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النشر الإلكتروني

Hrotsuit of Gandcrshcim, Carmen de gestis Oddonis—all in the Afonumenta Germanise historica. Scriptores. Bande iii. and iv. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826 fol.); Die Urkunden des Kaisers Ottos /., edited by Th. von Sickcl in the Afonumentn Germaniae historica. Dipiomaia (Hanover, 1879); W. von Gicscbrecht, Geschichte der deulscken Kaiserzeit (Leipzig, 1881); R. Kopke and E. Dummler, Jalirbuchtr des deutschen Reicks unter Otto I. (Leipzig, 1876); Th. von Sickel, Das Privilegium Otto I. fur die tomiscke Kirche (Innsbruck, 1883); H. von Sybcl, Die deutsche Nation und das Kaiserreich (Dusscldorf, 1862); O. von Wydt-nbruek, Die deutsche Nation und das Kaiserreich (Munich, 1862); J. Fickcr, Das deutsclie Kaiserrtich in seinen universalen und nationalen Beziehungen (Innsbruck, i8601 and Deutsches Kbnigthum und Kaiserthum (Innsbruck, 1862); G. Maurcnbrechcr, " Die Kaiscrpolitik Otto I." in the Ilistoriscke Zeitschrift (Munich, 1859); G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgcschichte (Kiel. 1844); J. Picker, Forschungen cur Reichs- und Reclitseeschickle Italtens (Innsbruck, 1868-1874): F. Fischer. Vber Olios L Zug in die Lombardei vom Jahre 951 (Eiscnbcrg, 1891); and K. Kotlcr, Die Ungamschlacht auf dem Lechfelde (Augsburg, 1884).

OTTO II. (955-983), Roman emperor, was the son of the emperor Otto the Great, by his second wife Adelaide. He received a good education under the care of his uncle, Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, and his illegitimate half-brother, William, archbishop of Mainz. He was chosen German king at Worms in 961, crowned at Aix-la-Chapclle on the z6thof May 961, and on the 2sth of December 967 was crowned joint emperor at Rome by Pope John XIII. On the i4th of April 972 he married Theophano, daughter of the eastern emperor Romanus II., and after sharing in various campaigns in Italy, returned to Germany and became sole emperor on the death of his father in May 973. After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably owing to Otto's-refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Henry II., the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria. The first conspiracy was easily suppressed, and in 974 an attempt on the part of Harold III., king of the Danes, to throw oft the German yoke was also successfully resisted; but an expedition against the Bohemians led by the king in person in 975 was a partial failure owing to the outbreak of further trouble in Bavaria. In 976 Otto deposed Duke Henry, restored order for the second time in Lorraine, and made another expedition into Bohemia in 977, when King Bolcslaus II. promised to return to his earlier allegiance. Having crushed an attempt made by Henry to regain Bavaria, Otto was suddenly attacked by Lothair, king of France, who held Aix in his possession for a few days; but when the emperor retaliated by invading France he met with little resistance. He was, however, compelled by sickness among his troops to raise the siege of Paris, and on the return journey the rearguard of his army was destroyed and the baggage seized by the French. An expedition against the Poles was followed by peace with France, when Lothair renounced his claim on Lorraine. The emperor then prepared for a journey to Italy. In Rome, where he restored Pope Benedict VII., he held a splendid court, attended by princes and nobles from all parts of western Europe. He was next required to punish inroads of the Saracens on the Italian mainland, and in September 981 he marched into Apulia, where he met at first with considerable success; but an alliance between the Arabs and the Eastern Empire, whose hostility had been provoked by the invasion of Apulia, resulted in a severe defeat on Otto's troops near Stilo in July 982. Without revealing his identity, the emperor escaped on a Greek vessel to Rossano. At a diet held at Verona, largely attended by German and Italian princes, a fresh campaign was arranged against the Saracens. Proceeding to Rome, Otto secured the election of Peter of Pavia as Pope John XIV. Just as the news reached him of a general rising of the tribes on the eastern frontier of Germany, he died in his palace in Rome on the 7th of December 983. He left a son, afterwards the emperor Otto III., and three daughters. He was buried in the alrium of St Peter's, and when the church was rebuilt his remains were removed to the crypt, where his tomb may still be seen. Otto, who is sometimes called the " Red," was a man of small stature, by nature brave and impulsive, and by training an accomplished knight. He was generous to the church and aided the spread of Christianity in many ways. •

Sec Die Urkunden des Kaisers Otto II., edited by Th. von Sickcl, in the Monumenta Germaniae historic a. Diplomats (Hanover, 1879);

L. von Ranke. Wettgeschichte. Part vii. (Leipzig, 1886); W. von Giescbrecht, Geschicnle der deutsclten Kaiserzeit (Leipzig, 18811890); and Jahrbucher des deutschen Reichs unter Kaiser Otto If. (Berlin, 1837-1840); H. Detmcr, Otto II. bis sum Tode seines Voters (Leipzig, 1878); J. Mottmann, Theophano die Gemaklin Ottos II. in ihrer Bedeutung fur die Politik.Ottos I. und Ottos II. (Gottingen, 1878); and A. Mattnaei. /';,- Handel Ottos II. mii Lolhar wn Frankreich (Halle. 1882).

OTTO III. (980-1002), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Otto II. and Thcophano,daughterof the eastern emperor Romanus II., was born in July 980, chosen as his father's successor at Verona in June 983 and crowned German king at Ai\-U-Chapclle on the 25th of the following December. Olto 11. had died a few days before this ceremony, but the news did not reach Germany until after the coronation. Early in 984 the king was seized by Henry II., the Quarrelsome, the deposed duke of Bavaria, who claimed the regency as a member of the reigning house, and probably entertained the idea of obtaining the kingly dignity himself. A strong opposition was quickly aroused, and when Theophano and Adelaide, widow of the emperor Otto the Great, appeared in Germany, Henry was compelled to hand over the young king to his mother. Otto's mental gifts were considerable, and were so carefully cultivated by Bcrnward, afterwards bishop of Hildcsheim, and by Gcrbcrt of Aurillac, archbishop of Reims, that he was called "the wonder of the world." The government of Germany during his minority was in the hands of Theophano, and after her death in June 991 passed to a council in which the chief influence was exercised by Adelaide and Willigis, archbishop of Mainz. Having accompanied his troops in expeditions against the Bohemians and the Wends, Otto was declared of age in 995. In 096 he crossed the Alps and was recognized as king of the Lombards at Pavia, Before he reached Rome, Pope John XV., who had invited him to Italy, had died, whereupon he raised his own cousin Bruno, son of Otto duke of Carinlhia, to the papal chair as Pope Gregory V., and by this pontiff Otto was crowned emperor on the 2ist of May 996. On his return to Germany, the emperor learned that Gregory had been driven from Rome, which was again in the power of John Crescentius, patrician of the Romans, and that a new pope, John XVI., had been elected. Leaving his aunt, Matilda, abbess of Qucdlinburg, as regent of Germany, Otto, in February 998, led Gregory back to Rome, took the castle of St Angclo by storm and put Crescentius to death, A visit to southern Italy, where many of the princes did homage to the emperor, was cut short by the death of the pope, to whose chair Otto then appointed his former tutor Gerbert, who took the name of Sylvester II. In the palace which he built on U*e Aventinc, Otto sought to surround himself with the splendour and ceremonial of the older emperors of Rome, and dreamed of making Rome once more the centre of a universal empire. Many names and customs were introduced into his court from that of Constantinople; he proposed to restore the Roman senate and consulate, revived the office of patrician, called himself "consul of the Roman senate and people" and issued a seal with the inscription, "restoration of the Roman empire." Passing from pride to humility he added " sen-ant of the apostle." and "servant of Jesus Christ" to the imperial title, spent a fortnight in prayer in the grotto of St Clement and did penance in various Italian monasteries. Leaving Italy in the summer preceding the year 1000, when it was popularly believed that the end of the world was to come, Otto made a pilgrimage to the tomb of his old friend Adalbert, bishop of Prague, at Gncscn. and raised the city to the dignity of an archbishopric. He then went to Aix, and opened the tomb of Charlemagne, where, according to a legendary talc, he found the body of the great emperor sitting upright upon a throne, wearing the crown and holding the sceptre. Returning to Rome, trouble soon arose between Olto and the citizens, and for three days the emperor was besieged in his palace. After a temporary peace, he fled lo the monastery of Classc near Ravenna. Troops were collected. but whilst conducting a campaign against the Romans, Otto died at Patcrno near Vitcrbo on the 23rd of January 1002, and was buried in the cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle. Tradition says he was ensnared and poisoned by Stephania, the widow of Crescentius, The mystic erratic temperament of Otto, alternating between the most magnificent schemes of empire and the lowest depths of self-debasement, was not conducive to the welfare of his dominions, and during his reign the conditions of Germany deteriorated. He was liberal to the papacy, and was greatly influenced by the eminent clerics with whom he eagerly associated.


See Thangrrtar, Vila Bernwardi tpiseapi JJildeiketmenris in the Zfonumtnta Cermaniae historica. Striptores, Band iv. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826 fol.); Lftires dt Cerbert, edited by J. Havel (Paris, 1869); Die Vrkunden Kaisers Ottos III., edited by Th. von Sided in the Afonvmenla Ctrmaniae historica. Diplomat (Hanover, 1879); R. Wilmans, Jahrbucker des deutschen Reichs unter Kaiser Otto III. (Berlin, 1837-1840); P. Kehr, Die Vrkunden Olio III. (Innsbruck, 1890).

OTTOIV.(c. 1182-1218),Roman emperor,second son of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, and Matilda, daughter of Henry II., king of England, was most probably born at Argenton in central France. His father died when he was still young, and he was educated at the court of his uncle Richard I., king of England, under whose leadership he gained valuable experience in war, being appointed duke of Aquitaine, count of Poitou and carl of Yorkshire. When the emperor Henry VI. died in September 1197, some of the princes under the leadership of Adolph, archbishop of Cologne, were anxious to find a rival to Philip, duke of Swabia, who had been elected German king. After some delay their choice fell upon Otto, who was chosen king at Cologne on the gib of June 1198. Hostilities broke out at once, and Otto, who drew his main support from his hereditary possessions in the Rhincland and Saxony, seized Aix-la-Chapcllc, and was crowned there on the izth of July 1198. The earlier course of the war was unfavourable to Otto, whose position was weakened by the death of Richard of England in April 1109; but his cause began to improve when Pope Innocent III. declared for him and placed his rival under the ban in April 1201. This support was purchased by a capitulation signed by Otto at Neuss, which ratified the independence and decided the boundaries of the States of the Church, and was the first authentic basis for the practical authority of the pope in central Italy. In 1200 an attack made by Philip on Brunswick was beaten off, the city of Worms was taken, and subsequently the aid of Ottakar I., king of Bohemia, was won for Otto. The papal legate Guido worked energetically on his behalf, several princes were persuaded to desert Philip and by the end of i :dj his success seemed assured. But after a period of reverses, Otto was wounded during a fight in July 1206 and compelled to take refuge in Cologne. Retiring to Denmark, he obtained military assistance from King Waldemar II., and a visit to England procured monetary aid from King John, after which he managed to maintain his position in Brunswick. Preparations were made to drive him from his last refuge, when he was saved by the murder of Philip in June 1208. Many of the supporters of Philip now made overtures to Otto, and an attempt to set up Henry I. duke of Brabant having failed, Otto submitted to a fresh election and was chosen German king at Frankfort on the nth of November 1208 in the presence of a large gathering of princes. A general reconciliation followed, which was assisted by the betrothal of Otto to Philip's eldest daughter Beatrix, but as she was only ten years old, the marriage was deferred until the 32nd of July 1212. The pope who had previously recognized the victorious Philip, hastened to return to the side of Otto; the capitulation of Neuss was renewed and large concessions were made to the church.

In August 1209 the king set out for Italy. Meeting with no opposition, he was received at Viterbo by Innocent, but refused the papal demand that he should concede to the church all the territories which, previous to 1197, had been in dispute between the Empire and the Papacy, consenting, however, not to claim supremacy over Sicily. He was crowned emperor at Rome on the 4th of October 1209, a ceremony which was followed by fighting between the Romans and the German soldiers. Toe pope then requested the emperor to leave Roman territory;

but he remained near Rome for some days, demanding-satisfaction for the losses suffered by his troops. The breach with Innocent soon widened, and in violation of the treaty made with the pope Otto attempted to recover for the Empire all the property which Innocent had annexed to the Church, and rewarded his supporters with large estates in the disputed territories. Having occupied Tuscany he marched into Apulia, part of the kingdom of Frederick of Hohcnstaufcn, afterwards the emperor Frederick II., and on the iSth of November 1210 was excommunicated by the pope. Regardless of this sentence Otto completed the conquest of southern Italy, but the efforts of Innocent had succeeded in arousing considerable opposition in Germany, where the rebels were also supported by Philip Augustus, king of France. A number of princes assembled at Nuremberg declared Otto deposed, and invited Frederick to fill the vacant throne. Returning to Germany in March 1212, Otto made some headway against his enemies until the arrival of Frederick towards the close of the year. The death of his wife in August 1212 had weakened his hold on the southern duchies, and he was soon confined to the district of the lower Rhine, although supported by money from his uncle King John of England. The final blow to his fortunes came when he was decisively defeated by the French at Bouvincs in July 1214. He escaped with difficulty from the fight and took refuge in Cologne. His former supporters hastened to recognize Frederick; and in 1216 he left Cologne for Brunswick, which he had received in 1202 by arrangement with his elder brother Henry. The conquest of Hamburg by the Danes, and the death of John of England, were further blows to his cause. On the ipth of May 1218 he died at the Harzburg after being loosed from the ban by a Cistercian monk, and was buried in the church of St Blasius at Brunswick. He married for his second wife in May 1214 Marie, daughter of Henry I., dukeof Brabant, but left nochildrcn. See Reeesta imperil V., edited by J. Picker (Innsbruck. 1881); L. von Ranke, Wcltgtschichte, Part viii. (Leipzig, 1887-1888); W. von Gicscbrccht, Gtschichie der deulschen Kaiserzeit, Band v. (Leipzig, 1888); O. Abel. Kaiser OUo IV. und Konig Friedrich II. (Berlin. 1856); E. Winkclmann, Philipp von Schwaben und Otto IV.


von Braunschweig (Leipzig, 1873-1878); G. Langcrfcldt. Kaiser Otto der Vierte (Hanover, 1872); R. Schwcmcr, Innoccnz III. und die deutscke Kircke wdhrend des Thronslreites (Strassburg. 1882); and A. Luchaire, Innocent HI., la papauii et {'empire (Pans, 1906); and Innocent III., la question d'Orient (Paris, 1906).

OTTO OF FREISING (c. 1114-1158), German bishop and chronicler, was the fifth son of Leopold III., margrave of Austria, by his wife Agnes, daughter of the emperor Henry IV. By her first husband, Frederick I. of Hohcnstaufcn, duke of Swabia, Agnes was the mother of the Gerrran king Conrad III., and grandmother of the emperor Frederick I.; and Otto was thus related to the most powerful families in Germany. The notices of his life are scanty and the dates somewhat uncertain. He studied in Paris, where he took an especial interest in philosophy, is said to have been one of the first to introduce the philosophy of Aristotle into Germany, and he served as provost of a new foundation in Austria. Having entered the Cistercian order. Otto became abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Morimond in Burgundy about 1136, and soon afterwards was elected bishop of Freising. This diocese, and indeed the whole of Bavaria, was then disturbed by the feud between the Welfs and the Hohen* staufen, and the church was in a deplorable condition; but a great improvement was brought about by the new bishop in both ecclesiastical and secular matters. In 1147 he took part in the disastrous crusade of Conrad III. The section of the crusading army led by the bishop was decimated, but Otto reached Jerusalem, and returned to Bavaria in i i48or 1149. He enjoyed the favour of Conrad's successor, Frederick I.; was probably instrumental in settling the dispute over the duchy of Bavaria in 1156; was present at the famous diet at Bcsancon in 1157, and, still retaining the dreSs of a Cistercian monk, died at Morimond on the 22nd of September 1158. In 1857 a statue of the bishop was erected at Freising.

Otto wrote a Chronicon, sometimes called De duabus civitatibiu, an historical and philosophical work in right books, which follows to some extent the lines laid down by Augustine and Orosiu*. Written during the time of the civil war in Germany, it contrasts Jerusalem and Babel, the heavenly and the earthly Kingdoms, but also contains much valuable information about the history of the time. The chronicle, which was held in very high regard by contemporaries, goes down to 1146, and from this date until 1209 has been continued by Otto, abbot of St Blasius (d. 1223). Better known is Otto's Geita Fridtrici impcratoris, written at the request of Frederick I., and prefaced by a letter from the emperor to the author. The Gesta is in four books, the first two of which were written by Otto, and the remaining two, or part of them, by his puptl Ragewin, or Rahcuin; it has been argued that the third book and the early part of the fourth were also the work of Otto. Beginning with the quarrel between Pope Gregory VII. and the emperor Henry IV., the first book takes the history down to the death of Conrad III. in 1152. It is not confined to German affairs, as the author digresses to tell of the preaching of Bernard of Clairvaux, of his zeal against the heretics, and of the condemnation of Abclard: and discourses on philosophy and theology. The second book opens with the election of Frederick I. in 1152, and deals with the history of the first five years of his reign, especially in Italy, in some detail. From this point (i 156) the work is continued by Ragewin. Otto's Latin is excellent, and in spite of a slight partiality for the Hohcnstaufcn, and some minor inaccuracies, the Gesta has been rightly described as a "model of historical composition." First printed by John Cuspinian at Strassburg in 1515, Otto's writings arc now found in the Afonumenta Germaniae kistorica, Band xx. (Hanover, 1868), and have been translated into German by H. Kohl (Leipzig, 1881-1886). The Gesta Fridtrici has been published separately with introduction by G. Waltz. Otto* is also said to have written a history of Austria (Historia Austriaca).

See J. Hashagen, Otto von Freistng al$ Gcschicktsphilosobk und Kirckrnpo'.ttikcr (Leipzig, loxx>); I. Schmkllin, Die geschichtsphitosopkische und kirchenpotitische Weltanschauung Otto von Freisinf (Freiburg, 1906); W. Wattcnbach, Dcutschlands Geschichtsquelltn, Band ii. (Berlin, 1804^; and for full bibliography, A. Potthast, Bibtiotheca kistorica (Berlin, 1896). (A. \V. H.*)

OTTO OP NORDHEIM (d. 1083), duke of Bavaria, belonged to the rich and influential Saxon family of the counts of Nordheim, and having distinguished himself in war and peace alike, received the duchy of Bavaria from Agnes, widow of the emperor Henry III., in 1061. In 1062 he assisted Anno, archbishop of Cologne, to seize the person of the German king, Henry IV.; led a successful expedition into Hungary in 1063; and took a prominent part in the government during the king's minority. In 1064 he went to Italy to settle a papal schism, was largely instrumental in securing the banishment from court of Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, and crossed the Alps in the royal interests on two other occasions. He neglected his duchy, but added to his personal possessions, and in 1069 shared in two expeditions in the cast of Germany. In 1070 Otto was accused by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king, and it was decided he should submit to the ordeal of battle with his accuser. The duke asked for a safe-conduct to and from the place of meeting, and when this was refused he declined to appear, and was consequently deprived of Bavaria, while his Saxon estates were plundered. He obtained no support in Bavaria, but raised an army among the Saxons and carried on a campaign of plunder against Henry until 1071, when he submitted; in the following year he received back his private estates. When the Saxon revolt broke out in 1073 Otto is represented by Bruno, the author of Dc bello Saxonico, as delivering an inspiring speech to the assembled Saxons at Wonnslcbcn, after which he took command of the insurgents. By the peace of Gerstungen in 1074 Bavaria was restored to him; he shared in the Saxon rising of 1075, after which he was again pardoned and made administrator of Saxony. After the excommunication of Henry IV. in 1076 Otto attempted to mediate between Henry and the Saxons, but when these efforts failed he again placed himself at their head. He assented to the election of Rudolph, count of Rhclnfelden, as German king, when his restoration to Bavaria was assured, and by his skill and bravery inflicted defeats on Henry's forces at Mcllrichstadt, Flarchhcim and Hohenmfilsen. He remained in arms against the king until his death on the nth of January 1083. Otto is described as a noble, prudent and warlike man, and he possessed great abilities. His repeated pardon showed that Henry could not afford to neglect such a powerful personality, and his military talents were repeatedly displayed. By his wife Richenza, widow of Hermann, count of Werla, he left three sons and three daughters.

See W. von Giesebrcchr. Geschichtc dcr dentschrn Kaisencit, Band iii. (Leipzig, 1881-1890); H. Mehmcl, Otto von Nordkeim, Hertot von Bayern (Gottingen, 1870); E. Neumann, Dc Otlone tie Nordlieim (Breslau, 1871); S. Riczlcr, Gcschichte Baytrns (Gotha, 1878); and A. Vogcler, OUa von Nordheim (Gottingen, 1880).

OTTOMAN, a form of couch which usually has a head but no back, though sometimes it has neither. It may have square or semicircular ends, and as a rule it is what upholsterers call "stuffed over "—that is to say no wood is visible. It belongs to the same order of ideas as the divan (q.v.)', its name indeed betokens its Oriental origin. It was one of the luxurious appointments which Europe imported from the East in the iSih century; the first mention that has been found of it is in France in 1729. In the course of a generation it made its way into every boudoir, but it appears originally to have been much larger than at present. The word is also applied to a small foot-stool covered with carpet, embroidery or bcadwork.

OTTUMWA, a city and the county-seat of W&pello county, Iowa, U.S.A., on both sides of the Dcs Moines river, in the S.E. part of the state, about 85 m. S.E. of Dcs Moines. Pop. (iqoo) 18,197, of whom 1759 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 22,012. It is served by the Chicago, Burlington £ Quiocy, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Wabash railways. The site on which it is built forms a succession of terraces receding farther and farther from the river. In the city are a Carnegie library, a city hospital and St Joseph's Academy. Otturmva is the headquarters of the Ottumwa Division of the Southern Federal Judicial District of Iowa, and terms of United States District and Circuit courts are held there. The city is in one of the richest coal regions of the state, and ranks high as a manufacturing centre, pork-packing, and the manufacture of iron and steel, machinery and agricultural and mining implements being the leading industries. The value of the factory product in 1005 was $10,374,183, an increase of iQ'5% since 1900. Ottumwa was first settled in 1843, was incorporated as a town in 1851, and first chartered as a city in 1857

OTWAY, THOMAS (1652-1685), English dramatist, was born at Trotton, near Midhurst, Sussex, on the 3rd of March 165:. His father, Humphrey Otway, was at that time curate of Trotton, but Otway's childhood was spent at Woolbcding, a parish 3 m. distant, of which his father had become rector. He was educated at Winchester College, and in 1669 entered Christ Church, Oxford, as a commoner, but left the university without a degree in the autumn of 1672. At Oxford he made the acquaintance of Anthony Cary, 5th viscount Falkland, through whom, he sajs in the dedication to Cains Afarius, he first learned to love books. In London he made acquaintance with Mrs Aphra Bchn, who in 1672 cast him for the part of the old king in her Fore'rf Marriage, or The Jealous Bridegroom, at the Dorset Garden Theatre, but he had a bad attack of stage fright, and never made a second appearance. In 1675 Thomas Betterton produced at the same theatre Otway's first dramatic attempt, Aldbicdts, which was printed in the same year. It is a poor tragedy, written in heroic verse, but was saved from absolute failure by the actors. Mrs Barry took the part of Draxilla, and her lover, the earl of Rochester, recommended the author of the piece to the notice of the duke of York. He made a great advance on this first work in Don Carlos, Prince of Spain (licensed June 15, 1676; an undated edition probably belongs to the same year). The material for this rhymed tragedy Otway took from the novd of the same name, written in 1672 by the Abb£ de Saint-R£al, the source from which Schiller also drew his tragedy of Don Carlos. In it the two characters familiar throughout his plays make their appearance. Don Carlos is the impetuous, unstable youth, who seems to be drawn from Otway himself, while the queen's part is the gentle pathetic character repeated in his more celebrated heroines, Monimia and Bclvidcra. *' It got more money," says John Downes (Roscius Anglicantut 1708) of this play, " than any preceding modern tragedy." In 1677 Bettertoa produced two adaptations from the French by Olway, Ttfu and Berenice (from Racine's Birinice), and the Cheats ef Sea fin (from Molicre's Fourberies de Scapin). These were printed together, with a dedication to Lord Rochester. In 1678 he produced an original comedy, Friendship in 1-dsHion, popular at the moment, though it was hissed off the stage for its gross indecency when it was revived at Drury Lane in 1749. Meanwhile he had conceived an overwhelming passion for Mrs Barry, who filled many of the leading parts in his plays. Six of his letters to her survive, the last of them referring to a broken appointment in the Mall. Mrs Barry seems to have coquetted with Otway, but she had no intention of permanently offending Rochester. In 1678, driven to desperation by Mrs Barry, Otway obtained a commission through Charles, carl of Plymouth; a natural son of Charles II., in a regiment serving in the Netherlands. The English troops were disbanded in 1670, but were left to find their way home as best they could. They were also paid with depreciated paper, and Otway arrived in London late in the year, ragged and dirty, a circumstance utilized by Rochester in his " Sessions of the Poets," which contains a scurrilous attack on his former protege. Early in the next year (February 1680) was produced at Dorset Garden the first of Otway's two tragic masterpieces, Tke Orphan, or The Unhappy Hamate, Mrs Barry playing the part of Monimia. Written in blank verse, which shows a study of Shakespeare, its success was due to the- tragic pathos, of which Otway was a master, in the characters of Castalio and Monimia. The History and Fall of Cains Marius, produced in the same year, and printed in 1692, is a curious grafting of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet on the story of Marius as related in Plutarch's lifts. In 1680 Otway also published The Poet's Complaint of kis Must, or A Satyr against Libclls, in which he retaliated on his literary enemies. An indifferent comedy, Tke Soldier's Fortune (1681), was followed in February 1682 by Venice Preserved, or A Plot Discaser'd. The story is founded on the Histoire de la conjuration des Espagnols contre la Venise en l6tS, by the Abbe de Saint-Real, but Otway modified the story considerably. The character of Belvidera is his own, and the leading part in the conspiracy, taken by Bedamor, the Spanish ambassador, is given in the play to the historically insignificant Pierre and Jaffier. The piece has a political meaning, enforced in the .prologue. The Popish Plot was. in Otway's mind, and Anthony, ist earl of Shaftesbury, is caricatured in Antonio. The play won instant success. It was translated into almost every modern European language, and even Dryden said of it: "Nature is there, which is the greatest beauty." The Orphan and Venice Preserved remained stock pieces on the stage until the igth century, and the leading actresses of the period played Monimia and Belvidera. One or two prefaces, another weak comedy, The Atheist (1684), and two posthumous pieces, a poem, Windsor Castle (1685), a panegyric of Charles II., and a History of the Triumvirates (1686), translated from the French, complete the list of Otway's works. He apparently ceased to struggle against his poverty and misfortunes. The generally accepted story regarding the manner of his death was first given in Theophilus Cibbcr's Lives of the Poets. He is said to have emerged from his retreat at the Bull on Tower Hill to beg for bread. A passer-by, learning who he was, gave him a guinea, with which Otway hastened to a baker's shop. He began loo hastily to satisfy his ravenous hunger, and choked with the first mouthful. Whether this account of his death be true or not, it is certain that he died in the utmost poverty, and was buried on the i6th of April 1685 in the churchyard of St Clement Danes. A tragedy entitled Heroick Friendship was printed in 1686 as Otway's work, but the ascription is unlikely.


Tlie Works of Mr Thomas Ortnay vith some account of his life and writing!, published in 1712, was followed by other edition] (1757, 1768, 1812). The standard edition ia that by T. Thornton (1813). A •election of hi» playi was edited for the Mermaid series (1891 and 1903) by Roden Noel. See also E. Gossc, Semuctnlh Century Sadies (i 883); and Genest, History of the Stage.

OUBLIETTE, a French architectural term (from ovblier, to forget), used in two senses of a dungeon or cell in a prison or castle which could only be reached by a trap-door from another dungeon, and of a concealed opening or passage leading from a dungeon to the moat or river, into which bodies of prisoners who .were to be secretly disposed of might be dropped. . Viollct le

Due (Diet, de Farchitecture) gives a diagram of such an oubliette at the castle of Pierrefonds, France. Many so-called "oubliettes " in medieval castles were probably outlets for the disposal of drainage, refuse-, &c., which at times may have served for the getting rid of prisoners.

OUCH, a brooch, clasp or buckle, especially one ornamented with jewels, enamels, Stc., and used to clasp a cope or other ecclesiastical vestment. It is also used, as in Eiod. xxiix. 6, of the gold or silver setting of jewels. The word is an example of the misdivision of a substantive and the indefinite article, being properly " nouche," " a nouche " being divided into " an ouche," as a napron into an apron, a nadder into an adder, and, reversely, an ewt, i.e. eft, into a newt. "Nouche " was adapted into O. Fr.; whence English took the word, from the Late Lat. nusca, brooch; probably the original is Celtic, cf. 0. Irish nose, ring, nasgaim, fasten.

OUDENARDE (Flemish Oudenaerde), a town of Belgium in the province of East Flanders, 18 m. S. of Ghent. Pop. (1904) 6572. While it is best known for the great victory gained by Marlborough and Eugene over the French under Vcndomc in 1708, Oudenarde has many features of interest. The town hall, which took ten years to build (1525-1535), has after that of Louvain the most elaborately decorated facade in Belgium. It was designed by H. van Peedc and G. de Rondc, and is in tertiary Gothic style. The belfry tower of five storeys with three terraces, surmounted by a golden figure, is a striking feature. The council chamber contains a fine oak door and Gothic chimney-piece, both c. 1530. There are also two interesting old churches, St Walburga, partly of the I2th and partly of the i.jth century, and Notre Dame, dating from the 131)1 century. The former contains several fine pictures by Craeyer and other old Flemish masters.

The Battle of Oudenarde (June 3Oth-July i ith 1708) was fought on the ground north-west and north of the town, which was then regularly fortified and was garrisoned by a force of the Allies. The French army under the duke of Burgundy and Marshal Vendome, after an abortive attempt to invest Oudenarde, took up a defensive position north of the town when Marlborough and Eugene, after a forced march, arrived with the main Allied army. The advanced guard of the Allies under General (Lord) Cadogan promptly crossed the Scheldt and annihilated an outlying body of French troops, and Cadogan established himself on the ground he had won in front of the French centre. But the Allied main array took a long time to defile over the Scheldt and could form up (on the left of Cadogan's detachment) only slowly and by degrees. Observing this, Burgundy resolved to throw forward his right towards Oudenarde to engage and hold the main body of the Allies before their line of battle could be formed. This effected', it was hoped that the remainder of the French army could isolate and destroy Cadogan's detachment, which was already closely engaged with the French centre. But he miscalculated both the endurance of Cadogan's men (amongst whom the Prussians were conspicuous for their tenacity) and the rapidity with which in Marlborough's and Eugene's hands the wearied troops of the Allies could be made to move. Martborough, who personally directed the operations on his left wing, not only formed his line of battle successfully, but also began seriously to press the forces that had been sent to check his deployment. Before long, while the hostile left wing still remained inactive, the unfortunate troops of the French centre and right were gradually hemmed in by the whole force of the Allies. The decisive blow was delivered by the Dutch marshal, Overkirk, who was sent by Marlborough with a large force (the last reserve of the Allies) to make a wide turning movement round the extreme right of the French, and at the proper time attacked them in rear. A belated attempt of the French left to intervene was checked by the British cavalry, and the pressure on the centre and right, which were now practically surrounded, continued even after nightfall. A few scattered units managed to escape, and the left wing retreated unmolested, but at the cost of about 3000 casualties the Allies inflicted a loss of 6000 killed and wounded and oooo prisoners on the enemy, who were, moreover, so shaken that they never recovered their confidence to the end of the campaign. The battle of Oudenarde was not the greatest of Marlborough's victories, but it affords almost the best illustration of his military character. Contrary to all the rules of war then in vogue, he fought a piecemeal and unpremeditated battle, with his back to a river, and with wearied troops, and the event justified him. An ordinary commander would have avoided fighting altogether, but Marlborough saw beyond the material conditions and risked all on his estimate of the moral superiority of his army and of the weakness of the French leading. His conduct of the battle, once it had opened, was a model of the " partial " victory—the destruction of a part of the enemy's forces under the eyes of the rest—which was in the 17th and i8th centuries the tactician's ideal, and was sufficient to ensure him the reputation of being the best general of his age. But it is in virtue of having fought at all that he passes beyond the criteria of the time and becomes one of the great captains of history.

i OUDINE. EUGENE AHDKE (1810-1887), French sculptor and medallist, was born in Paris in 1810, and devoted himself from the beginning to the medallist's branch of sculpture, although he also excelled in monumental sculpture and portrait busts. Having carried off the grand prize for medal engraving in 1831, he had a sensational success with his "Wounded Gladiator," which he exhibited in the same year. He subsequently occupied official posts as designer, first to the Inland Revenue Office, and then to the Mint. Among his most famous medals are that struck in commemoration of the annexation of Savoy by France, and that on the occasion of the peace of Villafranca. Other remarkable pieces are " The Apotheosis of Napoleon I.," "The Amnesty," "Le Due d'Orleans," "Bertholct," " The Universal Exposition," " The Second of December, 1851," " The Establishment of the Republic," " The Battle of Inkcrmann," and " Napoleon's Tomb at the Invalidcs." For the Hotel de Ville in Paris he executed fourteen bas-reliefs, which were destroyed in 1871. Of his monumental works, many arc to be seen in public places in and near Paris. In the Tuilcries gardens is his group of" Daphnis and Hebe "; in the Luxembourg gardens the " Queen Bertha "; at the Louvre the " Buffon"; and in the courtyard of the same palace the " Bathsheba." A monument to General Espagne is at the Invalides, and a King Louis VIII. at Versailles. Oudine, who may be considered the father of the modern medal, died in Paris in 1887.

OUDINOT, CHARLES NICOLAS (1767-1847), duke of Reggio, marshal of France, came of a bourgeois family in Lorraine, and was born at Bar-le-duc on the 25lh of April 1767. He had a passion for a military career, and served in the regiment of Medoc from 1784 to 1787, when, having no hope of promotion on account of his non-noble birth, he retired with the rank of sergeant. The Revolution changed his fortunes, and in 1791, on the outbreak of war, he was elected lieutenant-colonel of the 3rd battalion of the volunteers of the Mouse. His gallant defence of the little fort of Bitsch in the Vosges in 1792 drew attention to him; he was transferred to the regular army in November 1793, and after serving in numerous actions on the Belgian frontier he was promoted general of brigade in June 1794 for his conduct at the battle of Kaiscrslautem. He continued to serve with the greatest distinction on the German frontier under Hoche, Pichegru and Moreau, and was repeatedly wounded and once (in 1795) made prisoner. He was Massena's right hand all through the great Swiss campaign of 1799—first as a general of division, to which grade he was promoted in April, and then as chief of the staff—and won extraordinary distinction at the battle of Zurich. He was present under Massena at the defence of Genoa, and so distinguished himself at the combat of Monzambano that Napoleon presented him with a sword of honour. He was made inspector-general of infantry, and, on the establishment of the empire, given the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, but was not included in the first creation of marshals. He was at this time elected a member of the chamber of deputies, but he had little time to devote to politics. He took a conspicuous part in the war of 1805 in command of the famous division

of the "grenadiers Oudinot," formed of picked troops and organized by him, with which he seized the Vienna bridges, received a wound at HollabrUnn, and delivered the decisive blow at Austerlilz. In 1806 he won the battle of Ostrolenka, and fought with resolution and success at Friedland. In 1808 he was made governor of Erfurt and count of the Empire, and in 1809, after displaying brilliant courage at Wagram, he was promoted to the rank oi marshal. He was made duke of Reggio, and received a large money grant in April 1810. Oudinot administered the government of Holland from 1810 to 1812, and commanded the II. corps of the Grande Armle in the Russian campaign. He was present at Liitzen and Bautzen, and when holding the independent command of the corps directed to take Berlin was defeated at Gross Beeren (see Napoleonic CamPaigns). He was then superseded by Ney, but the mischief was too great to be repaired, and Ney was defeated at Dennewiti. Oudinot was not disgraced, however, holding important commands at Leipzig and in the campaign of 1814. On the abdication of Napoleon he rallied to the new government, and was made a peer by Louis XVIII., and, unlike many of his old comrades, he did not desert to his old master in 1815. His last active service was in the French invasion of Spain in 1823, in which he commanded a corps and was for a time governor of Madrid. He died as governor of the Invalides on the ijth of September 1847. Oudinot was not, and made no pretence of being, a great commander, but he was a great general of division. He was the beau-ideal of an infantry general, energetic, thoroughly conversant with detail, and in battle as resolute and skilful as any of the marshals of Napoleon.

Oudinot's eldest son, Charles Nicolas Victor, 2nd duke of Reggio (1791-1863), lieutenant-general, served through the later campaigns of Napoleon from 1809 to 1814, being in the latter year promoted major for gallant conduct. Unlike his father he was a cavalryman, and as such held command of the cavalry school at Saumur (1822-1830), and the inspectorgeneralcy of cavalry (1836-1848). He is chiefly known as the commander of the French expedition which besieged and took Rome in 1840 and re-established the temporal power of the pope. After the coup d'ttal of the 2nd of December 1851, in resistance to which he took a prominent part, he retired from military and political life, dying at Paris on the ?th of June 1863.

The 2nd duke wrote Aperfu historique sur la dif>nite de markka! de France (1833); Considerations sur us ordres mtlitaires de Saint Louis, Sfc. (1833); L'Emploi des troupes aux grands travaux d'taHitt publiaur (1839); De la Cacalerie el du casemement del troupes a ckeial (1840); Des Kemontes de I'armcc (1840); and a brief account of his Italian operations of 1849.

OUGHTRED, WILLIAM (il. 1575-1660), English mathematician, was bom at Eton, and educated there and at King's College, Cambridge, of which he became fellow. Being admitted to holy orders, he left the university about 1603, and was presented to the rectory of Aldbury, near Guildford in Surrey; and about 1628 he was appointed by the earl of Arundd to instruct his son in mathematics. He corresponded with some of the most eminent scholars of his time on mathematical subjects; and his house was generally full of pupils from all quarters. It is said that he expired in a sudden transport of joy upon hearing the news of the vote at Westminster for the restoration of Charles II. .

He published, among other mathematical works, Claris ilatlftnatica, in 1631, in which he introduced new signs for certain mathematical operations (see Algebra) ; a treatise on navigation entitled Circles of Proportion, in 1632; works on trigonometry and dialling, and his Opuscula Mathematica, published posthumously in 1676.

OUIDA, the pen name—derived from a childish attempt to pronounce "Louisa "—of Maria Louise [de lal Ramcc (18301908), English novelist, born at Bury St Edmunds, where her birth was registered on the 7th of January 1839. Her father, Louis Ramie, was French, and her mother, Susan Sutton, English. At an early age she went to live in London, and there began to contribute to the Nat UontUy and Bentlry's ifajsiiw In 1860 her first story, afterwards republished as Held in Bondeft (1863), appeared in the Hen Monthly under the title of GnmilU de Vi[ne, and this was followed in quick succession by SiraUtmart

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