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of tfee saponification value (see above) and of the optical rotation, and in special cases the isolation and quantitative determination of characteristic substances, leads in very many cases to reliable results. The colour, the boiling-point, the specific gravity and •cJobtfity in alcohol serve as most valuable adjuncts in the examination with a view to form an estimate of the genuineness and value of a sample. Quite apart from the genuineness of a sample, its special aroma constitutes the value of an oil, and in this respect the judging at the value of a given oil may, apart from the purity, be more readily solved by an experienced perfumer than by the chemist. Thus roses of different origin or even of different years will yield rose <' 1? of widely different value. The cultivation of plants for essential oils ban become a large industry, and is especially practised as an industry in the south of France (Grasse, Nice, Cannes). The rose oil industry, which had been for centuries located in the valleys of Bulgaria, has now been taken up in Germany (near Leipzig), where roses are specially cultivated for the production of rose oil. India and China are also very large producers of essential oils. Owing to the climate other countries are less favoured, although lavender and peppermint are largely cultivated at Mitcham in Surrey, in Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire. Lavender and peppermint oils of English origin rank as the best qualities. As an illustration of the extent to which this part of the industry suffers from the climate, it may be suited that oil from lavender plants grown in England never produces more than 7 to 10% linalool acetate, which gives the characteristic •cent to lavender oil. whilst oil from lavender grown in the south of France frequently yields as much as 35% of the ester. The proof that this is due mainly to climatic influences is furnished by the fact that Mitcham lavender transplanted to France produces an oil which year by year approximates more closely in respect ol its contents of linalool acetate to the product of the French plant."

Bibliography.—For the fixed oils, fats and waxes, sec C. R. A. Wright. Fixed Oils. Fats, Butters and Waxes (London, 2nd ed. by C. A. Mitchell, 1903); W. Brannt, Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils (London, 1896); J. Lewkowitsch, Chemical Technology and Analysis of Otis, Fats and Waxes (London, 4th cd., 3 vols., 1909; al^o German ed., Brunswick, 1905; French ed., Paris, vol. i. 1906. vol. ii. 1908, vol. iii. 1909); Laboratory Companion to Fats and Oil Industries (London, 1902); Cantor Lectures of the Society of Arts, Ous and Fait, their Uses and Applications; Groves and Thorp, Cemico/ Technology, vol. ii.; A. H. Gill, Oil Analyses (1909); G. Hefter, Tecknologif der Fette und Ole (Bcr|in, vol. i. 1906; vol. ii. 1008); L- Ubbclohde, Handbuch der Cnemie und Tfchnologie der (k* nod Felt* (Leipzig, vol. i., 1908); R. Bencdikt and F. Ulzcr, Analyse der FeUe und Wachsarten (Berlin, 1008); J. Fritsch, Les Stales ct fT&isses d"orifine animate (Paris, 1907).

For the essential oils, see F. B. Power, Descriptive Catalogue of Eueatiol Oils'. J. C. Sawer. Odorographia (London, 1892 and 1894); E. Gitdemcistcr and F. Hoffmann, Die aethcriuken Ole (Berlin, 1899), trans. (1900) by E. Kremcrs under the title Volatile Oils (Mil- Wisconsin); F. W. Semmler, Die aetheriscken Ole nach niscken Bestandteilen vnter Berucksicktigur.% der geschickt^srUkeltutg (Leipzig); M. Otto, L1 Industrie des parfums 1909); O. Aschan, Cftcmie der alicyklischen Verbinduneen __wick. 1905); F. R. Heusslcr (translated by Pond), The Chemistry tf the Terrenes (London, 1904). (J. Lu.)

OIRON, a village of western France, in the department of Deux-Sevres, ^ m. E. by S. of Thouars by road. Oiron is celebrated for its chateau, standing in a park and originally fcetflt in the first half of the i6th century by the Gouffier family, rebuilt in the latter half of the i?th century by Francis of A&busson, duke of La Feuillade, and purchased by Madame de Montespan, who there passed the latter part of her life. Mar&hal Vflleroy afterwards lived there. The chateau consists of a main building with two long projecting wings, one of which is a graceful structure of the Renaissance period built over a doistcr. Tnc adjoining church, begun in 1518, combines the Gothic and Renaissance styles and contains the tombs of four oembers of the Goufficr family. These together with other parts of the chateau and church were mutilated by the Protestants in 1568. The park contains a group of four dolmens.

For the Oiron pottery sec Ceramics.

OISE, a river of northern France, tributary to the Seine, fleeing south-west from the Belgian frontier and traversing the departments of Aisne, Oise and Seine-et-Oise. Length, 187 m.; aita of basin 6437 sq. m. Rising in Belgium, 5 m. S.E. of Cbimay (province of Naraur) at a height of 980 ft., the river enters France after a course of little more than 9 m. Flowing through the district of Thidrache, it divides below Guise into several arms and proceeds to the confluence of the Scrre, near Li Fere (Aisne). Thence as far as the confluence of the Ailette (U coarse lies through well-wooded country to Compicgnc,

a short distance above which it receives the Aisne. Skirting the forests of Compiugnc, Halattc and Chanlilly, all on its left bank, and receiving near Crcil the Thcrain and the Brcche, the river flows past Pontoise and debouches into the Seine 39 m. below Paris. Its channel is canalized (depth 6 ft. 6 in.) from Janvillc above Compiegne, to its moulh over a section 60 m. in length. Above Janville a lateral canal continued by the Sambre-Oise canal accompanies the river to Landrecies. It communicates with the canal system of Flanders and with the Somme canal by way of the St Quentin canal (Crozat branch) which unites with it at Chauny. The same town is its point of junction with the Aisne-Oisc canal, by which it is linked with the Eastern canal system.

OISE, a department of northern France, three-fourths of which belonged to Ilc-dc-Francc and the rest to Picardy, bounded N. by Somme, E. by Aisne, S. by Seine-ct-Marne and Seine-etOise, and W. by Eure and Scine-Infcricure. Pop. (1006) 410,049; area 2272 sq. m. The department U a moderately elevated plateau with pleasant valleys and fine forests, such as those of Compicgne, Ermcnonville, Chant illy and Halattc, all in the south-east. It belongs almost entirely to the basin of the Seine—the Somme and the Brcsle, which flow into the English Channel, draining but a small area. The most important river is the Oisc, which flows through a broad and fertile valley from north-cast to south-west, past the towns of Noyon, Compicgne, Pont St Maxcnce and Creil. On its right it receives the Brechc and the Therain, and on its left the Aisne, which brings down a larger volume of water than the Oisc itself, the Authonne, and the Nonette, which irrigates the valley of Senlis and Chantilly. The Ourcq, a tributary of the Marnc, in the south-cast, and the Eptc, a tributary of the Seine, in the west, also in part belong to the department. These streams are separated by ranges of slight elevation or by isolated hills, the highest point (770 ft.) being in the riJge of Bray, which stretches from Dieppe to Pr6cy-sur-Oise. The lowest point is at the mouth of the Oise, only 66 ft. above sea-level. The climate is very variable, but the range of temperature is moderate.

Clay for bricks and earthenware, sand and building-stone are among the mineral products of Oise, and peat is also worked. Pierrefonds, Gouvieux, ChantUly and Fontaine Bonneleau have mineral springs. Wheat, oats and other cereals, potatoes and sugar beet arc the chief agricultural crops. Cattle arc reared more especially in the western districts, where dairying is actively carried on. Bee-keeping is general. Racing stables arc numerous in the neighbourhood of ChantiJly and Compicgne. Among the industries of the department of manufacture of sugar and alcohol from beetroot occupies a foremost place. The manufacture of furniture, brushes (Bcauvais) and other wooden goods and of toys, fancy-ware, buttons, fans and other articles in wood, ivory, bone or mother-of-pearl are widespread industries. There are also woollen and cotton mills, and the making of woollen fabrics, blankets, carpets (Bcauvais), hosiery and lace (Chantilly and its vicinity) is actively carried on. Crcil and the neighbouring Montatairc form an important metallurgical centre. Oise is served by the Northern railway, on which Crcil is an important junction, and its commerce is facilitated by the Oise and its lateral canal and the Aisne, which afford about 70 m. of navigable waterway.

There are four arrondissements—Beauvais, Clermont, Compiegne and Senlis—with 35 cantons and 701 communes. The department forms the diocese of Beauvais (province of Reims) and part of the region of the II. army corps and of the academic (educational division) of Paris. Its court of appeal is at Amiens. The principal places arc Beauvais, the capital, Chantilly, Clermont-en-Beauvoisis, Compiegne, Noyon, Pierrcfonds, Creil and Senlis, which arc treated separately. Among the more populous places not mentioned is Meru (5317), a centre for fancy-ware manufacture. The department abounds in old churches, among which, besides those of Beauvais, Noyon and Senlis, may be mentioned those at Moricnval (nth and isth centuries), Maignelay (isth and i6th centuries),Cr6py-en-VaIois(St Thomas, j2th, i3th and ijth centuries), St Leu d'Esserent (mainly i2tb century), Tracy-le-Val (mainly i2th century), VUleis St Paul (i2th and ijth centuries), St Cornier-dc-Hy (a fine example of the transition from Romanesque to Gothic architecture), and Si Mariin-aux-Bois d iih. i.;th and i5th centuries). Ponlpoinl preserves the buildings of an abbey founded towards the end of the I4th century and St Jcan-aux-Bois the remains of a priory including a church of the ijth century. There are Gallo-Roman remains of Champlieu close to the forest of Compicgne. At Ermcnonville there is a chateau of the lylh century where Rousseau died in 1778.


OJIBWAY (ojibwa), or Chippeway (chippewa), the name given by the English to a large tribe of North American Indians of Algonquian stock. They must not be confused with the Chipewyan tribe of Athabascan stock settled around Lake Athabasca, Canada. They formerly occupied a vast tract of country around Lakes Huron and Superior, and now are settled on reservations in the neighbourhood. The name is from a word meaning " to roast till puckered '* or " drawn up," in reference, it is suggested, to a peculiar seam in their mocassins, though other explanations have been proposed. They call themselves Anishinabeg ("spontaneous men"), and the French called them Saulleurs ("People of the Falls"), from the fipt group of them being met at Sault Ste Marie. Tribal traditions declare they migrated from the St Lawrence region together with the Ottawa and Potawatomi, with which tribes they formed a confederacy known as "The Three Fires." When first encountered about 1640 the Ojibway were inhabiting the coast of Lake Superior, surrounded by the Sioux and Foxes on the west and south. During the iSth century they conquered these latter and occupied much of their territory. Throughout the Colonial wars they wero loyal to the French, but fought for the English in the War of Independence and the War of 1812, and thereafter permanently maintained peace with the Whites. The tribe was divided into ten divisions. They lived chiefly by hunting and fishing. They had many tribal myths, which were collected by Henry R. Schoolcraft in his Algic Researches (1839), upon which Longfellow founded his " Hiawatha."

Sec Indians. North American;a1so\V. J.Hoffmann,"Midewiwin of thcOjihwa," m 7th Reftortof Bureau of American Ethnology (1891); W. W. Warren, History of the Ojibways." vol. v., Minnesota Historical Society's Collections; G. Copway, History of the Ojibway Indians (Boston, 1850): P. Jones, History of the Ojeinoay Indian* (i 861); A. E. Jcnks, *Y Wild Rice Gatherers," j&h Report of Bureau of American Ethnology (1900).

OKAPI, the native name of an African ruminant mammal (Ocapia johnstoni), belonging to the CiraJJidaet or giraffe-family, but distinguished from giraffes by its snorter limbs and neck, the absence of horns in the females, and its very remarkable type of colouring. Its affinity with the giraffes is, however, clearly revealed by the structure of the skull and teeth, more especially the bilobed crown to the incisor-like lower canine teeth. At the shoulder the okapi stands about 5 ft. In colour the sides of the face are puce, and the neck and most of the body purplish, but the buttocks and upper part of both fore and hind limbs are transversely barred with black and white, while their lower portion is mainly white with black fcilock-rings, and in the front pair a vertical bltick stripe on the anterior surface. Males have a pair of dagger-shaped horns on the forehead, the tips of which, in some cases at any rate, perforate the hairy skin with which the rest of the horns are covered. As in all forest-dwelling animals, the ears are large and capacious. The tail is shorter than in giraffes, and not tufted at the tip. The okapi, of which the first entire skin sent to Europe was received in England from Sir H. H. Johnston in the spring of 1901, is a native of the Semliki forest, in the district between Lakes Albert and Albert Edward. From certain differences in the striping of the legs, as well as from variation in skull-characters, the existence of more than a single species has been suggested; but further evidence U required before such a view can be definitely accepted.

Specimens in the museum at Teivueren near Brussels show that In fully adult males the horns are subtriangular and inclined eomewhat backwards; each being capped with a small polished epiphysis, which projects through the skin investing the rest of the horn. As regards its general characters, the skull of the

okapi appears to be intermediate between that of the giraffe on the one hand and that of the extinct Palaeotragus (or Sanatherium) of the Lower Pliocene deposits of southern Europe on the other. It has, for instance, a greater development of air-cells in the dipl&t than in the latter, but much less than in the former. Again, in Palacotragus the horns (present only in the male) arc situated immediately over the eye-sockets, in Ocapia they are placed just behind the latter, while in Girajfa they are partly on the parictals. In general form, so far as can be judged from the disarticulated skeleton, the okapi was more like an antelope than a giraffe, the fore and hind cannon-bones, and consequently the entire limbs, being of approximaiely equal length. From this it seems probable that Palaeotragus and Ocapia indicate the ancestral type of the giraffe-line; while it has been further suggested that the apparently hornless Hefladotfterium of the


Female OkapL

Grecian Pliocene may occupy a somewhat similar position in regard to the horned Sivathcrium oJ the Indian Siwaliks.

For these and other allied extinct eenera see Pecora; for a full description of the okapi itself the reader should refer to an illustrated memoir by Sir E. Ray Lankester in the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London (xvi. 6, 1902), entitled "On Okapia, a New Genus of Girojfidae from Central Africa."

Little is known with regard to the habits of the okapi. It appears, however, from the observations of Dr J. David, who spent some time in the Albert Edward district, that the creature dwells in the most dense parts of the primeval forest, where there is an undergrowth of solid-leaved, swamp-loving plants, such as arum, Donax and Phryntum, which, with orchids and climbing plants, form a thick and confused mass of vegetation. The leaves of these plants are blackish-green, and in the gloom of the forest, grow more or less horizontally, and are glistening with moisture. The effect of the light falling upon them is to produce along the midrib of each a number of short white streaks of light, which contrast most strongly with the shadows cast by the leaves themselves, and with the general twilight gloom of the forest. On the other hand, the thick layer of fallen leaves on the ground, and the bulk of the stems of the forest trccsarc bluishbrown and russet, thus closely resembling the decaying leaves in an European forest after heavy rain; while the whole effect is precisely similar to that produced by the russet head and body and the striped thighs and limbs of the okapi. The long and mobile miuzle of the okapi appears to be adapted for feeding Cd the low forest underwood and the swamp-vegetation. The small size of the horns of the males is probably also an adaptation to life in thick underwood. In Dr David's opinion an okapi in its native forest could not be seen at a distance of more than twenty or twenty-five paces. At distances greater than this it is impossible to see anything clearly in these equatorial forests, and it is very difficult to do so even at this short distance. This suggests that the colouring of the okapi is of purely protective type.

By the Arabianized emancipated slaves of the Albert Edward district tbe okapi is known as the kengc,6-a-pi being the Pigmies' name for the creature. Dr David adds that Junker may undoubtedly claim to be the discoverer of the okapi, for, as stated on p. 390 of the third volume of the original German edition of his Trotxli, be saw in 1878 or 1879 in the Nepo district a portion of the skin with the characteristic black and white stripes. Junker, by whom it was mistaken for a large watcr-chevrotain or zebra-antelope, slates that to the natives of the Nepo district the okapi is known as the makape. (R. L.*)

OKEHAMPTON, a market town and municipal borough in the Tavistcck parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the east and west Okement rivers, 22m. W. by N. of Exeter by the London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 2569. The church of All Saints has a fine Perpendicular tower, left uninjured when the nave and chance) were burned down in 1842. Glass is made from granulite found in the Mcldon Valley, 3 m. distant. Both branches of the river abound in small trout. Okehampton Castle, one of the most picturesque ruins in Devon, probably dates from the is'.b century, though its keep may be late Norman. It was dismantled under Henry VIM., but considerable portions remain of the chapel, banqueting hall and herald's tower. Immediately opposite are the traces of a supposed British camp, and of the Roman road from Exeter to Cornwall. Tbe custom of tolling the curfew still prevails in Okehamptoo. The town is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 503 acres.

Okehampton (Oakmanlon) was bestowed by William the Conqueror on Baldwin de Brioniis, and became the caput of the barony of Okehampton. At the time of the Domesday Survey of 1086 it already ranked as a borough, with a castle, a market paying 4 shillings, and four burgesses. In the iSth century the manor passed by marriage to the Cuurtenays, afterwards earls of Devon, and Robert dc Courtenay in 1220 five the king a palfrey to hold an annual fair at his manor of Okehampton, on the vigil and feast day of St Thomas the Apostle. In the reign of Henry III. the inhabitants received a carter (undated) from the earl of Devon, confirming their rights "in woods and in uplands, in ways and in paths, in common of pastures, in waters and in mills. They were to be free from all toll and to elect yearly a portreeve and a beadle." A further grant of privileges was bestowed in 129: by the earl of Devon, but no charter of incorporation was granted until liut from James I. in 1623, and the confirmation of this by Charles II. in 1684 continued to be the governing charter, the corporation consisting of a mayor, seven principal burgesses 3f:d eight assistant burgesses, until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1882. On a petition from the inhabitants the town wax incorporated by a new charter in 1885. Okehampton returned tvo members to parliament in 1300, and again in 1312 and 1313, after which there was an intermission till 1640, from which date two members were returned regularly until by the Reform Act of 1832 the borough was disfranchised.

Set Victoria County History, Daonskire; W B. Bridges. History of Otxkamplm (1880).

OKEN. LORENZ (1770-1851), German naturalist, was born at Bohbbach, Swabia. on the ist of August 1779. His real name was Lorenz Ockcnfuss, and under that name he was entered at the natural history and medical classes in the university of Worzburg, whence he proceeded to that of Gbtlingen, where he became a privat-<luccnt, and abridged his name to Oken. As Lorenz Oken he published in 1802 his small work entitled Grundriu itt NalarfHlatpkit, dtt fkcorie dtr Sinne, and der darauj

(epllndeien Classification dtr Tliirre, the first of the series of works which placed hi..i at the head o( the" natur-philosophie" or physio-philosophical school of Germany. In it he extended to physical science the philosophical principles which Kant had applied to mental and moral science. Oken had, however, in this application been preceded by J. G. Fichte, who, acknowledging that the materials for a universal science had been discovered by Kant, declared that nothing more was needed than a systematic co-ordination of these materials; and this task Fichte undertook in his famous Doctrine of Science (Wisscnschaftslehre), the aim of which was to construct a priori all knowledge. In this attempt, however, Fichte did little more than indicate the path; it was reserved for F. W. J. von Schclling fairly to enter upon it, and for Oken, following him, to explore its mazes yet further, and to produce a systematic plan of the country so surveyed.

In the Grundriss der tfaturpliilosopliie of 1802 Oken sketched the outlines of the scheme he afterwards devoted himself to perfect. The position which he advanced in that remarkable work, and to which he ever after professed adherence, is that "the animal classes arc virtually nothing else than a representation of the sense-organs, and that they must be arranged in accordance with them." Agreeably with this idea, Oken contended that there are only five animal classes: (i) the Dermatozoa, or invertebrates; (2) the Clossoioa, or Fishes, as being those animals in which a true tongue makes, for the first time, its appearance; (3) the Rhinotoa, or Reptiles, wherein the nose opens for the first time into the mouth and inhales air; (4) the Olozoa, or Birds, in which the ear for the first time opens externally; and (5) Oplitltahnazca, or Mammals, in which all the organs of sense are present and complete, the eyes being movable and covered with two lids.

In 1805 Oken made another characteristic advance in the application of the a priori principle, by a book on generation {Die ZeuguHg), wherein he maintained the proposition that "ail organic beings originate from and consist of vesicles or cells. These vesicles, when singly detached and regarded in their original process of production, are the infusorial mass or protoplasma (urschleim) whence all larger organisms fashion themselves or are evolved. Their production is therefore nothing else than a regular agglomeration of Infusoria—not, of course, of species already elaborated or perfect, but of mucous vesicles or points in general, which first form themselves by their union or combination into particular species."

One year after the production of this remarkable treatise, Oken advanced another step in the development of his system, and in a volume published in 1806, in which D. G. Kiescr (17791862) assisted him, entitled Beilragt tur verglciclicndeii Zoologie, Anatomic, iinj Physiologic, he demonstrated that the intestines originate from the umbilical vesicle, and that this corresponds to the vitellus or yolk-bag. Caspar Friedrich Wolff had previously proved this fact in the chick (Tktoria Generation'.*, 1774), but he did not see its application as evidence of a general law. Oken showed the importance of the discovery as an illustration of his system. In the same work Oken described and recalled attention to the corpora Wolfiana, or " primordial kidneys."

The reputation of the young privat-docent of Gottingen had meanwhile reached the car of Goethe, and in 1807 Oken was invited to fill the office of professor extraordinarius of the medical sciences in the university of Jena. He accepted the call, and selected for the subject of his inaugural discourse his ideas or. the "Signification of the Bones of the Skull," based upon a discovery he had made in the previous year. Thu famous lecture was delivered in the presence of Goethe, as privycouncillor and rector of the university, and was published in the same year, with tbe title, Ud>cr die Bedeutung der Schadelknochen.

With regard to the origin of the idea, Oken narrates in his /sis that, walking one autumn day in 1806 in the Harz forest, he stumbled upon the blanched skull of a deer, picked up the partially dislocated bones, and contemplated them for a while, when the truth flashed across his mind, and he exclaimed, "It is a vertebral column!" At a meeting of the German naturalists held at Jena some years afterwards Professor Kieser gave an account of Oken's discovery in the presence of the grand-duke, which account is printed in the tagebtatt, or " proceedings," of that meeting. The professor stated that Oken communicated to him his discovery when journeying in 1806 to the island of Wangeroog. On their return to Gottingen Okcn explained his ideas by reference to the skull of a turtle in Kieser's collection, which he disarticulated for that purpose with his own hands. "It is with the greatest pleasure," wrote Kieser, "that I am able to show here the same skull, after having it thirty years in my collection. The single bones of the skull are marked by Oken's own handwriting, which may be so easily known."

The range of Oken's lectures at Jena was a wide one, and they were highly esteemed. They embraced the subjects of natural philosophy, general natural history, zoology, comparative anatomy, the physiology of man, of animals and of plants. The spirit with which he grappled with the vast scope of science is characteristically illustrated in his essay Ucber das Univcrsum als Fortsctzung des Sinncnsystems, i8oS. In this work he lays it down that "organism is none other than a combination of all the universe's activities within a single individual body." This doctrine led him to the conviction that " world and organism arc one in kind, ami do not stand merely in harmony with each other." In the same year he published his Erstc Idcen cur Thcoric des Lichts, &c., in which he advanced the proposition that "light could be nothing but a polar tension of the ether, evoked by a cenlral body in antagonism with the planets, and heat was none other than a motion of this ether "—a sort of vague anticipation of the doctrine of the " correlation of physical forces." In 1809 Okcn extended his system to the mineral world, arranging the ores, not according to the metals, but agreeably to their combinations with oxygen, acids and sulphur. In 1810 he summed up his views on organic and inorganic nature into one compendious system. In the first edition of the Lekrbuch der Ndtur philosophic, which appeared in that and the following years, he sought to bring his different doctrines into mutual connexion, and to "show that the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms are not to be arranged arbitrarily in accordance with single and isolated characters, but to be based upon the cardinal organs or anatomical systems, from which a firmly established number of classes would necessarily be evolved; that each class, moreover, takes its starting-point from below, and consequently that all of them pass parallel to each other "; and that, " as in chemistry, where the combinations follow a definite numerical law, so also in anatomy the organs, in physiology the functions, and in natural history the classes, families, and even genera of minerals, plants, and animals present a similar arithmetical ratio." The Lehrbitch procured for Oken the title of Ho/rath, or court-councillor, and in 1812 he was appointed ordinary professor of the natural sciences.

In 1816 he commenced the publication of his well-known periodical, entitled Isis, cine encydopSdische Zcitschrift, vorziiglick fur Naturgcschickte, vcrglcicltcndc Anatomic und Physiologic. In this journal appeared essays and notices not only on the natural sciences but on other subjects of interest; poetry, and even comments on the politics of other German states, were occasionally admitted. This led to representations and remonstrances from the governments criticized or impugned, and the court of Weimar called upon Okcn either to suppress the I sis or resign his professorship. He chose the latter alternative. The publication of the tsis at Weimar was prohibited. Okcn made arrangements for its issue at Rudolstadt, and this continued uninterruptedly until the year 1848.

In 1821 Oken promulgated in his Iris the first idea of the annual general meetings of the German naturalists and medical practitioners, which happy idea was realized in the following year, when the first meeting was held at Leipzig. The British Association for the Advancement of Science was at the outset avowedly organized after the German or Okcnian model.

In i8i8 Okcn resumed his original humble duties as privatdocenl in the newly-eslablishcd university of Munich, and soon

afterwards he was appointed ordinary professor in the same university. In 1832, on the proposal by the Bavarian government to transfer him to a professorship in a provincial university of the state, he resigned his appointments and left the kingdom. He was appointed in 1833 to the professorship of natural history in the then recently-established university of Zurich. There he continued to reside, fulfilling his professional duties and promoting the progress of his favourite sciences, until his death on the nth of August 1851.

All Oken's writings arc eminently deductive illustrations of a foregone and assumed principle, which, with other philosophers of the transcendental school, he deemed equal to the explanation of all the mysteries of nature. According to him, the head was a repetition of the trunk—a kind of second trunk, with its limbs and other appendages; this sum of his observations and comparisons —few of which he ever gave in detail—ought always to be borne in mind in comparing the share taken by Okcn in homological anatomy with the progress made by other cultivators of that philosophical branch of the science.

The idea of the analogy between the skull, or parts of the skull, and the vertebral column had been previously propounded and ventilated in their lectures by J. H. F. Autcnrcith and K. F. Kielmcyer, and in the writings of J. P. Frank. By Oken it was applied chiefly in illustration of the mystical system oi Schelling—the allin-all " and "all-in-evcry-part." From the earliest to the latest of Oken's writings on the subject, *' the head is a repetition of the whole trunk with all its systems: the brain is the spinal cord; the cranium is the vertebral column; the mouth is intestine and abdomen; the nose is the lungs and thorax; the jaws are tlie limbs; and the teeth the claws or nails." J. B. von Spix, in his folio Crpkalogtnesu (1818), richly illustrated comparative craniology. but presented the facts under the same transcendental guise; and Cuvier ably availed himself of the extravagances of these disciples of Schelling to cast ridicule on the whole inquiry into those higher relations oi parts to the archetype which Sir Richard Owen called " general homologies."

The vertebral theory of the skull had practically disappeared from anatomical science When the labours of Cuvier drew to their close. In Owen's Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton the idea was not only revived but worked out for the first time inductively, and the theory rightly stated, as follows: " The head is not a virtual equivalent of the trunk, but is only a portion, i.e. certain modified segments, of the whole body. The jaws are the 'haemal arches' of the first two segments; they are not Umbs of the head " (p. 176).

Vaguely and strangely, however, as Oken had blended the idea with his a priori conception of the nature of the head, the chance of appropriating it seems to have overcome the moral sense of Goethe—unless indeed the poet deceived himself. Comparative osteology had early attracted Goethe's attention. In 1786 he published at Jena his essay Vcbcr den Zwischenkieferknocntn da Menscken und der Thiere, showing that the intermaxillary bone existed in man as well as in brutes. But not a word in this essay


publicly stated that thirty years before the date of that pu cation he had discovered the secret relationship between the vertebrae and the bones of the head, and that "he had always continued to meditate on this subject. The circumstances under which the poet, in 1820, narrates having become inspired with the original idea arc suspiciously analogous to those described by Okcn in 1807, as producing the same effect on his mind. A bleached skull is accidentally discovered in both instances: in Oken's it was that of a deer in the Harz forest; in Goethe's it was that of a sheep picked up on the shores of the Lido, at Venice.

It may be assumed that Oken when a privat-docent at Gottingen in 1806 knew nothing of this unpublished idea or discovery of Goethe, and that Goethe first became aware that Oken had the idea, of the vertebral relations of the skull when he listened to the introductory discourse in which the young professor, invited by the poet to Jena, selected this very idea for its subject. It is incredible that Okcn, had he adopted the idea from Goethe, or been aware of an anticipation by him, should have omitted to acknowledge the source—should not rather have eagerly embraced so appropriate an opportunity of doing graceful homage to the originality and genius of his patron.

The anatomist having lectured for an hour plainly unconscious of any such anticipation, it seems hardly less incredible that the poet should not have mentioned to the young lecturer his previous conception of the vertebro-cramal theory, and the singular coincidence of the accidental circumstance which he subsequently alleged to have produced that discovery. On the contrary, Goethe permits Okcn to publish his famous lecture, with the same unconsciousness of any anticipation as when he delivered it; and Oken, in the same state of belief, transmits a copy to Goethe (7iu. No. 7) who thereupon honours the professor with special marks of attention and an invitation to his house. No hint of any claim of the host is given to the guest; no word of reclamation in any shape appears for some anticipated? "I told my friends to keep quiet," writes ia 1825! Spix, in the meanwhile, in 1815, contributes '


In Goethe's Tares- ttnd Jakres-Hefte, he refers to two friends, ____ r and Votgt, as being cognizant in 1807 of his theory. Why did not one or other of these make known to Okcn that he had N*n so Goethe

iis share to the development of Oken's idea in his Cephdlogcncsit. llrich follows in 1816 with his SekildkroUnschddel; next appears the contribution, in 1818, by L. H. Bojanus, to the vertebral theory of the skull, amplified m the Paragon to that anatomist's admirable Anotffme Testtutinis Europaeae (1821). And now fur the first time, ia 1818, Bojanus, visiting some friends at Weimar, there hears the rumour that his friend Okcn had been anticipated by the great poet. He communicates it to Okcn, who, like an honest man, at once published the statement made by Goethe's friends in the Itis <rf that year, offering no reflection on the poet, but restricting himself to a detailed and interesting account of the circumstances under which be bjmaglf had been led independently to make his discovery Then wandering in 1806 through the Harz. It was enough for him thus to vindicate his own claims; he abstains from any comment reflecting on Goethe, and maintained the same blameless silence when Goethe ventured for the first time to claim for himself, in 1820, the merit of having entertained the same idea, or made the discovery, thirty years previously.

Toe German naturalists held their annual meeting at Jena in 1836, and there Kicser publicly bore testimony, from personal knowledge, to the circumstances and dates of Oken's discovery. However, in the edition of Hegel's works by Michclet (Berlin, 1842), there appeared the following paragraph: "The type-bone is the dorsal vertebra, provided inwards with a hole and outwards with processes, every bone being only a modification of it. This idea originated with Goethe, who worked it out in a treatise written in 1785. awl published it in his Mortthologie (1820), p. 162. Okcn, to »fcuB> the treatise Ims communicated, has pretended that the idea was fej «v» property, and has reaped the honour of it." This accusation in called out Oken, who thoroughly refuted it in an able, circum__ntial and temperate statement in part vii. of the Isis (18.17). Goethe's osteotogical essay of 1785, the only one he printed in that century, is on a different subject. In the Morphologic of 1820-1824 Goethe distinctly declares that he had never published his ideas on the vertebral theory of the skull. He could not, therefore, have sent any such essay to Oken before the year 1807. Oken, in reference to his previous endurance of Goethe's pretensions, states that, " being veil aware that his fellow-labourers in natural science thoroughly appreciated the true state of the case, he confided in quiet silence ia their judgment, Mcckcl, Spix, Ulrich, Bojanus, Carus, Cuvier. Gecffroy St Hilaire, Albers, Straus-Durckheim, Owen, Kicser ana Lkhtenstein had recorded their judgment in his favour and against Goethe. But upon the appearance of the new assault in Michclet's edition of Hegel he could no longer remain silent."

Oken's bold axiom that heat is but a mode of motion of light, and the idea broached in his essay on generation (1805) that "all the parts of higher animals are made up of an aggregate of Infusoria or animated globular monads," are both of the same order as his proposition of the head being a repetition of the trunk, with its vertebrae and limbs. Science would have profited no more from the one idea without the subsequent experimental discoveries of H. C, Oersted and M. Faraday, or from the other without the microiropiral observations of Robert Brown, J. M. Schleiden and T. Schvann. than from the third notion without the inductive dcmonKntkni of the segmental constitution of the skull by Owen. It is C'-ts'ionable. indeed, whether in either case the discoverers of the true theories were excited to their labours, or in any way influenced, by the a priori guesses of Oken; more probable is it that the requisite researches and genuine deductions thcrefrorn were the results of the correlated fitness of the stage of the science and the gifts of its true cultivators at such particular stage.

The following is a list of Oken's principal works: Grundriss der Vaixrpktlosopkie, der Tkeorie der Sinnt, ttnd der daravf gegrHndelen Classification der Tkiere (1802); Die Zeugung (1805); Abriss der (1605); Beitrdge tur vergleichenden-Zoologie, Anatomic ttnd fie (along with Kicser, 1806-1807); Veber die Bcdtutung itt Sckcdelkn<xken (1807); Ueber das Universum als Fortsetzungdet Saatensystenu (l8o8);£rsfe Ideen svr Tkeorie des Lichls, der Finsler«sjj. der Farben und der Wdrme (1808); Grundzeithnunx des nattirHrkem Systems der Eru (1809); Ueber den Werth der Naturgesckichlt (1809); Lekrtnuk der Katurphilosophie (1809-1811; 2nd cd., 1831; trd ed_. 1843; Eng. trans.. Elements of Pkysiophilosophy, 1847); Lekrbmch der Naturgeschuhte (1813, 1815, 1825); Handbuch der lt turn Gebrauch bet Vorlewngen (1816-1820): NaturSchtdtn (1821); Eiqvissed'unSystimc d'Analomie, de _ ut el d'Histoire NatureUe (1812); AUgemeine Naturgeschicktt iSrj-i842, 14 vols.). He also contributed a large number of papers to the Itis and other journals. (R. O.)

OKHOTSK, SEA OP. a part of the western Pacific Ocean, lying between tbe peninsula of Kamchatka, the Kurilc Islands, the Japanese island of Yezo, the island of Sakhalin, and the Amur province of East Siberia, The Sakhalin Gulf and Gulf of Tartary connect it with the Japanese Sea on the west of

the island of Sakhalin, and on the south of this island is the La Ferouse Strait.

OKI, a group of islands belonging to Japan, lying due north of the province of Izumo, at the intersection of 36° N. and 133° E. The group consists of one large island called Dogo, and three smaller isles—Chiburi-shima, Nishi-no-shima, and Naka-noshima—which are collectively known as Dozen. These four islands have a coast-line of 182 m., an area of 130 sq. m., and a population of 63,000. The island of Dogo has two high peaks, Daimanji-minc (2185 ft.) and Ominc-yama (2128 ft.). The chief town is Saigo in Dogo, distant about 40 m. from the port of Sakai in Izumo. The name Oki-no-shima signifies "islands in the offing," and the place is celebrated in Japanese history not only because the possession of the islands was much disputed in feudal days, but also because an ex-emperor and an emperor were banished thither by the Hojo regents in the \ \\\\ century.

OKLAHOMA (a Choctaw Indian word meaning " red people "), a south central state of the United States of America lying between 33° 35' and 37° N. lat. and 94° 29' and 103° W. long. It is bounded N. by Colorado and Kansas; E. by Missouri and Arkansas; S. by Texas, from which it is separated in part by the Red river; and W. by Texas and New Mexico. It has a total area of 70,057 sq. m., of which 643 sq. m. are water-surface. Although the extreme western limit of the state is the io3rd meridian, the only portion W. of the xooth meridian is a strip of land about 35 m. wide in the present Beaver, Texas and Cimarron counties, and formerly designated as " No Man's Land."

Physiography.—The topographical features of the state exhibit considerable diversity, ranging from wide treeless plains in the W. to rugged and heavily wooded mountains in the E. In general terms, however, the surface may be described as a vast rolling plain having a gentle southern and eastern slope. The elevations above the sea range from 4700 ft. in the extreme N.W. to about 350 ft. in the S.E. The southern and eastern slopes arc remarkably uniform; between the northern and southern boundaries E. of the icoth meridian there is a general difference in elevation of from 200 to 300 ft., while from W. to E. there is an average decline of about 3 ft. to the mile. The state has a mean elevation of 1300 ft. with 34,930 sq. m. below 1000 ft; 25,400 sq. m. between 1000 and 2000 ft.; 6500 sq. m. between 2000 and 3000 ft.; and 3600 sq. m. between 3000 and 5000 ft.

The western portion of the Ozark Mountains enters Oklahoma near the centre of the eastern boundary, and extends W.S.W. half way across the state in a chain of hills gradually decreasing in height. In the south central part of the state i - an elevated tableland known as the Arbucklc Mountains. In its western portion this tableland attains an elevation of about 1350 ft. above the sea and lies about 400 ft. above the bordering plains. At its eastern termination, where it merges with the plains, it has an elevation of about 750 ft. Sixty miles N.W. of this plateau lie the Wichita Mountains, a straggling range of rugged peaks rising abruptly from a level plain. This range extends from Fort Sill north-westward beyond Granite, a distance of 65 m., with some breaks in the second half of this area. The highest peaks are not more than 1500 ft. above the plain, but on account of their steep and rugged slopes they arc difficult to ascend. A third group of hills, the Cnautauqua Mountains, lie in the W. in Elaine and Canadian counties, their main axis being almost parallel with the North Fork of the Canadian river. With the exception of these isolated clusters of hills the western portion of the state consists almost entirely of rolling prairie. The extreme north-western part of Oklahoma is a lofty tableland forming part of the Great Plains region E. of the Rocky Mountains.

The prairies N. of the Arkansas and W. of the Ncosho rivers are deeply carved by small streams, and in the western portion of this area, where the formation consists of alternating shales and sandstones, the easily eroded rocks have been carved into canyons, butte* and mesas. South of the Arkansas river these ledges of sandstone continue as far as Okmulgee, but the evidences of erosion arc less noticeable. East of the Neosho river the prairies merge into a hilly woodland. In the N.W. four large salt plains form a striking physical feature. Of these the most noted is the Big Salt Plain of the Cimarron river, in Woodward county, which varies in width from i m. to a m. and extends alonp the river for 8 m. The plain is almost perfectly level, covered with snowy-white saline crystals, and contains many salt springs. The other saline areas arc the Little Salt Plain, which lies on the Cimarron river, near the Kansas boundary; the Salt Creek Plain, 3 m. long and loo yds. wide, in Elaine county; and the Salt Fork Plain, 6 m. wide and 8 m. long, so called from its position on the Salt Fork of the Arkansas river.

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