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(1865), Ckandos (1866) and Under Two flap (1867). The list of Ouida's subsequent works is a very long one; but it is sufficient to s»y that, together with Holla (1880), those already named ire not only the most characteristic, but also the best. In a less dramatic genre, her Bimbi: Stories far Children (1882) may also be mentioned; but it was by her more flamboyant stories, such as Under Two Flag! and if oiks, that her popular success was achieved. By purely literary critics and on grounds of morality or taste Ouida's novels may be condemned. They ire generally flashy, and frequently unwholesome. It is impossible, however, to dismiss books like Chandos and Under !:•" Flap merely on such grounds. The emphasis given by Ouida to motives of sensual passion was combined in her with an original gift for situation and plot, and also with genuine descriptive powers which, though disfigured by inaccurate observation, literary solecisms and tawdry eztravagance, enabled her at her best to construct a picturesque and powerful slory. The character of " Cigarette" in Under Two Fla[S is full of fine touches, and this is not an isolated instance. In 1874 Ouida made her home in Florence, and many> of her later novels have an Italian setting. She contributed from time to time to the magazines, and wrote vigorously on behalf of antivivisection and on Italian politics; but her views on these subjects were marked by characteristic violence and lack of judgment. She had made a great deal of money by her earlier books, but had spent it without thought for the morrow; and though in 1907 she was awarded a Civil List pension, she died it Viareggio in poverty on the 35th of January 1908.

OUNCE, (i) (Through O. Fr. unce, modem once, from Lat. mcia, twelfth part, of weight, of a pound, of measure, of a foot, in which sense it gives the O.Eng. ynce, inch), a unit of weight, being the twelfth part of a pound troy, =480 grains; in avoirdupois = 437-5 grains,-rV of a pound. The fluid ounce is a measure of capacity; in the United Kingdom it is equivalent to an avoirdupois ounce of distilled water at 62° F.; in the United States of America it is the 1281)1 part of the gallon, = i gill, = 456-033 grains of distilled water at its maximum density (see Weights And Measures). (2) A name properly applied to the Fclis uncia or snow leopard (<;.v.). It appears to have been originally used of various species of lynx, and is still sometimes the name of the Canada lynx. The word appears in 0. Fr. and Ital. as once and lonce, onza and lonza respectively, and it is usually explained as being due to the confusion of the / with the article, lonce and lonza being changed to I1 once or I'ma, and the T subsequently dropped. If this be so the word is the same as "lynx," from the popular Lat. Ivncia lyncia, Gr. X6y{. On the other hand once and onto may be nasalized forms of yuz, the Persian name of the panther.

OUNDLE. a market-town in the Northern parliamentary division of Northamptonshire, England, 30} m. N.E. of Northampton by a branch of the London & North-Westcrn railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 2404. It is picturesquely situated on an eminence, two sides of which are touched by the river Nene, which here makes a deep bend. The church of St Peter is a fine building with Early English, Decorated and Perpendicular porticos, with a western tower and lofty spire. OundJe School, one of the English public schools, was founded under the will of Sir William Laxton, Lord Mayor of London (d. 1556). There are about 200 boys. The school is divided into classical and modern sides, and has exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge universities. A second-grade school was instituted out of the foundation in 1878. Oundle has a considerable agricultural trade.

Wilfrid, archbishop of York, is said to have been buried in 7ii at a monastery in Oundle (Undele) which appears to have been destroyed shortly afterwards, and was certainly not in existence at the time of the Conquest. The manor, with a market and tolls, was among the possessions confirmed in 972 by King Edgar to the abbot of Peterborough, to whom it still belonged in 1086. The market was then worth 2os. yearly and K shown by the quo warranto rolls to have been held on Saturday, the day being changed to Thursday in 1835. After the Dissolu

tion the market was granted with the manor to John, earl of Bedford, and still belongs to the lord of the manor. The abbot of Peterborough about the I3th century confirmed to his men of Oundle freedom from tallage, " saving to himself pleas of pottmanmoot and all customs pertaining to the market," and they agreed to pay 8 marks, 125. nd., yearly for their privileges. The town was evidently governed by bailiffs in 1401, when the "bailiffs and good men" received a grant of pontage for the repair of the bridge called "Assheconbriggc," but the town was never incorporated and never sent members to parliament.

OUBO PRETO (" Black Gold "), a cily of the state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, 336 m. by rail N. by W. of Rio de Janeiro, and about 300 m. W. of Victoria, Es'pirito Santo, on the eastern slope of the Serra de Espinhaco and within the drainage basin of the Rio Doce. Pop. (1800) 17,860; (1900) 11,116. Ouro Prelo is connected with Miguel Burnicr, on the Central of Brazil railway, by a metre-gauge line 31 m. in length. The city is built upon the lower slope of the Serra do Ouro Prcto, a spur of the Espinhaco, deeply cut by ravines and divided into a number of irregular hills, up which the narrow, crooked streets arc built and upon which groups of low, old-fashioned houses form each a separate nucleus. From a mining settlement the city grew as the inequalities of the site permitted. R. F. Burton (Highlands of Brazil, London, 1869) says that its shape "is that of a huge serpent, whose biggest endisaboutthePraca. . . . The extremities stretch two good miles, with raised convolutions. . . . The 'streeting' of both upper and lower town is very tangled, and the old thoroughfares, mere 'wynds' . . . show how valuable once was building ground." The rough streets are too steep and narrow for vehicles, and even riding on horseback is often difficult. Several rivulets follow the ravines and drain into the Ribcirao do Carmo, a sub-tributary of the Rio Docc. The climate is sub-tropical and humid, though the elevation (3700-3800 ft.) gives a temperate climate in winter. The days are usually hot and the nights cold, the variations in temperature being a fruitful cause of bronchial and pulmonary diseases. Ouro. Preto has several historic buildings; they are of antiquated appearance and built of the simplest materials—broken stone and mortar, with an exterior covering of plaster. The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail—all fronting on the Praca da Indepcndcncia—and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital. There are 15 churches in the city, some occupying the most conspicuous sites on the hills, all dating from the more prosperous days of the city's history, but all devoid of architectural taste. Ouro Preto is the scat of the best mining school in Brazil.

The city dates from 1701, when a gold-mining settlement was established in its ravines by Antonio Dias of Taubatl. The circumstance that the gold turned black on exposure to the humid air (owing to the presence of silver) gave the name of Ouro Prcto to the mountain spur and the settlement. In 1711 It became a city with the name of Villa Rica, a title justified by its size and wealth. At one period of its prosperity its population was estimated at 95,000 to 30,000. In 1720 Villa Rica became the capital of the newly created captaincy of Minas Geraes, and in 1823 the capital of the province of the same name under the empire of Dom Pedro I. When the empire was overthrown in 1889 and Minas Geraes was reorganized as a republican state, it was decided to remove the capital to a more favourable site and Bello Horizonte was chosen, but Ouro Prcto remained the capital until 1898, when the new town (also called Cidade de Minas) became the seat of government. With the decay of her mining industries, Ouro Preto had become merely the political centre of the state. The removal of the capital was a serious blow, as the city has no industries o support its population and no trade of importance. The event most prominent in the history of the city was the conspiracy of 1789, in which several leading citizens were concerned, and for which one of its less influential' members, an alfms (ensign! of cavalry named Joaquim Jos6 da Silva Xavicr, nicknamed "Tira-dentes" (teeth-puller), was executed in Rio de Janeiro in 1792. The conspiracy originated in a belief that the Portuguese crown was about to enforce payment of certain arrears in the mining tax known as the " royal fifths," and its object was to set up a republic in Brazil. Although a minor figure in the conspiracy, Tira-dcntes was made the scapegoat of the thirtytwo men arrested and sent to Rio de Janeiro for trial, and posterity has made him the proto-martyr of republicanism in Brazil. OUSE. the name of several English riven.

(1) The Great Ousc rises in Northamptonshire, in the slight hills between Banbury and Brackley, and falls only about 500 ft. in a course of 160 m. (excluding lesser windings) to its mouth in the Wash (North Sea). With an easterly direction it flows past Brackley and Buckingham and then turns N.E. to Stony Stratford, where the Roman Watling Street forded it. It receives the Tovc from the N.W., and the Ouzel from the S. at Newport Pagnell. It then follows an extremely sinuous course past Olney to Sharnbrook, where it turns abruptly S. to Bedford. A north-easterly direction is then resumed past St Neot's to Godmanchcster and Huntingdon, when the river trends easterly to St Ivcs. Hitherto the Ouse has watered an open fertile valley, and there are many beautiful wooded reaches between Bedford and St Ives, while the river abounds in coarse fish. Below St Ivcs the river debouches suddenly upon the Fens; its fall from this point to the mouth, a distance of 55 m. by the old course, is little more than 20 ft. (the extensive system of artificial drainage cuts connected with the river is considered under Fens). From Earith to Denver the waters of the Ouse flow almost wholly in two straight artificial channels called the Bedford Rivers, only a small head passing, under ordinary conditions, along the old course, called the Old West River. This is joined by the Cam from the S. 4 m. above Ely. In its northward course from this point the river receives from the E. the Lark, the Little Ouse, or Brandon river, and the Wissey. Below Denver sluice, 16 m. from the mouth, the Ousc is tidal. It flows past King's Lynn, and enters the Wash near the S.E. corner. The river is locked up to Bedford, a distance of 74} m. by the direct course. In the lower part it bears a considerable traffic, but above St Ives it is little used, and above St Neot's navigation has ceased. The drainage area of the Great Ouse is 2607 sq. m.

(2) A river of Yorkshire. The river Ure, rising near the N.W. boundary of the county in the heart of the Pennines, and traversing the lovely valley famous under the name Wensleydale, unites with the river Swale to form the Ouse near the small town of Boroughbridge, which lies in the rich central plain of Yorkshire. The course of the Swale, which rises in the north of the county- on the eastern flank of the Pennines, is mostly through this plain, and that of the Ouse is wholly so. It flows S.E. to York, thence for a short distance S. by W., then mainly S.E. again past Selby and Goole to the junction with the Trent; the great estuary so formed being known as the Humber. The course of the Ouse proper, thus defined, is 61 m. The Swale and Ure are each about 60 m. long. Goole is a large and growing port, and the river bears a considerable traffic up to York. There is also some traffic up to Boroughbridge, from which the Ure Navigation (partly a canal) continues up to Ripon. The Swale is not navigable. The chief tributaries are the Nidd, the Wharfe, the Don and the Aire from the W., and the Derwent from the N.E., but the detailed consideration of these involves that of the hydrography of the greater part of Yorkshire (?.».). All, especially the western tributaries, traverse beautiful valleys, and the Aire and Don, with canals, are of importance as affording communications between the manufacturing district of south Yorkshire and the Humber ports. The Derwent is also navigable. The drainage area of the Ouse is 4133 sq. m. It is tidal up to Nabum locks, a distance of 37 m. from the junction with the Trent, and the total fall from Boroughbridge is about 40 ft.

(3) A river of Sussex, rising in the Forest Ridges between

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Horsham and Cuck field, and draining an area of about 200 sq. m., mostly in the Weald. Like other streams of this locality, it breaches the South Downs, and reaches the English Channel at Newhavcn after a course of 30 m. The eastward drift of beach-building material formerly diverted the mouth of this river from its present place to a point to the east near Seaford. The Ouse is navigable for small vessels to Lewes, and Newhavcn is an important harbour.

OUSEL, or Ouzel, Anglo-Saxon isle, equivalent of the Gemua A mid (a form of the word found in several old English books), apparently the ancient name for what is now more commonly known as the blackbird (?.?.), Turdus merula, but at the present day not often applied to that species, though used in a compound form for birds belonging to another genus and family.

The water-ousel, or water-crow, is now commonly named the " dipper "—a term apparently invented and bestowed in the first edition of T. Bewick's British Birds (ii. 16, 17)—not, as is commonly supposed, from the bird's habit of entering the water in pursuit of its prey, but because "it may be seen perched on the top of a stone in the midst of the torrent, in a continual dipping motion, or short courtesy often repeated." The English dipper, Cincltu aqualUus, is the type of a small family, the Cinclidae, probably more nearly akin to the wrens (?.t>.) than to the thrushes, and with examples throughout the more temperate portions of Europe and Asia, as well as North and South America. The dipper haunts rocky streams, into which it boldly enters, generally by deliberately wading, and then by the strenuous combined action of its wings and feet makes its way along the bottom in quest of its living prey—fresh-water molluscs and aquatic insects in their • larval or mature condition. Complaints of its attacks on the spawn of fish have not been justified by examination of the stomachs of captured specimens. Short and squat of stature, active and restless in its movements, dusky above, with a pure white throat and upper part of the breast, to which succeeds a broad band of dark bay, it is a famili-r figure to most fishermen on the streams it frequents. The water-ousel's nest is a very curious structure—outwardly resembling a wren's, but built on a wholly different principle—aa ordinary cup-shaped nest of grass lined with dead leaves, placrl in some convenient niche, but encased with moss so as to form a large mass that covers it completely except a small hole for the bird's passage. The eggs laid within are from four to seven in number, and are of a pure white. The young are, able to swirj before they are fully fledged. (A. N.)

OUSELEY, SIR FREDERICK ARTHUR GORE (18:5-18:V. English composer, was the son of Sir Gore Ouscley, am'oasszdcr to Persia, and nephew to Sir William Ouscley, the OriecUl scholar. He was bom on the 12th of August 1825 in London, and manifested an extraordinary precocity in music, composing xn opera at the age of eight years. In 1844, having succeeded to the baronetcy, he entered at Christ Church, and graduated K.A in 1846 and M. A. in 1840. He was ordained in the latter year, and, as curate of St Paul's, Knightsbridgc, served the parish of St Barnabas, Pimlico, until 1851. In 1850 he took the degree of Mus.B. at Oxford, and four years afterwards that of Mus-D.. his exercise being the oratorio St Polycarp. In 1855 he succeeded Sir Henry Bishop as professor of music in the University of Oxford, was ordained priest and appointed precentor of Hereford, la 1856 he became vicar of St Michael's, Tcnbury, and wardea of St Michael's College, which under him became an important educational institution both in music and general subjects. His works include a second oratorio, Hagar (Hereford, 1873), a great number of services and anthems, chamber music, songs, &c., and theoretical works of great importance, such as Harmony (1868) and Counterpoint (1869) and Musical Form (1875). One of his most useful works is a series of chapters on English music added to the translation of Emil Naumann's History of Music, the subject having been practically ignored in the German treatise. A profoundly learned musician, and a man of great general culture, Ouseley's influence on younger men was wholly for good, and he helped forward the cause of musical progress in England perhaps more effectually than if he himself had been among the more enthusiastic supporters of " advanced" music. The work by which he is best known, Si Polycarp, shows, like most compositions of its date, the strong influence of Mendelssohn, at least in its plan and scope; but if Ouscley had little individuality of expression, his models in other works were the English church writers of the noblest school. He died at Hereford on the 6th of April 1889.

OUSELEY, SIR WILLIAM (1769-1843), British Orientalist, eldest son of Captain Ralph Ouscley, of an old Irish family, was bom in Monmouthshire. After a private education he went to Paris, in 1787, to learn French, and there laid the foundation of his interest in Persian literature. In 1788 he became a cornet in the 8th regiment of dragoons. At the end of 1794 he sold his commission and went to Leiden to study Persian. In 1795 he published Persian Miscellanies; in 1797-1709, Oriental Collections; in 1799, Epitome of the Ancient History of Persia; in 1800, TkeOritntal Geography of EbnHaukal; and in i8oi,a translation of the Bakktiydr Nama and Observations on Some Medals and Cents. He received the degree of LL.D. from the university of Dublin in 1797, and in 1800 he was knighted. When his brother, Sir Gore Ouseley, was sent, in 1810, as ambassador to Persia, Sir William accompanied him as secretary. He returned to England in 1813, and in 1810-1823 published, in three volumes, Triads in Various Countries of tlie East, especially Persia, in 1:10. iSn and iSn. He also published editions of the Travels and Arabian Proverbs of Burckhardt. He contributed a number of important papers to the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature. He died at Boulogne in September 1842.

OUSTER (from Anglo-Fr. ouster, to remove, take away, O. Fr. ester, mod. Fr. 6ter, Eng. " oust," to eject, exclude; the derivation is not known; Lat. obstare, to stand in the way of, resist, would give the form but does not suit the sense; a more probable suggestion connects with a supposed haustare, from haurire, to draw water; cf. "exhaust"), a legal term signifying dispossession, especially the wrong or injury suffered by a person dispossessed of freeholds or chattels real. The wrong-doer by getl ing into occupation forces the real owner to take legal steps to regain his rights. Ouster of the freehold may be effected by abatement; i.e. by entry on the death of the person seized before the entry of the heir, or devisee, by intrusion, entry after the death of the tenant for life before the entry of the rcversioner or remainderman, by disseisin, the forcible or fraudulent expulsion of the occupier or person seized of the property. Ouster of chattels real is effected by disseisin, the turning out by force or fraud of the legal proprietor before his estate is determined. In feudal law, the term ouster-le-main (Lat. ammcrc manum, to take away the hand) was applied to a writ or judgment granting the livery of land out of the sovereign's hand on the pica that he has no title to it, and also to the delivery by a guardian of land to a ward on his coming of age.

OUTLAWRY, the process of putting a person out ot the protection of the law; a punishment for contemptuously refusing to appear when called in court, or evading justice by disappearing. It was an offence of very early existence in England, and was the punishment of those who. could not pay theatre or blood-money to the relatives of the deceased. By the Saxon law, an outlaw, or laugUesman, lost his libcra lex and had no protection from the frank-pledge in the decennary in which he was »wonL^_He_was, too, * Jrcndlcsman, because he forfeited

his friends; for if any of them rendered him any assistance, they became liable to the same punishment. He was, at one time, said to be caput lupinum, or to have a wolf's head, from the fact that he might be knocked on the head like a wolf by any one that should meet him; but so early as the time of Bracton an outlaw might only be killed if he defended himself or ran away; once taken, his life was in the king's hands, and any one killing him had to answer for it as for any other homicide. The party guilty of outlawry suffered forfeiture of chattels in all cases, and in case: of treason or murder forfeiture of real property: for other offences the profits of land during his lifetime. In cases of treason or felony, outlawry was followed also by corruption of blood. An outlaw was cirililcr mortuus. He could not sue in any court, nor had he any legal rights which could be enforced, but he was personally liable upon all causes of action. An outlawry might be reversed by proceedings in error, or by application to a court. It was finally abolished in civil proceedings in 1879, while in criminal proceedings it has practically become obsolete, being unnecessary through the general adoption of extradition treaties. A woman was said to be waived rather than outlawed.

In Scotland outlawry or fugitation may be pronounced by the supreme criminal court in the absence of the panel on the day of trial. In the United States outlawry never existed in civil cases, and in the few cases where it existed in criminal proceedings it has become obsolete.

OUTRAGE (through O. Fr. uliragc, oltrage, oullrage, from Lat. ultra, beyond, exceeding, cf. Ital. oltraa^io; the meaning has been influenced by connexion with " rage," anger), originally extravagance, violence of behaviour, language, action, &c., hence especially a violent injury done to another.

OUTRAM. SIR JAMES (1803-1863), English general, and one of the heroes of the Indian Mutiny, was the son of Benjamin Outram of Butterley Hall, Derbyshire, civil engineer, and was born on the agth of January 1803. His father died in 1805, and his mother, a daughter of Dr James Anderson, the Scottish writer on agriculture, removed in 1810 to Aberdeenshirc. From Udny school the boy went in 1818 to the Marischal College, Aberdeen; and in 1819 an Indian cadetship was given him. Soon after his arrival at Bombay his remarkable energy attracted notice, and in July 1820 he became acting adjutant to the first battalion of the i2th regiment on its embodiment at Poona, an experience which he found to be of immense advantage to him in his after career. In 1825 he was sent to Khandesh, where he trained a light infantry corps, formed of the wild robber Bhils, gaining over them a marvellous personal influence, and employing them with great success in checking outrages and plunder. Their loyalty to him had its principal source in their boundless admiration of his hunting achievements, which in cool daring and hairbreadth escapes have perhaps never been equalled. Originally a "puny lad," and for many years after his arrival in India subject to constant attacks of sickness, Outram seemed to win strength by every new illness, acquiring a constitution of iron, "nerves of steel, shoulders and muscles worthy of a six-foot Highlander." In 1835 he was sent to Gujarat to make a report on the Mahi Kantha district, and for some time he remained there as political agent. On the outbreak of the first Afghan War in 1838 he was appointed extra aide-decamp on the staff of Sir John Keane, and besides many other brilliant deeds performed an extraordinary exploit in capturing a banner of the enemy before Ghazni. After conducting various raids against Afghan tribes, he was in 1839 promoted major, and appointed political agent in Lower Sind, and later in Upper Sind. Here he strongly opposed the policy of his superior, Sir Charles Napier, which led to the annexation of Sind. But when war broke out he heroically defended the residency at Hyderabad against 8000 Baluchis; and it was Sir C. Napier who then described him as "the Bayard of India." On his return from a short visit to England in 1843, he was, with the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel, appointed to a command in the Mahratta country, and in 1847 he was transferred from Satara to Baroda, where he incurred the resentment of the Bombay government by his fearless exposure of corruption. In 1854 he was appointed resident at Lucknow, in which capacity two yean later he carried out the annexation of Oudh and became the first chief commissioner of that province. Appointed in 1857, with the rank of lieutenant-general, to command an expedition against Persia, he defeated the enemy with great slaughter at Khushab, and conducted the campaign with such rapid decision that peace was shortly afterwards concluded, his services being rewarded by the grand cross of the Bath.

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From Persia he was summoned in June to India, with the brief explanation— " We want all our best men here." It was said of him at this time that " a fox is a fool and a lion a coward by the side of Sir J. Outram." Immediately on his arrival in Calcutta he was appointed to command the two divisions of the Bengal army occupying the country from Calcutta to Cawnpore; and to the military control was also joined the commissionership of Oudh. Already the mutiny had assumed such proportions as to compel Havelock to fall back on Cawnpore, which he only held with difficulty, although a speedy advance was necessary to save the garrison at Lucknow. On arriving at Cawnporc with reinforcements, Outram, "in admiration of the brilliant deeds of General Havelock," conceded to him the glory of relieving Lucknow, and, waiving his rank, tendered his services to him as a volunteer. During the advance he commanded a troop of volunteer cavalry, and performed exploits of great brilliancy at Mangalwar, and in the attack at the Alambagh; and in the final conflict he led the way, charging through a very tempest of fire. The volunteer cavalry unanimously voted him the Victoria Cross, but he refused the choice on the ground that he was ineligible as the general under whom they served. Resuming supreme command, he then held the town till the arrival of Sir Colin Campbell, after which he conducted the evacuation of the residency so as completely to deceive the enemy. In the second capture of Lucknow, on the commander-in-chiefs return, Outram was entrusted with the attack on the side of the Gumti,and afterwards, having recrossed the river, he advanced " through the Chattar Manzil to take the residency," thus, in the words of Sir Colin Campbell," putting the finishing stroke on the enemy." After the capture of Lucknow he was gazetted lieutenant-general. In February 1858 he received the special thanks of both houses of parliament, and in the same year the dignity of baronet with an annuity of £1000. When, on account of shattered health, he returned finally to England in 1860, a movement was set on foot to mark the sense entertained, not only of his military achievements, but of his constant exertions on behalf of the natives of India, whose "weal," in. his own words, "he made his first object." The movement resulted in the presentation of a public testimonial and the erection of statues in London and Calcutta. He died on the nth of March 1863, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where the marble slab on his grave bears the pregnant epitaph "The Bayard of India."

1 See Sir F. J. Goldsmid, Jama Oulram, a Biography (2 vols., 1880), and L. J. Trotter, The Bayard of India (1903).

OVAL (Lat. ovum, egg), in geometry, a closed curve, generally more or less egg-like in form. The simplest oval is the ellipse; more complicated forms are represented in the notation of analytical geometry by equations of the 4th, 6th, 8th . . . degrees. Those of the 4th degree, known as bicircular quartics, ate the most important, and of these the special forms named after Descartes and Cassini are of most interest. The Cartesian ovals presented themselves in an investigation of the section of a surface which would refract rays proceeding from a point in a medium of one refractive index into a point in a medium of a different refractive index. The most convenient equation is /r* no' — n, where r f are the distances of a point on the curve from two fixed and given points, termed the foci, and /, m, n ire constants. The curve is obviously symmetrical about the line joining the foci, and has the important property that the normal at any point divides the angle between the radii into segments whose sines are in the ratio I: m. The Cassinian oval has the equation rr1 — «', where tjf are the radii of a point on the curve from two given foci, and a is a constant. This curve is

symmetrical about two perpendicular axes. It may consist c{ a single closed curve or of two curves, according to the value of a; the transition between the two types being a figure of 8. better known as Bernoulli's lemniscate (j.p.).

Sec Curve; also Salmon, Higher Plant Curves.

OVAR, a town of Portugal, in the district of Aveiro and at the northern extremity of the Lagoon of Aveiro (j.r.); 21 m. S. of Oporto by the Lisbon-Oporto railway. Pop. (1900) 10.462. Ovar is the centre of important fisheries and has some trade in wine and timber. It is visited by small coasting vessels which ply to and from north-west Africa. Millet, wheat and vegetables —especially onions—are the chief products of the low-lying and unhealthy region, in which Ovar is situated.

OVARIOTOMY, the operation for removal of one or of both of the female ovaries (for anatomy see Reproductive Systeii). The progress of modern surgery has been conspicuously successful in this department. From i;oi, the date when Houston of Carluke,Lanarkshirc, carried out Ins successful partial extirpation, progress was arrested for some time, although the Hunters (i 780) indicated the practicability of the operation. In 1809 Ephraim M'Dowell of Kentucky, inspired by the lectures of John Bell, his teacher in Edinburgh, performed ovariotomy, and, continuing to operate with success, established the possibility of surgical interference. He was followed by others in the United States. The cases brought forward by Lizars of Edinburgh were not sufficiently encouraging; the operation met with great opposition; and it was not until Charles Clay, Spencer Wells, Baker Brown and Thomas Keith began work that the procedure was placed on a firm basis and was regarded as justifiable. Improved methods were introduced, and surgeons vied with one another in trying to obtain good results. Eventually, by the introduction of the antiseptic system of treating wounds, this operation, formerly regarded as one of the most grave and anxious in the domain of surgery, came to be attended with a lower mortality than any other of a major character.

To give an idea of the terrible record associated with the operation in the third quarter of the igth century, a passage may be quoted from the English translation of the Life of Pasteur: "As it was supposed that the infected air of the hospitals might be the cause of the invariably fatal results of the operation, the Assistance Publique hired an isolated house in the Avenue de Meudon, near Paris, a salubrious spot. In 1863, ten women in succession were sent to that house; the neighbouring inhabitants watched those ten patients entering the house, and a short time afterwards their ten coffins being taken away." But as time went on, the published statistics showed an increasing success in the practice of almost every operator. Spencer Wells states that in his first five years one patient in three died; in his second and third five years one in four; in his fourth five yearsoneinfive; in 1876-1877, one in ten. After the introduction of antiseptics (1878-1884) he lost only 10-9% of his operation cases, but this series showing a marked absence of septic complications. These figures have been greatly improved upon in later years, and at the present time the mortality may be taken at somewhere about 5, 7 or 9%.

Removal of the ovaries is performed when the ovaries are the sc at of cystic and other morbid changes; for fibroid tumours of the womb, in which case, by operating, one hastens the menopause and causcs^thc tumours to grow smaller; and in cases where dysmenorrhoea is wearing out and rendering useless the life of the patientless severe treatment having proved ineffectual. Oophortctotity, by which is meant removal of the ovaries with the view of producing a curative effect upon some other part, was introduced in 1872 by Robert Battcy of Georgia (1828-1895). The operation is sometimes followed by loss of sexual feeling, and has been said to unsex the patjent, hence strong objections have been urged against it. The patient and her friends snould clearly understand the object of the operation and the results likely to be gained by it. Lastly, the ovaries are sometimes removed with the hope of checking the progress of inoperable cancer of the breast.

From the time that the operation of ovariotomy was first e5t»bHshed as a recognized and lawful surgical procedure, there has been much disputation as to how the pedicle of the ovary, which consist* of a fold of peritoneum (the broad ligament) with included bloodvessels, should be treated. Some operators were in favour of tying it with strong silk, and bringing the ends of the ligatures outlide the abdomen. Others were in favour of having a strong metal clamp upon those structures, or of scaring them with the actual cautery, whilst others claimed that the best results were to be obtained by firmly tying the pedicle, cutting the ligatures short, dropping the pedicle into the abdomen and closing the wound. This last method is now almost universally adopted. (E. U.'J

OVATION (Lat. ototio), a minor form of Roman " triumph." It was awarded either when the campaign, though victorious, had not been important enough for the higher honour; when the war was not entirely put an end to; when it had been waged with unworthy foes; or when the general was not of rank sufficient to give him the right to a triumph. The ceremonial was on the whole similar in the two cases, but in an ovation the general walked or more commonly rode on horseback, wore a simple magisterial robe, carried no sceptre and wore a wreath of myrtle instead of laurel. Instead of a bull, a sheep was sacrificed at the conclusion of the ceremony. The word is not, however, derived from mis, sheep, but probably means "shouting" (cp. nun) as a sign of rejoicing.

OVEN (O. Eng. e/»,Ger. Ofen, cf .Gr Irvtt, oven), a close chamber or compartment which may be raised to a considerable temperature by heat generated cither within or without it. In English the term generally refers to a chamber for baking bread and other food substances, but it is also used of certain appliances employed in manufacturing operations, as in coking coal or making pottery.

OVERBECK. JOHANN FRIEDRICH (1789-1869), German painter, the reviver of " Christian art " in the I9th century, was bom in Lubeck on the 4th of July 1 789. His ancestors for three generations had been Protestant pastors; his father was doctor of laws, poet, mystic pietist and burgomaster of LUbcck. Within a stone's throw of the family mansion in the Konigstrasse stood the gymnasium, where the uncle, doctor of theology and a voluminous writer, was the master; there the nephew became a classic scholar and received instruction in art.

The young artist left Liibeck in March 1806, and entered as student the academy of Vienna, then under the direction of F. H. Fugcr, a painter of some renown, but of the pseudo-classic school of t he French David, Here was gained thorough knowledge, but the teachings and associations proved unendurable to the sensitive, spiritual-minded youth. Overbeck wrote to a friend that he had fallen among a vulgar set, that every noble thought was suppressed within the academy and that losing ail faith in humanity he turned inwardly on himself. These words are a key to bis future position and art. It seemed to him that in Vienna, and indeed throughout Europe, the pure springs of Christian art had been for centuries diverted and corrupted, and so he sought out afresh the living source, and, casting on one side his contemporaries, took for his guides the early and preRaphaetite painters of Italy. At the end of four years, differences had grown so irreconcilable that Overbeck and his band of followers were expelled from the academy. True art, he writes, he had sought in Vienna in vain —" Oh I I was full of it; my •hole fancy was possessed by Madonnas and Christs, but nowhere could I find response." Accordingly he left for Rome, carrying his half-finished canvas " Christ's Entry into Jerusalem," as the charter of his creed —" I will abide by the Bible; I elect it as my standing-point."

Overbeck in 1810 entered Rome, which became for fifty-nine years the centre of his unremitting labour. He was joined by a goodly company, including Cornelius, Wilhelm Schadow and Philip Veil, who took up their abode in the old Franciscan convent of San Isidore on the Pincian Hill, and were known among friends and enemies by the descriptive epithets — " the Nazarites," "the pre-Raphaclites," " the new-old school," "the German-Roman artists," " the church-romantic painters," "the German patriotic and religious painters." Their precept was hard and honest work and holy living? they eschewed the antique as pagan, the Renaissance as false, and built up a severe revival on simple nature and on the serious art of Pcrugino, Pinturicchio, Francia and the young Raphael. The characteristics of the style thus educed were nubility of idea, precision

and even hardness of outline, scholastic composition, with the addition of light, shade and colour, not for allurement, but chiefly for perspicuity and completion of motive. Ovcrbeck was mentor in the movement; a fellow-labourer writes: "No one who saw him or heard him speak could question his purity of motive, his deep insight and abounding knowledge; he is a treasury of art and poetry, and a saintly man." But the struggle was. hard and poverty its reward. Helpful friends, however, came in Niebuhr, Bunsen and Frederick SchlegeL Overbeck in 1813 joined the Roman Catholic Church, and thereby he believed that his art received Christian baptism.

Faith in a mission begat enthusiasm among kindred minds, and timely commissions followed. The Prussian consul, Bartholdi, had a house on the brow of the Pincian, and he engaged Overbeck, Cornelius, Vcit and Schadow to decorate a room 24 ft. square with frescoes (now in the Berlin gallery) from the story of Joseph and his Brethren. The subjects which fell to the lot of Overbeck were the " Seven Years of Famine " and "Joseph sold by his Brethren." These tentative wall-pictures, finished in 1818, produced so favourable an impression among the Italians that in the same year Prince Massimo commissioned Overbeck, Cornelius, Vcit and Schnorr to cover the walls and ceilings of his garden pavilion, near St John Lateran, with frescoes illustrative of Tasso, Dante and Ariosto. To Overbeck was assigned, in a room 15 ft. square, the illustration of Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered; and of eleven compositions the largest and most noteworthy, occupying one entire wall, is the " Meeting of Godfrey de Bouillon and Peter the Hermit." The completion of the frescoes—very unequal in merit—after ten years' delay, the overtaxed and enfeebled painter delegated to his friend Joseph Fuhrich. The leisure thus gained was devoted to a thoroughly congenial theme, the " Vision of St Francis," a wall-painting 30 ft. long, figures life size, finished in 1830, for the church of Sta Maria degli Angeli near Assist. Overbeck and the brethren set themselves the task of recovering the neglected art of fresco and of monumental painting; they adopted the old methods, and their success led to memorable revivals throughout Europe.

Fifty years of the artist's laborious life were given to ofl and easel paintings, of which the chief, for size and import, are the following: "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem" (1834), in the Marien Kirche, LUbcck; "Christ's Agony in the Garden" (1835), in the great hospital, Hamburg; "Lo Sposalizio" (1836), Raczynski gallery, Berlin; the " Triumph of Religion in the Arts " (1840), in the Stadel Institut, Frankfort; "Picta" (1846), in the Marien Kirche, Lubeck; the "Incredulity of St Thomas" (1851), in the possession of Mr Beresford Hope, London; the " Assumption of the Madonna " (1855), in Cologne Cathedral; "Christ delivered from the Jews " (1858), tempera, on a ceiling in the Quirinal Palace—a commission from Pius IX., and a direct attack on the Italian temporal government, therefore now covered by a canvas adorned with Cupids. All tie artist's works are marked by religious fervour, careful and protracted study, with a dry, severe handling, and an abstemious colour.

Ovcrbeck belongs to eclectic schools, and yet was creative; he ranks among thinkers, and his pen was hardly less busy than his pencil. He was a minor poet, an essayist and a voluminous letter-writer. His style is wordy and tedious; like his art it is borne down with emotion and possessed by a somewhat morbid "subjectivity." His pictures were didactic, and used as means ofpropagandasforhisartisticandreligiousfaith,and the teachings of such compositions as the " Triumph of Religion and the Sacraments " he enforced by rapturous literary effusions. His art was the issue of his life: his constant thoughts, cherished in solitude and chastened by prayer, he transposed into pictorial forms, and thus were evolved countless and much-prized drawings and cartoons, of which the most considerable are the Gospels, forty cartoons (1852); Via Crucis, fourteen water-colour drawings (1857); the Seven Sacraments, seven cartoons dS6i). Overbeck's compositions, with few exceptions, are engraved. His liferwork he sums up in the words— " Art to me is as the harp of David, whereupon I would desire that psalms should at all times be sounded to the praise of the Lord."_ He died in Rome in

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