberculous patients at Mt. Vernon (opened 1909); an institution for crippled and deformed children (authorized in 1907); a soldiers' and sailora' orphans' home at Xenia (organized in 1869 by the Grand Army of the Republic); a home for soldiers, sailors, marines, their wives, mothers and widows, and army nurses at Madison (established by the National Women's Relief Corps; taken over by the state, 1904): and soldiers'and sailors' homes at Sandusky (opened 1888), supported by the state, and at Dayton, supported by the United States. The state penal institutions arc the boys' industrial school near Lancaster (established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home (1869) at Rathbooe near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield (authorized 1864, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus (1816).
Education.—Congress in 1785 set apart I sq. m. in each township of 36 sq. m. for the support of education. The public school system, however, was not established until 1825, and then it developed very skmiy. The office of state commissioner of common schools was created in 1837, abolished in 1840 and revived in 1843. School districts fail into four cUsses-^-citics, villages, townships and special districts—each of which has its own board of education elected by popular vote. Laws passed in 1877, 1890, 1893 and 1902 have made education compulsory for children between the ages of eight and fourteen. The school revenues arc derived from the sale and rental of public lands granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one mill on each dollar of taxable property in the state, from local levies (averaging 7-2 mills in township districts and 10-07 mil! • in separate districts in 1908), from certain fines and licences, and from tuition fees paid by non-resident pupils. The total receipts from all sources in 1908 amounted to 925,987,021; the balance from the preceding year was $11,714,135, and the total expenditures were $24,695,157. Three institutions for higher education are supported in large measure by the state: Ohio University at Athens, founded in 1804 on the proceeds derived from two townships granted by Congress to the Ohio Company;- Miami University (chartered in 1809) at Oxford, which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in the Symmes purchase; and Ohio State University (1873) at Columbus, which received the proceeds from the lands granted by Congress M." r the act of 1862 for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878. Wilberforce University (1856), for negroes, near Xcnia, is under the control of the African Methodist Episcopal Church; but the state established a normal and industrial department in 1888, and has since contributed to its maintenance. Under an act of 1902 normal colleges, supported by the state, have also been created in connexion with Ohio and Miami universities. Among the numerous other colleges and universities in the state are Western Reserve University (1826) at Cleveland, the university of Cincinnati (opened 1873) at Cincinnati, and Obertin College (1833) at Oberlin.
Financt.—The revenues of the state are classified into four funds; the general revenue fund, the sinking fund, the state common school fund and the university fund. The chief sources of the general revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and tiyarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301 and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705. Then is a tendency to reduce the rate on real property, leaving it as a basis for local taxation. The rate on collateral inheritances is 5%, on direct inheritances 2 %, on the excess above $3000. There are state, county and municipal boards of equalization. A special ta: ia levied for the benefit of the sinking fund—one-tenth of a mill ii 1909. The commissioners of the fund are the auditor, the secretary of state and the attorney-general. The public debt, which began to accumulate in 1825, was increased by the canal expenditures tc $16,880.000 in 1843. The constitution of 1651 practically deprived the legislature of the power to create new obligations. The funded debt was then gradually reduced until the last installment was paid in 1903. There still remains, however, an irredeemable debt due to the common schools, Ohio University and Ohio State University, in return for their public lands. About one-half of theannual common school fund is derived from local taxes; the state levy for this fund in 1909 was one mill, and the total receipts were $2.382,353. The university fund is derived from special taxes levied for the four institutions which receive aid from the state; in 1909 the levy was 0-245 mills and the total receipts were $582,843. Several banks anc trading houses with banking privileges were incorporated by specia statutes between 1803 and 1817. Resentment was aroused by the establishment of branches of the Bank of the United States at Chitlicothe and Cincinnati in 1817, and an atte.npt was made to tax them out of existence. State officials broke into the vaults of the Chilli roth« branch in i8io and took out $100,000 dud for taxes. The Federal courts compelled a restoration of the money and pronounce* the taxing law unconstitutional. In 1845 the legislature charterer for twenty years the State Bank of Ohio, based on the model of the
Itate Bank of Indiana of 1834. It became a puaranf.ee of conservative Banking, and was highly successful. There were at one time thirtysix branches. Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters ifter the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), nit the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the eduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the I4th of March 1900.
History.—Ohio was the pioneer state of the old North-West Territory, which embraced also what are now the states of ndiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and the N.E. corner of Minnesota. When discovered by Europeans, late in the first lalf of the 17th century, the territory included within what is now Ohio was mainly a battle-ground of numerous Indian tribes and the fixed abode of none except the Erics who occupied a strip along the border of Lake Erie. From the middle to the close of the i7th century the French were establishing a claim to .he territory between the Great Lakes and the Ohio river by discovery and occupation, and although they had provoked .he hostility of the Iroquois Indians they had helped the tVyandots, Miami's and, Shawnt-es to banish them from all crritory W. of the Muskingura river. Up to this time the English had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and updn the Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean. In 1701, w York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744. About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia an to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under K-roa de Bienvflle took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates ;>,' the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II. chartered the first Ohio Company, formed by Virginians and London merchants trading with Virginia for the purpose of colonizing the West. This company in 1750 sent Christopher Gist down the Ohio river to explore the country as far as the mouth of the Scioto river; and four years later the erection, of a fort was begun in its interest at the forks of the Ohio. The French drove the English away and completed the fort (Fort Duquesnc) for themselves. The Seven Years' War was the immediate consequence and thiscndcd in the cession of the entire North-West to Great Britain. The former Indian allies of the French, however, immediately rose up in opposition lo British rule in what is known as the Conspiracy of Pontiac (see J'ontiac), and the supression of this was not completed until Colonel Henry Bouquet made an expedition (1764) into the valley of the Muskingum and there brought the Shawnecs, Wyandots and Dclawares to terms. With the North-West won from the French Great Britain no longer recognized those claims of her colonies to this territory which she had asserted against that nation, but in a royal proclamation of the 7th of October 1763 the granting of land W. of the Allcghanies was forbidden and on the 2and of June 1774 parliament passed the Quebec Act which annexed the region to the province of Quebec. This was one of the grievances which brought on the War of Independence and during, that war the North-West was won for the Americans by George Rogers Clark (q.v.). During that war also, those states which had no claims in the West contended that title to these -western lands should pass to the Union and when the Articles of Confederation were submitted for ratification in 1777, Maryland refused to ratify them except on that condition. The result was that New York ceded its claim to the United States in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 1786, Connecticut, however, cxccpted a strip bordering on Lake Erie for 120 ra. and containing 3,250,000 acres. This district, known as the Western Reserve, was ceded in 1800 on condition that Congress would guarantee the titles to land already granted by the state. Virginia reserved a tract between the Little Miami and Scioto rivers, known as the Virginia Military District, for her soldiers in the War of Independence.
When the war was over and these cessions had been made a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an ordinance on the zoth of May 1785 by which the present national system of land-surveys into townships 6 m. sq. was inaugurated in what is now S.W. Ohio in the summer of 1786. In March 1786 the second Ohio Company (g.t.), composed chiefly of New England officers and soldiers, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts, with a view to founding a new state between Lake Erie and the Ohio river. The famous North-West Ordinance was passed by Congress on the v,tii of July 1787. This instrument provided a temporary government for the Territory with the understanding that, as soon as the population was sufficient, the representative system should be adopted, and later that states should be formed and admitted into the Union. There were to be not less thati three nor more than five states^ Of these the easternmost (Ohio) was to be bounded on the N., E. and S. by the Lakes, Pennsylvania and the Ohio river, and on the W. by a line drawn due N. from the mouth of the Great Miami river to the Canadian boundary, if there were to be three states, or to its intersection with an E. and W. Jinc drawn through the extreme 5. bend of Lake Michigan, if there were to be five. Slavery was forbidden by the sixth article of the ordinance; and the third article read: " Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall for ever be encouraged." After the adoption of the North-West Ordinance the work of settlement made rapid progress. There were four main centres. The Ohio Company founded Marietta at the mouth of the Muskingum in 1788, and this is regarded as the oldest permanent settlement in the state. An association of New Jerseymen, organized by John Cleves Symmes, secured a grant from Congress in 1788-1702 to a strip of 148,540 acres on the Ohio between the Great Miami and the Little Miami, which came to be known as the Symmes Purchase. Their chief settlements were Columbia (i 788) and Cincinnati (1789). The Virginia Military District, between the Scioto and the Little Miami, reserved in 1784 for bounties to Virginia continental troops, was colonized in large measure by people from that state. Their chief towns were Massievillc or Manchester (1790) and Chillicothe (1796). A small company of Connecticut people under Moses Cleaveland founded Cleveland in 1796 and Youngstown was begun a few years later, but that portion of the state made very slow progress until after the opening of the Ohio & Erie Canal in 1832.
During the Territorial period (1787-1803) Ohio was first a part of the unorganized North-West Territory (1787-1799), then a part of the organized North-West Territory (1799-1800), and then the organized North-West Territory (1800-1803), Indiana Territory having been detached from it on the W. In 1800. The first Territorial government was established at Marietta in July 1788, and General Arthur St Clair (17841818), the governor, had arrived in that month. His administration was characterized by the final struggle with the Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history of the state. The War of Independence was succeeded by a series of Indian uprisings. Two campaigns, the first under General Josiah Harmar (1753-1813) in 1790, and the second under General St Clair in 1791, failed on account of bad management and ignorance of Indian methods of warfare, and in 1793 General Anthony Wayne (?.r.) was sent out in command of a large force of regulars and volunteers. The decisive conflict, fought on the zoth of August 1794, near the rapids of theMaumee, is called the battle of Fallen Timbers, because the Indians concealed themselves behind the trunks of trees which had been felled by a storm. Wayne's dragoons broke through the brushwood, attacked the left flank of the Indians and soon put them to flight. In the treaty of Greenville (3rd August 1795) the Indians ceded their claims to the territory E. and S, of the Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, and an irregular line from Fort
Laurens (Bolivar) in Tuscarawas county to Fort Recovery in Mercer county, practically the whole E. and S. Ohio. The Jay Treaty was ratified in the same year, and in 1796 the British finally evacuated Detroit and the Maumce and Sandusky forts. By cessions and purchases in 1804, 1808 and 1817-1818 the state secured all of the lands of the Indians except their immediate homes, and these were finally exchanged for territory W. of the Mississippi. The last remnant migrated hi 1841. General Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of New Engenders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery. This rapid increase of population led to the establishment of the organized Territorial government in 1709, to the restriction of that government in Ohio in 1800, and to the admission of the state into the Union in 1803.
The Congressional Enabling Act of the soth of April 1802 followed that alternative of the North-West Ordinance which provided for five states in determining the boundaries, and in consequence the Indiana and Michigan districts were detached. A rigid adherence to the boundary authorized in 1787, however, would have resulted in the loss to Ohio of 470 sq. m. of territory in the N.W. part of the state, including the lake port of Toledo. Alter a long and bitter dispute—the Toledo War (see Toledo)— the present line, which is several miles N. of the S. bend of Lake Michigan, was definitely fixed in 1837, when Michigan came into the Union. (For the settlement of the eastern boundary,.see Pennsylvania.)
After having been temporarily at Marietta, Cincinnati, Chillicothe and Zanesville the capital was established at Columbus in 1816.
Since Congress did not pass any formal act of admission there has been some controversy as to when Ohio became a state. The Enabling Act was passed on the solh of April iSoj, the first state legislature met on the ist of March 1803, the Territorial judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress on the i /ill of October 1803. Congress decided in 1806 in connexion with the payment of salaries to Territorial officials that the ist of March 1803 was the date when state government began. During the War of 1812 the Indians under the lead of Tecumseh were again on the side of the British. Battles were fought at Fort Meigs (1813) and Fort Stephenson (Fremont, 1813) and Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's naval victory on Lake Erie in 1813 was on the Ohio side of the boundary line.
Owing to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of the early immigrants to Ohio came from the North, but, until the Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the principles of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas of equality. The Whigs were successful in the presidential elections of 1836 and 1840, partly because of the financial panic and partly because their candidate, William Henry Harrison, was & "favourite son," and in the election of 1844, because of the unpopularity of the Texas issue. Victory was with the Democrats in 1848 and 1852, but since the organization of the Republican party in 1854 the state has uniformly given to the Republican presidential candidates its electoral votes. In the Civil War Ohio loyally supported the Union, furnishing 319,659 men for the army. Dissatisfaction with the President's emancipation programme resulted in the election of a Democratic Congressional delegation in 1862, but the tide turned again after Gettysburg and Vicksburg; Clement L. Vallandigham, the Democratic leader, was deported from the state by military order, and the Republicans were successful in the elections of 1863 and 1864. A detachment of the Confederate cavalry under General Joha Morgan invaded the state in 1863, but was badly defeated in the battle of Buffington's Island (July i8th). Democratic governor! were elected in 1873, 1877, 1883, 1889, 1905, 1908 and Idio. Five presidents have come from Ohio, William Herry Harrison, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, William McKinlcy, Jr.. and William Howard Taft.
Bibliography.—For a brief but admirable treatment of the physiography *ee Stella S. Wilson, Ohio (New York, 1902), and a great mass of material on this subject is contained in the publications of the Geological Survey of Ohio (1837 et seq.). For the administration see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 1851 (Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, board ol state charities and commissioner of common schools, the EHii municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904). The Civil Code, issued 1852, the Criminal Code in 1869 and the Revived Statutes in 1879, have several times been amended and published in new editions. There are two excellent secondary accounts: Samuel P. Onh. The Centralization of Administration n Okio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, xvi. No. 3 (New York, 1903); and Wilbur H. Siebert, The Government of Ohio, its History and Administration (New York, 1904). B. A. Hinsdalc's History and Civil Government of Ohio (Chicago, 1896) is more elementary. For local government fee j. A. Wilgus, " Evolution of Township Government in Ohio," in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 4. pp. 403-412 (Washington, 1895); D. F. Wilcox, Municipal tratntnt in Michigan arid Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies
ia Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science Rffiew for November 1909. On education see George B. Gcrmann, National Legislation concerning Education, its Influence and Effect « tin Put/lit, Lands east of the Mississippi River, admitted prior to iSm (New York, 1899); J. J. Burns, Educational History of Ohio (Columbus, 1905).
Archaeology and History: P. G. Thomson's Bibliography of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1880) is an excellent guide to '.he study of Ohio's history. For archaeology sec Cyrus Thomas's Catalogue of Prehistoric Works
1 Died in office.
East of the Rocky Mountains (Washington, 1891), and his Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology in the 12th Report (1894) of that Bureau, supplementing his earlier bulletins. Problem of thf Okio Mounds and the Circular, Square and Octagonal Earthworks of Ohio (1889); and W. K. Moorehead, Primitive Man in Ohio (New York, 1892). The best history is Rufua King, Okie; First Fruits of the Ordinance of 1787 (Boston and New York, 1888). in the "American Commonwealths" series. Alexander Black's Story of Okio (Boston, 1888) is a short popular account. B. A. Hinsdale. The Old North-west (and cd.. New York, 1899), is good for the period before 1803. Of the older histories Caleb Atwater, History of the Statt of Ohio, Natural and Civil (Cincinnati, 1838), and James W. Taylor,
Life and Services of Arthur St Clair (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1862); Jacob Bnrnet, Notes on the Early Settlement of the North-Westem Territory (Cincinnati, 1847), written from the Federalist point of view, and hence rather favourable to St Clair; C. E. Slocum, Ohio Country between 1783 and 1815 (New York, 1910); and John Armstrong's Life ofAnthony Wayne in Sparks' " Library of American Biography" (Boston, 1834-1838), scries i. vol. iv. See also F. P. Goodwin, The Growth of Ohio (Cincinnati, 190?) and R. E. Chaddock, Ohio before 1850 (New York, 1908). There is considerable material of value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (1st cd., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891). T. B. Galloway, "The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Line Dispute, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications, vol. iv. pp. 199-230, is a good treatment of that complicated question. W. F. Gepnart's Transportation and Industrial Development in the Middle West (New York, 1909), in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, is a commercial history of Ohio.
OHIO COMPANY, a name of two iSth century companies organized for the colonization of the Ohio Valley. The first Ohio Company was organized in 1749, partly to aid in securing for the English control of the valley, then in dispute between England and France, and partly as a commercial project for trade with the Indians. The company was composed of Virginians, including Thomas Lee (d. 1750) and the two brothers of George Washington, Lawrence (who succeeded to the management upon the death of Lee) and Augustine; and of Englishmen, including John Hanbury, a wealthy London merchant. George II. sanctioned a grant to the company of 500,000 acres generally N.W. of the Ohio, and to the eastward, between the Monongahela and the Kanawha rivers, but the grant was never actually issued. In 1750-1751 Christopher Gist, a skilful woodsman and surveyor, explored for the company the Ohio Valley as far as the mouth of the Scioto river. In 1752 the company had a pathway blazed between the small fortified posts at Will's Creek (Cumberland), Maryland, and at Redstone Creek (Brownsville), Pennsylvania, which it had established in 1750; but it was finally merged in. the Walpole Company (an organization in which Benjamin Franklin was interested), which in 1772 had received from the British government a grant of a large tract lying along the southern bank of the Ohio as far west as the mouth of the Scioto river. The War of Independence interrupted colonization and nothing was accomplished.
The second company, the Ohio Company of Associates, was formed at Boston on the 3rd of March 1786. The leaders in the movement were General Rufus Putnam, Benjamin Tupper (1738-1792), Samuel Holdcn Parsons (1737-1789) and Manasseh Cutler. Dr Cutler was selected to negotiate with Congress, and seems to have helped to secure the incorporation in the Ordinance for the government of the North-West Territory of the paragraphs which prohibited slavery and provided for public education and for the support of the ministry. Cutler's original intention was to buy for the Ohio Company only about 1,500,000 acres, but on the 27th of July Congress authorized a grant of about 5,000,000 acres of land for $3,500,000; a reduction of one-third was allowed for bad tracts, and it was also provided that the lands could be paid for in United States securities. On the 27th of October 1787 Cutler and Major Wintnrop Sargent (1753820), who had joined him in the negotiations, signed two contracts; one was for the absolute purchase for the Ohio Company, at 66} cents an acre, of 1,500,000 acres of land lying along the north bank of the Ohio river, from a point near the site of the present Marietta, to a point nearly opposite the site of the present Huntington, Kentucky; the other was for an option to buy all the land between the Ohio and the Scioto rivers and the western boundary line of the Ohio Company's tract, extending north of the tenth township from the Ohio, this tract being pre-empted by "Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent for themselves and others "—actually for the Scioto Company (see Gaixipous). On the same day Cutler and Sargent "for themselves and associates " transferred to William Duer, then Secretary of the Treasury Board, and his associates "one equal moiety of the Scioto tract of land mentioned in the second contract," it being provided that both parties were to be equally interested in the sale of the land, and were to share equally any profit or loss. Colonists were sent out by the Ohio Company from New England, and Marietta, the first permanent settlement in the present state of Ohio, was founded in April 1788.
OHIO RIVER, the principal eastern tributary of the Mississippi river, U.S.A. It is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Mononganela rivers at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and flows N.W. nearly to the W. border of Pennsylvania, S.S.W. between Ohio and West Virginia, W. by N. between Ohio and Kentucky, and W.S.W. between Indiana and Illinois on the N. and Kentucky on the S. It is the largest of all the tributaries of the Mississippi in respect to the amount of water discharged (an average of about 158,000 cub. ft. per sec.), is first in importance as a highway of commerce, and in length (067 m.) as well as,in the area of its drainage basin (approximately 210,000 sq. m.) it is exceeded only by the Missouri. The slope of the river at low water ranges from i ft. or more per mile in the upper section to about 0-75 ft. per mile in the middle section and 0-29 ft. per mile in the lower section, and the total fall is approximately 500 ft. Nearly twothirds of the bed is occupied by 187 pools, in which the fall is very gentle; and the greater part of the descent is made over intervening bars, which are usually composed of sand or gravel but occasionally of hard pan or rock. The greatest falls are at Louisville, where the river within a distance of 2-25 m. descends S3'9 ft. over an irregular mass of limestone. The rock floor of the valley is usually 30 to 50 ft. below low water level, and when it comes to the surface, as it occasionally docs, it extends at this height only part way across the valley. In the upper part of the river the bed contains much coarse gravel and numerous boulders, but lower down a sand bed prevails. The ordinary width of the upper half of the river is quite uniform, from 1200 to 1500 ft., but it widens in the pool above Louisville, contracts immediately below the Falls, and then gradually widens again until it reaches a maximum width of more than a mile about 20 m. from its mouth. Islands are numerous and vary in size from an acre or less to 5000 acres; above Louisville there are fifty or more, and below it about thirty. Many of them are cultivated.
Besides its parent streams, the Allegheny and the Monongahela, the Ohio has numerouslarge branches. On the N. it receives the waters of the Muskingum, Scioto, Miami and Wabash rivers, and on the S. those of the Kanawha, Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Green, Cumberland and Tennessee rivers.
The drainage basin of the Ohio, in which the annual rainfall averages about 43 in., is, especially in the S. part of the river, of the " quick-spilling " kind, and as the swift mountain streams in that section are filled in February or March by the storms from the Gu!f of Mexico, while the northern streams arc swollen by melting snow and rain, the Ohio rises very suddenly and not infrequently attains a height of 30 to 50 ft. or more above low water level, spreads out ten to fifteen times its usual width, submerges the bottom lands, and often causes great damage to property in the lower part of the cities along its banks.
Robert Cavelier, Sicur de La Salic, asserted that he discovered the Ohio and descended it until his course was obstructed by a fall (thought to be the Falls at Louisville); this was probably in 1670, but until the middle of the next century, when its strategic importance in the struggle of the French and the English for the possession of the interior of the continent became fully recognized, little was generally known of it. By the treaty of 1763 ending the Seven Years' War the English finally gained
undisputed control of the territory along its banks. After Virginia had bought, in 1768, the claims of the Six Nations to the territory south of the Ohio, immigrants, mostly Virginians, began to descend the river in considerable numbers, but the Shawnee Indians, whose title to the land was more plausible than that of the Six Nations ever was, resisted their encroachments until the Shawnces were defeated in October 1774 at the battle of Point Pleasant. By the treaty of 1783 the entire Ohio country became a part of the United States and by the famous Ordinance of 1787 the north side was opened to settlement. Most of the settlers entered the region by the headwaters of the Ohio and carried much of their market produce, lumber, &c., down the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans or beyond. Until the successful navigation of the river by steamboats a considerable portion of the imports was carried overland from Philadelphia or Baltimore to Pittsburg. The first steamboat on the Ohio was the " New Orleans," which was built in 1811 by Nicholas J. Roosevelt and sailed from Pittsburg to New Orleans in the same year, but it remained for Captain Henry M. Shreve (1785-1854) to demonstrate with the " Washington," which he built in 1816, the success of this kind of navigation on the river. From 1820 to the Civil War the steamboat on the system of inland waterways of which the Ohio was a part was a dominant factor in the industrial life of the Middle West. Cincinnati, Louisville and Pittsburg on its banks were extensively engaged in building these vessels. The river was dotted with floating shops—drygoods boats fitted with counters, boats containing a tinner's establishment, a blacksmith's shop, a factory, or a lottery office. Until the Erie Canal was opened in 1825 the Ohio river was the chief commercial highway between the East and the West. It was connected with Lake Erie in 1832 by the Ohio & Erie Canal from Portsmouth to Cleveland, and in 1845 by the Miami & Erie Canal from Cincinnati to Toledo.
In the natural state of the river navigation was usually almost wholly suspended during low water from July to November, and it was dangerous at all times on account of the numerous snags. The Federal government in 1827 undertook to remove the snags and to increase the depth of water on the bars by the construction of contraction works, such as dikes and wing dams, and appropriations for these purposes as well as for dredging were continued until 1844 and resumed in 1866; but as the channel obtained was less than 3 ft. iu 1870, locks with movable dams—that is, dams that can be thrown down on the approach of a flood—were then advocated, and five years later Congress made an appropriation for constructing such a dam, the Davis Island Dam immediately below Pittsburg, as an experiment. This was opened in 1885 and was a recognized success; and in 1895 the Ohio Valley Improvement Association was organized in an effort to have the system extended. At first the association asked only for a channel 6 ft. in depth; and between 1896 and 1005 Congress authorized the necessary surveys and made appropriations for thirty-six locks and dams from the Davis Island Dam to the mouth of the Great Miami river. As the association then urged that the channel be made 9 ft. in depth Congress authorized the secretary of war to appoint a board of engineers which should make a thorough examination and report on the comparative merits of a channel 9 ft. in depth, and one 6 ft. in depth. The board reported in 1908 in favour of a 9-ft. channel and stated that fifty-four locks and dams would be necessary for such a channel throughout the course of the river, and Congress adopted this project. At the Falls is the Louisville & Portland Canal, originally built by a private corporation, with the United States as one of the stockholders, and opened in 1830, with a width of 50 ft., a length of 200 ft., and three locks, each wiih a lift of about 8j ft. In 1860-1872 the width was increased to 90 ft. and the three old locks were replaced by two new ones. The United States gradually increased its holdings of stock until in 1855 it became owrier of all but five shares; it assumed the management of the canal in 1874, abolished tolls in 1880, and thereafter improved it in many respects. Sixty-cifiht locks and dams have been constructed on the principal tributaries, and the Allegheny, MonongahcU, Cumberland, Tennessee,