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Homer; (a) an historian of Abydus, an intimate friend of Aristotle.

See edition by N. Festa," in Mytkographi graeci (1902), in the Teubner scries, with valuable prolegomena supplementary to Inlorno all' opiucolo di Palefato de incredibilibia (1890), by the same writer.

PALAESTRA (Gr. ToXoforpa), the name apparently applied by the Greeks to two kinds of places used for gymnastic and athletic exercises. In the one case it seems confined to the places where boys and youths received a general gymnastic training, in the other to a part of a gymnasium where the atftlctae, the competitors in the public games, were trained in wrestling (roXouur, to wrestle) and boxing. The boys' palaestrae were private institutions and generally bore the name of the manager or of the founder; thus at Athens there was a palaestra of Taurcas (Plato, Charmidcs). The Romans used the terms gymnasium and palaestra indiscriminately for any place where gymnastic exercises were carried on.

PALAFOX DE MENDOZA, JUAN DE (1600-1659), Spanish bishop, was born in Aragon. He was appointed in 1839 bishop of Angelopolis (Puebla de los Angeles) in Mexico, and there honourably distinguished himself by his efforts to protect the natives from Spanish cruelty, forbidding any methods of conversion other than persuasion. In this he met with the uncompromising hostility of the Jesuits, whom in 1647 he laid under an interdict. He twice, in 1647 and 1649, laid a formal complaint against them at Rome. The pope, however, refused to approve his censures, and all he could obtain was a brief from Innocent X. (May 14, 1648), commanding the Jesuits to respect the episcopal jurisdiction. In 1653 the Jesuits succeeded in securing his translation to the little see of Osma in Old Castile. In 1694 Charles II. of Spain petitioned for his canonization; but though this passed through the preliminary stages, securing for Palafox the title of "Venerable," it was ultimately defeated, under Pius VI., by the intervention of the Jesuits.

See Antonio Gonzalez de Resende, Vie de Palafox (French trans,, Paris, 1690).

PALAFOX Y MELZI, JOSE DE (1780-1847), duke of Saragossa, was the youngest son of an old Aragonese family. Brought up at the Spanish court, he entered the guards at an early age, and in 1808 as a sub-lieutenant accompanied Ferdinand to Bayonne; but after "vainly attempting, in company with others, to secure Ferdinand's escape, he fled to Spain, and after a short period of retirement placed himself at the head of the patriot movement in Aragon. He was proclaimed by the populace governor of Saragossa and captain-general of Aragon (May 25, 1808). Despite the want of money and of regular troops, he lost no time in declaring war against the French, who had already overrun the neighbouring provinces of Catalonia and Navarre, and soon afterwards the attack he had provoked began. Saragossa as a fortress was both antiquated in design and scantily provided with munitions and supplies, and the defences resisted but a short time. But it was at that point that the real resistance began. A week's street fighting made the assailants masters of half the town, but Palafox's brother succeeded in forcing a passage into the city with 3000 troops. Stimulated by the appeals of Palafox and of the fierce and resolute demagogues who ruled the mob, the inhabitants resolved lo contest possession of the remaining quarters of Saragossa inch by inch, and if necessary to retire to the suburb across the Ebro, destroying the bridge. The struggle, which was prolonged for nine days longer, resulted in the withdrawal of the French (Aug. 14), after a siege which had lasted 61 days in all. Palafox then attempted a short campaign in the open country, but when Napoleon's own army entered Spain, and destroyed one hostile army after another in a few weeks, Palafox was forced back into Saragossa, where he sustained a still more memorable second siege. This ended, after three months, in the fall of the town, or rather the cessation of resistance, for the town was in ruins and a pestilence had swept away many thousands of the defenders. Palafox himself, suffering from the epidemic, fell into the hands of the French and was kept

prisoner at Vincennes until December 1813. In June 1814 he was confirmed in the office of captain-general of Aragon, but soon afterwards withdrew from it, and ceased to take part in public affairs. From 1820 to 1823 he commanded the royal guard of King Ferdinand, but, taking the side of the Constitution in the civil troubles which followed, he was stripped of all his honours and offices by the king, whose restoration by French bayonets was the triumph of reaction and absolutism. Palafox remained in retirement for many years. He received the title of duke of Saragossa from Queen Maria Christine. From 1836 he took part in military and political affairs as captain-general of Aragon and a senator. He died at Madrid on the isth of February 1847.

A biographical notice of Palafox appeared in the Spanish translation ofThiers's Hist, des consulates de I'empire, by P. de Madrago. For the two sieves of Saragossa, see C. W. C. Oman, Peninsular War, vol. L; this account is both more accurate and more just than Napier's.

PALAMAS, GREGORIUS (c. 1206-1359), Greek mystic and chief apologist of the Hesychasts (g.v.), belonged to a distinguished Anatolian family, and his father held an important position at Constantinople. Palamas at an early age retired to Mt Athos, where he became acquainted with the mystical theories of the Hesychasts.. In 1326 he went to Sk£t£ near Beroea, where he spent some years in isolation in a cell specially, built for him. His health having broken down, he returned to Mt Athos, but, finding little relief, removed to Thessalonica. About this time Barlaam, the Calabrian monk, began his attacks upon the monks of Athos, and Palamas came forward as their champion. In 1341 and 1351 he took part in the two synods at Constantinople, which definitively secured the victory of the Palamites. During the civil war between John Cantacuzene and the Palaeologi, Palamas was imprisoned. After Cantacuzene's victory in 1347, Palamas was released and appointed archbishop of Thessalonica; being refused admittance by the inhabitants, he retired to the island of Lemnos, but subsequently obtained his see. Palamas endeavoured to justify the mysticism of the Hesychasts on dogmatic grounds. The chief objects of his attack were Barlaam, Gregorius Acindynus and Nicephorus Grcgoras.

Palamas was a prolific writer, but only a few of his works have been published, most of which wilt be found in J. P. Migne, Palrologia eraeca (cl., cli.J. They consist of polemics against the Latins and their doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Ghost; Hcsychastic writings; homilies; a life of St Peter (a monk of Athos); a rhetorical essay Prosopopeia (cd. A. Jahn, 1884), containing the accusations brought against the body by the soul, the defence made by the body, and the final pronouncement of the judges in favour of the body, on the ground ih.it its sins arc the result of inadequate teaching.

See the historical works of John Cantacuzene and Nicephorus Gregoras, the Vita Palamce by Philotheus, and the encomium by Nilus (both patriarchs of Constantinople); also C. Krumbacher, Ceschichte der byzantinischcn Littcratur (1897).

PALAMAU, a district of British India, in the Chota-Nagpur division of Bengal. It was formed out of Lohardaga, in 1894, and takes its name from a former state or chicfship. The administrative headquarters are at Daltonganj: pop. (iqoi), 5837. It consists of the lower spurs of the Chota-Nagpur plateau, sloping north to the valley of the Son. Area 4914 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 619,600, showing an increase of 3-8% in the decade; average density, 126 persons per sq. m., being the lowest in all Bengal. Palamau suffered severely from drought in 1897. A branch of the East Indian railway from the Son valley to the valuable coalfield near Daltonganj was opened in 1902. ^The only articles of export are jungle produce, such as lac and tussur silk. The forests are unprofitable.

See Palamau District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1007).

PALAMCOTTAH, a town of British India, in the Tinncvelly district of Madras, on the opposite bank of the Tambraparni river to Tinnevclly town, with which it shares a station on the South Indian railway, 444 m. south of Madras. Pop. (1901), 39*545- It is the administrative headquarters of the district, and also the chief centre of Christian missions in south India. Among many educational institutions may be mentioned the Sarah Tucker College for Women, founded in 1895.

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PALAMEDES, in Creek, legend, son of Nauplius king of Euboca, one of the heroes of the Trojan War, belonging to the pest-Homeric cycle of legends. During the siege of Troy, Agamemnon, Diomedes and Odysseus (who had been detected by Palamedes in an attempt to escape going to Troy by shamming madness) caused a letter containing money and purporting to come from Priam to be concealed in his tent. They then accused Palamedes of treasonable correspondence with the enemy, and he was ordered to be stoned to death. His father exacted a fearful vengeance from the Greeks on their way home, by placing false lights on the promontory of Capharcus. The story of Palamedes was first handled in the Cypria of Stasinus, and formed the subject of lost plays by Aeschylus (Palamedes), Sophocles (NaupUtu), Euripides (Palamedes), of which some fragments remain. Sophists and rhetoricians, such as Gorgias and Akidamas, amused themselves by writing declamations in favour of or against him. Palamedes was regarded as the inventor of the alphabet, lighthouses, weights and measures, dice, backgammon and the discus.

See Euripides, Orestes. 432 and Khol.; Ovid, llelam. xiii. 56; Scrviuson Virgil, Acneid, ii. 82, and Nculcship's note in Conineton's edition; Philostratus, Heroica, 11; Euripides, Frag. 581; for different versions of his death we Dictys Cretensis ii.. 15; Pausanias ii. 20, 3 ;x. 31, 2; Dares Phrygius,38; monograph by O. Jahn (Hamburg, 1836).

PALANPUR, a native state of India, in the Gujarat division of Bombay, on the southern border of Rajputan.i. Area, 1766 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 221,627, showing a decrease of 19 % in the decade. The country is mountainous, with much forest towards the north, but undulating and open in the south and cast. The principal rivers are the Saraswati and Banas. The estimated gross revenue is £50,000; tribute to the gaekwar of Baroda, £2564. The chief, whose title is diwan, is an Afghan by descent. The state is traversed by the main line of the Rajputana-Malwa railway, and contains the British cantonment of Deesa. Wheat, rice and sugar-cane are the chief products. The state has suffered severely of recent years from plague. The town of Paianpuk is a railway junction for Deesa, 18 m. distant. Pop. (1901), 17,799.

> Palanpur also gives its name to a political agency, or collection of native states; total area, 6393 sq. m.; pop. (1001), 467,271, showing a decrease of 28 % in the decade, due to the effects of famine.

PALANQUIN (pronounced palankeen, a form in which it is sometimes spelled), a covered litter used in India and other Eastern countries. It is usually some eight feet long by four feet in width and depth, fitted with movable blinds or shutters, and slung on poles carried by four bearers. Indian and Chinese women of rank always travelled in palanquim, and they were largely used by European residents in India before the railways. The norimono of Japan and the kioolsu of China differ from the Indian palanquin only in the method of attaching the poles to the body of the conveyance. The word came into European use through Port, palnnquim, which represents an East Indian word seen in several forms, e.g. Malay and Javanese palangti, Hindostani palti, Pah' pallanko, &c., all in the sense of litter, couch, bed. The Sansk. poryanko, couch, bed, the source of all these words, is derived from part, round, about, and anka, hook. The Near English Dictionary points out the curious resemblance of these words with the Latin use of phalanga (Gr. i.ViXa-y {) for a bearing or carrying pole, whence the Span. palatial and palanquins, a bearer.

PALATE (Lat. palalum, possibly from the root of paictre, to feed), the roof of the mouth in man and vertebrate animals. The palate is divided into two parts, the anterior bony " hard palate" (sec Mouth), and the posterior fleshy "soil palate" (see Pharynx). For the malformation consisting in a longitudinal fissure in the roof of the mouth, sec Cleft Palate.

PALATINATE (Ger. Pfali), a name given generally to any district ruled by a count palatine, but particularly to a district of Germany, a province of the kingdom of Bavaria, lying west of the Rhine. It is bounded on the N. by the Prussian Rhine province and the Hessian province of Rhein-Hessen; on the E.

by Baden, from which it is separated by the Rhine; on rt: S. by the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, from which it it divided by the Lauter; and on the W. by the administrative districts of Trier and CoblenZ, belonging to the Prussian Rhine province. It has an area of 2288 sq. m., and a population (1505) of 885,280, showing a density of 386^9 to the Square mile. At regards religion, the inhabitants are fairly equally distributed into Roman Catholics and Protestants.

The riven in this fertile tract of country are the Rhine, Lauter, Queich, • Spcirbach, Clan and Blies. The Vosges, and their continuation the Hardt, run through the land from south to north and divide it into the fertile and mild plain of the Rhine, together with the slope of the Hardt range, on the east, and the rather inclement district on the west, which, running between the Saarbrlick carboniferous mountains and the northern spurs of the Hardt range, ends in a porphyrous duster of hills, the highest point of which is the Donnersberg (2254 ft.l. The country on the east side and on the slopes of the Hardt yield a number of the most varied products, such as wine, fruit, corn, vegetables, flax and tobacco. Cattle are reared in grot quantity and are of excellent, quality. The mines yield iron, coal, quicksilver and salt. The industries are very active, especially in iron, machinery, paper, chemicals, shoes, woollen goods, beer, leather and tobacco. The province is well served by railway communication and, for purposes of administration, is divided into the following 16. districts: Bergubern, Durkhcim, Frankcnthal, Germersheira, Homburg, Kaisetslautcrn, Kirchheimbolandcn, Kusel, Landau, Ludwigshifea, Neustadt, Pirmasens, Rockenhausen, St Ingbeit. Spires and Zweibrticken. • Spires (Speyer) is the scat of government, aad the chief industrial centres are Ludwigshufcn on the Rhine, which is the principal liver port. Landau, and Neustadt, the seat of the wine trade.

See A. Becker, Die Plait und die PfSlier (Leipzig, 1857); Mehlii, Fahrten ditrch die Pfali (Augsburg, 1877); Kranz, HanJbuck 40 Plait (Spires, 1902); Hcnscn. Pfalzfiikrer (N'eustidt, 1905); ud Noher, Die Burgen der rheinischen PJivs (Strassburg, 1887).

History.—The count palatine of the Rhine was a royal officul who is first mentioned in the loth century. The first count wji Hermann I., who ruled from 045 to 996, and although the office was not hereditary it appears to have been held mainly by ha descendants until the death of Count Hermann III. in 1155. These counts had gradually extended their powers, had obtained the right of advocacy over the archbishop of Trier and the bishopric of Juliers, and ruled various isolated districts alocg the Rhine. In 1155 the German king, Frederick I., appointed his step-brother Conrad as count palatine. Conrad took up his residence at the castle of Juttenbuhel, near Heidelberg which became the capital of the Palatinate. In 1195 Conrad was succeeded by his son-in-law Henry, son of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, who was a loyal supporter of the emperor Henry VI. After the latter's death in 1197 he assisted his own brother Otto, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., in his attempts to pin the German throne. Otto refused to reward Henry for tii support, so in 1204 he assisted his rival, the German king Philip, but returned to Otto's side after Philip's murder in 1108. la 1211 Henry abdicated in favour of his son Henry, who died ia 1214, when the Palatinate was given by the German ki£$ Frederick II. to Otto, the infant son of Louis I., duke of Bavirii. a member of the Wittelsbach family, who was betrothed to Agnes, sister of the late count, Henry. The break-up of [be duchy of Franconia had increased the influence of the count palatine of the Rhine, and the importance of his position unocg the princes of the empire is shown by Roger of Hoveden. «bo, writing of the election to the German throne in i :oS, singta out four princes as chief electors, among whom is the co--at palatine of the Rhine. In the Sadaaupuftl, a collection of German laws which was written before 1235, the count is gi^ra as the butler (dapifer) of the emperor, the first place among the lay electors.

The Palatinate was ruled by Louis of BivarU on behalf of his son until 1228, when it passed to Otto who ruled until his death in 1253. Otto's possessions were soon afterwards divided. and his elder son Louis II. received the Palatinate and Upper Bavaria. Louis died in 1204 when these districts passed to his son Rudolph I. (d. 1319), and subsequently to his grandson Louis, afterwards the emperor Louis IV. By the Treaty of I'avia in 1329, Louis granted the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolph II. and Rupert I., who received from him at the same time a portion of the duchy of Upper Bavaria, which was called the upper Palatinate to distinguish it from, the Rhenish, or lower Palatinate. Rudolph died in 1353, after which Rupert ruled alone until his death in 1300. In 1355 he had sold a portion of the upper Palatinate to the emperor Charles IV., but by various purchases he increased the area of the Rhenish Palatinate. His successor was his nephew Rupert II., who bought from the German king Wenccslaus a portion of the territory that his uncle had sold to Charles IV. He died in 1398 and was succeeded by his son Rupert III. In 1400 Rupert was elected German king, and when he died in 1410 his possessions were divided among his four sons: the eldest, Louis III., received the Rhenish Palatinate proper; the second son, John, obtained the upper Palatinate; while the outlying districts of Zweibriickcn and Simmcrn passed to Stephen, and that of Mosbach to Otto.

When the possessions of the house of Wittelsbach were divided in 1255 and the branches of Bavaria and the Palatinate were founded, a dispute arose over the exercise of the electoral vote, and the question was not settled until in 1356 the Golden Bull bestowed the privilege upon the count palatine of the Rhine, who exercised it until 1623. The part played by Count Frederick V., titular king of Bohemia, during the Thirty Years' War induced! the emperor Ferdinand II. to deprive him of his vote and to transfer it to the duke of Bavaria, Maximilian I. By the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 an eighth electorate was created for the count palatine, to which was added the office of treasurer. In 1777, however, the count resumed the ancient position of his family in the electoral college, and regained the office of steward which he retained until the formal dissolution of' the empire in 1806.

To return to the history of the Palatinate as divided into four parts among the sons of the German king Rupert in 1410. John, the second of. these brothers, died in r44j, and his son Christopher, having become king of Denmark in 1440, did not inherit the upper Palatinate, which was again united with the Rhenish Palatinate. Otto, the son of Otto (d. 1461), Rupert's fourth son, who had obtained Mosbach, died without sons in 1409, and this line bec'amc extinct, leaving only the two remaining lines with interests in the Rhenish Palatinate. After Rupert's death this was governed by his eldest son, the' elector Louis III. (d. 1436), and then by the latter's sons, Louis IV. (d. 1449) and Frederick L The elector Frederick, called .the Victorious, was one of the foremost princes of his time. His nephew and successor, the elector Philip, carried oh a war for the possession of the duchy of Bavaria-Landshut, which had been bequeathed to his son Rupert (d. 1504), but, when in 1507 an end was put to this struggle, Rupert's son, Otto Henry, only received Ncuburg and Sulzbach. Louis V. and then Frederick II. succeeded Philip, but both died without sons and Otto Henry became elector. He too died without sons in 1559, when the senior branch became extinct, leaving only the branch descended from Rupert's third son, Stephen.

Already on Stephen's death in 1459 this family had been divided into two branches, those of Simmcrn •and Of Zweibrucken, and in 1514 the latter branch had been divided into the lines of Zweibrflcken proper and of Veldentz. It was Frederick, count palatine of Simmem, who succeeded to the Palatinate on Otto Henry's death, becoming the elector Frederick HI. The new elector, a keen but not a very bigoted Calvinist, was one of the most active of the Protestant princes. His son and successor, Louis VI. (d. 1583), was a Lutheran, but another son, John Casimir, who ruled the electorate on behalf of his young nephew, Frederick IV., from 15%$ to 1592, gave every encouragement to the Calvinists. A similar line of action was followed by Frederick IV. himself after 1592.

He was the (bonder and head of the Evangelical Union established to combat the aggressive tendencies of the Roman Catholics. His son, the elector Frederick V., accepted the throne of Bohemia and thus brought on the Thirty Years' War. He was quickly driven from that country, and his own electorate was devastated by the Bavarians and Spaniards. At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 the Palatinate was restored to Frederick's son, Charles Louis, but it was shorn of the upper Palatinate, which Bavaria retained as the prize of war.

Scarcely had the Palatinate begun to recover when it was attacked by Louis XIV. For six years (1673-79) the electorate was devastated by the French troops, and even after the Treaty of Nijmwcgcn it suffered from the aggressive policy of Louis. In August 1680 the elector Charles Louis died, and when his son and successor, Charles, followed him to the grave five years later the ruling family became extinct in the senior line. Mention has already been made of a division of this family into two lines after 1459, and of a further division of the Zwcibrucken line in r5i4, when again two lines were founded. The junior of these, that of Veldentz, became extinct in 1694, but the senior, that of Zweibrilcken proper, was still very flourishing. Under Count Wolfgang (d. 1569) it had purchased Sulzbach and Neuburg in 1557, and in the person of his grandson, Wolfgang William (d. 1653) it had secured the coveted duchies of Julicrs and Berg. It was Philip William of Neuburg, the son of Wolfgang William, who 'became elector palatine in succession to Charles in 1685.

The French king's brother, Philip, duke of Orleans, had married Charlotte Elizabeth, a sister of the late elector Charles, and consequently the French king claimed a part of Charles's lands in 1680. His troops took Heidelberg and devastated the Palatinate, while Philip William took refuge in Vienna, where he died in 1090. Then in 1697, by the Treaty of Ryswick, Louis abandoned his claim in return for a sum of money. Just before this date the Palatinate began to be disturbed by troubles about religion. The great majority of the inhabitants were Protestants, but the family which succeeded in 1685 belonged to the Roman Catholic Church. Philip William, however, gave equal rights to all his subjects, but under his son and successor, the elector John William, the Protestants were deprived of various civil rights until the intervention of Prussia and of Brunswick in 1705 gave them some redress. The next elector, a brother of the last one, was Charles Philip, who removed his capital from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720. He died without male issue in December 1742. His successor was his kinsman, Charles Theodore, count palatine of Sulzbach, a cadet of the Zweibrflcken-Neuburg line, and now with the exception of one or two small pieces the whole of the Palatinate was united under one ruler. Charles Theodore was a prince of refined and educated tastes and during his long reign his country enjoyed prosperity. In 1777 on the extinction of the other branch of the house of Wittelsbach, he became elector of Bavaria, and the Palatinate was henceforward united with Bavaria, the elector's capital being Munich. Charles Theodore died without legitimate sons in 1799, and his successor was Maximilian Joseph, a member of the Birkenfeld branch of the Zweibrilcken family, who later became king of Bavaria as Maximilian I.

In 1802 the elector was obliged to cede the portion of the Palatinate lying on the left bank of the Rhine to France, and other portions to Baden and to Hesse-Darmstadt. Much of this, however, was regained in 1815, and since that date the Palatinate has formed part of the kingdom of Bavaria.

Ncbcnius, Gackichte tkr Pfalt (Heidelberg. 1874); Gttmbel, Cachichta dcr prolalataischen Kirclie dcr Pfalt (Kaiscrclautcrn, 1885); the RecesUn dcr Pfalzgrafert am Rhein, 1214-1508, edited by Koch and Wille (Innsbruck, 1894); and Wild, Bildcrallas zur badisihpjalzischcn Gachichle (Heidelberg, 1904).

PALATINE (from Lat. palatium, a palace,) pertaining to the palace and therefore to the emperor, king or other sovereign ruler. In the latex Roman Empire certain officials attending on the emperor, or discharging other duties at his court, were called /v.'.•//..•/; from the time of Constantino the Great the term was also applied to the soldiers stationed in or around the capital to distinguish them from those stationed on the frontier of the empire. In the East Roman Empire the word was used lo designate officials concerned with the administration of the finances and the imperial lands.

This use of the word palatine was adopted by the Prankish kings of the Merovingian dynasty. They employed a high official, the comes palatinus, who at first assisted the king in his judicial duties and at a later date discharged many of these himself. Other counts palatine were employed on military and administrative work, and the system was maintained by the Carolingian sovereigns. The word paladin, used to describe the followers of Charlemagne, is a variant of palatine. A Prankish capitulary of 882 and Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, writing about the same time, testify to the extent to which the judicial work of the Prankish Empire had passed into their hands, and one-grant of power was followed by another. Instead of remaining near the person of the king, some of the counts palatine were sent to various parts of his empire to act as judges and governors, the districts ruled by them being called palatinates. Being in a special sense the representatives of the sovereign they were entrusted with more extended power than the ordinary counts. Thus comes the later and more general use of the word palatine, its application as an adjective to persons entrusted with special powers and also to the districts over which these powers were exercised. By Henry the Fowler and especially by Otto the Great, they were sent into all parts of the. country to support the royal authority by checking the independent tendencies of the great tribal dukes. We bear of a count palatine in Saxony, and of others in Lorraine, in Bavaria and in Swabia, their duties being to administer the royal estates in these duchies. The count palatine in Bavaria, an office held by the family of Wittelsbach, became duke of this land, the lower title being then merged in the higher one; and with one other exception the German counts palatine soon became insignificant, although, the office having become hereditary, Ffakgrafen were in existence until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The exception was the count palatine of the Rhine, who became one of the four lay electors and the most important lay official of the empire. In the empire the word count palatine was also used to designate the officials who assisted the emperor to exercise the rights which were reserved for his personal consideration. They were called comila palatini caesarii, or comites sacri falatii; in German, Hofpfolzgrafen.

From Germany the term palatine passed into England and Scotland, into Hungary and Poland. It appears in England about the end of the nth century, being applied by Ordericus Vitalis, to Odo, bishop of Bayeux and earl of Kent. The word palatine came in England to .be applied to the earb, or rulers, of certain counties, men who enjoyed exceptional powers. Their exceptional position is thus described by Stubbs (Const. Hist. voL i.): .They were " earldoms in which the earls were endowed with the superiority of whole counties, so that all the landholders held feudally of them, in which they received the whole profits of the courts and exercised all the regalia or royal rights, nominated the sheriffs, held their own councils and acted as independent princes except in the owing of homage and fealty to the king." The most important of the counties palatine were Durham and Chester, the bishop of the one and the carl of the other receiving special privileges from William I. Chester had its own parliament, consisting of barons of the county, and was not represented in the national assembly until 1541, while it retained some of its special privileges until 1830. The bishop of Durham retained temporal jurisdiction over the county until 1836. Lancashire was made a county, or duchy, palatine in 1351, and kept some of its special judicial privileges until 1873. Thus for several centuries the king's writs did not run in these three palatine counties, and at the

present day Lancashire and Durham have their own courts ol chancery. Owing to the ambiguous application of the »ord palatine to Odo of Bayeux, it is doubtful whether Kent was evtt a palatine county; if so, it was one only for a few years during the nth century. Other palatine counties, which only retained their exceptional position for a short time, were Shropshire, the Isle of Ely, Hexhamshire in Nonhumbria, and Pembrokeshire in Wales. In Ireland there were palatine districts, and the seven original earldoms of Scotland occupied positions somewhat analogous to that of the English palatine counties.

In Hungary the important office of palatine (Magyar -V&ior) owes its inception to St Stephen. At first the head of the judicial system, the palatine undertook other duties, and became after the king the most important person in the realm. At one time he was chosen by the king from among four candidates named by the Diet. Under the later Habsburg rulers of Hungary the office was several tunes held by a member of this family, one of the palatines being the archduke Joseph. The office <ns abolished after the revolution of 1848.

In Poland the governors of the provinces of the kingdom were called palatines, and the provinces were sometimes catted palatinates.

In America certain districts colonized by English settlers were treated as palatine provinces. In 1632 Cecilius Calvtrt, 2nd Lord Baltimore, received a charter from Charles I. giving him palatine rights in Maryland. In 1639 Sir Ferdinands Gorges, the lord of Maine, obtained one granting him as large and ample prerogatives as were enjoyed by the bishop of Durham. Carolina was another instance of a palatine province.

- In addition to the authorities mentioned, see R. Schrfxlcr. Lckrb*?k der dealschen Rechtstackichti (Leipzig, 1902); C Pfaff, Geidfeile lies Ptaliemfettamtcs (Halle, 1847); G. T. Lapslcy, Ttx Csmt) Palatine of Durham (New York, 1900), and D. J. Medley, E*jiui ConslituHonal Hillary (1907). (A. W. H-')

PALATKA, a city and the county-scat of Putnam county, Florida, U.S.A., in the N.E. part of the state, on the W. bark of the St John's river, about 100 m. from its mouth, and at the head of deep-water navigation. Pop. (1005) 3050; (1910) 3779. Palatka is served by the Georgia Southern & Florida (of which it is the southern terminal), the Atlantic Coast Lice, and the Florida East Coast railways, and also has connexion by water with Baltimore, New York and Boston. Palatk* is situated in a rich agricultural, orange-growing and timber region, for which it is the distributing centre. Large quantities of cypress lumber are shipped from Palatka. Palatka was incorporated as a town in 1853, and in 1872 was chartered as a city.

PALAVER (an adaptation of Port, palawa, a word or speech; Ital. parola; Fr. parole, from the Low Lat. paralola, a parabk, story, talk; Gr. Topcu3oX^, literally "comparison"; the Low Lat. parabolare, "l<\ talk," gives Fr. porter, "to speak," whence "parley," " parliament," &c.), the name used by the Portuguese traders on the African coast for their conversations and bargaifiing with the natives. It was introduced into English in the 18th century through English sailors frequenting the Guinea coast. It has now passed into general use among the Degrees of West and West Central Africa for any conference, either among themselves or with foreigners. From the amount cf unnecessary talk characteristic of such meetings with natives, the word is used of any idle or cajoling talk.

PALAWARAM, a town of British India, in Chingleput district. Madras, 11 m. S. of Madras city, with a station on titc Soctb Indian railway; pop. (1001), 6416. Formerly called the presidency cantonment, as containing the native garrison for Madras city, it is now a d£p6t for native infantry and the residence of European pensioners. There are several tanneries.

PALAZZOLO ACREIDE, a town of Sicily, in the provirce of Syracuse, 28 m. by road W. of it, 2285 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1001), 14,840. The town occupies the site of the anricil Acrae, founded by Syracuse about 664 B.C. It followed in the main the fortunes of the mother city. In the treaty between the Romans and Hiero II. in 26.5 B.c. it was assigned to the latter.

The auduit city !ay on the hill above the modern town, the approach to it being defended by quarries, in which tombs of all periods have been discovered. The auditorium of the small theatre is well preserved, though nothing of the stage remains. Close to it are ruins of other buildings, which bear, without justification, the names Naumachia, Odeum (perhaps a bath establishment) and Palace of Hiero. The water supply was obtained by subterranean aqueducts. In the cliffs of the Monte Pineta to the south are other tomb chambers, and to-the south again are the curious bas-reliefs called Sanloni or Saitlictili, mutilated in the loth century by a peasant proprietor, which appear to be sepulchral also. Near here too is the necropolis of the Acrocoro della Torre, where many sarcophagi have been found. Five miles north lies Buscemi, near which a sacred grotto has been discovered; and also a church cut in the rock and surrounded by a cemetery.1

See C. Judica, AniirhitA di Acre (Messina. 1819). (Baron Judica's collection ol antiquities was dispersed after his death.) J. Schubring, Jahrbstchjur Pkilotap'- Suppl. IV., 662-672.

PALE (through Fr. pal, from Lat. palus, a stake, for pagm, from the stem pag- of pangerc, to fix; " pole " is from the same original source), a stake, particularly one of a closely set series driven into the ground to form the defensive work known as a "palisade "; also one of the lighter laths or strips of wood set vertically and fastened to a horizontal rail to form a " paling." Used as an historical term, a pale is a district marked off from the surrounding country by a different system of government and law or by definite boundaries. The best known of these districts was the "English Pale" in Ireland, dating from the reign of Henry II., although the word "pale " was not used in this connexion until the latter part of the I4th century. The Pale varied considerably, according to the strength or weakness of the English authorities, and in the time of Henry VIII. was bounded by a line drawn from Dundalk to Kells, thence to Naas, and from Naas E. to Dalkey, embracing, that is, part of the modern counties of Dublin, Louth, Meath, and Kildare. The Pale existed until the complete subjugation of Ireland under Elizabeth; the use of the word is frequent in Tudor times. There was an " English Pale " or " Calais Pale " also in France until 1558, extending from Gravelines to Wissant, and for a short time under the Tudors an English Pale in Scotland.

In heraldry a "pale" is a band placed vertically in the centre of a shield, hence " in pale " or " to impale" is used of the marshalling of two coats side by side on a shield divided vertically.

"Pale," in the sense of colourless, whitish, of a shade of colour fighter than the normal, is derived through O. Fr. paUe, mod. pale, from Lat. pallidus, patter, pttUere; and in that of a baker's shovel. or " pee) " as it is sometimes called, from Lat. pala, spade, probably connected with the root of pcndcre, to spread out.

PALEARIO, AON.'O (,;. 1500-1570), Italian humanist and reformer, was born about 1500 at Veroli, in the Roman Campagna. Other forms of his name are Antonio Delia Paglia, A. Degli Pagliaricci. In 1520 he went to Rome, where he entered the brilliant literary circle of Leo X. When Charles of Bourbon stormed Rome in 1527 Paleario went first to Perugia and then to Siena, where he settled as a teacher. In 1536 his didactic poem in Latin hexameters, l)c immortalitatc animarum, was published at Lyons. It is divided into three books, the first containing his proofs of the divine existence, and the remaining two the theological and philosophical arguments for immortality based on that postulate. The whole concludes with a rhetorical description of the occurrences of the Second Advent. Id 1542 a tract, written by him and entitled Ddla Pienczza, tujiciaua, ei tatiijazione delta pas none di Ckrislo, or LibtUus lie merit Ckristi, was made by the Inquisition the basis of a charge of heresy, from which, however, he successfully defended himself. In Siena he wrote his Aclio in ponlificcs romanos €t ear urn asieclas, a vigorous indictment, in twenty "testimonia," against what he now believed to be the fundamental error of ?*"• Roman Church in subordinating Scripture to tradition, as well as against various particular doctrines, such as that of > P. Ore! in Nolia'e degfi Saai (1899), 452-471; Rdmischt QuarlaltcJrift (1898). 624-631.

purgatory; it was not, however, printed until after his death (Leipzig, 1606). In 1546 he accepted a professorial chair at Lucca, which he exchanged in 1555 for that of Greek and Latin literature at Milan. Here about 1566 his enemies renewed thcir activity, and in 1567 he was formally accused by Fra Angelo the inquisitor of Milan. He was tried at Rome, condemned to death in October 1560, and executed in July 1570.

An edition of his works (Ant. Palearii Verulani Opera), including four books of Epiitoloe and twelve Oratioms besides the De imnwrtalitalt, was published at Lyons in 1552; this was followed by two others, at Basel, and several after his death, the fullest being that of Amsterdam, 1696. A work, entitled Baitfiiio di Crislo (" The Benefit of Christ's Death "), has been attributed to Paleario on insufficient grounds. Laves by Gurlitt (Hamburg, 1805): Young (2 vols., London, 1860); Bonnet (Paris, 1862).

PALENCIA, an inland province of Spain, one of the eight into which Old Castile was divided in 1833; bounded on the N. by Santander, E. by Burgos, S. by Valladolid, and W. by Valladolid and Leon. Pop. (1900), 192,472; area, 3256 sq. m. The surface of the province slopes gradually S. to the Ducro (Douro) valley. The principal rivers are the Pisucrga and the Carrion, which unite at Duefias and flow into the Duero at Valladolid. The chief tributaries of the Pisucrga within the province are the Arlanzon, the Burejo, the Cioza, and the united streams of the Buedo and Abanades; the Carrion is joined on the right by the Cueza. The north is traversed by the Cantabrian Mountains, the highest summit being the culminating point of the Sierra del Brezo (6355 ft.). There are extensive forests in this region and the valleys afford good pasturage. The remainder of Palencia, the "Tierra de Campos," belongs to the great Castilian table-land. In the south is a marsh or lake, known as La Laguna de la Nava. The mountainous district abounds in minerals, but only coal and small quantities of copper are worked. The province is crossed in the south-east by the trunk railway connecting Madrid with France via Irun, while the line to Santander traverses it throughout from north to south; there are also railways from the city of Palencia to Leon, and across the north from Mataporqucra in Santander to La Robla in Leon. A branch of the Santander line gives access to the Orbo coal-fields. The main highways are good; the other roads often bad. The Canal de Castilla, begun in 1753, and completed in 1832, connects Alar del Rey with Valladolid. Wheat and other cereals, vegetables, hemp and flax are extensively grown, except in the mountainous districts. Flour and wine are made in large quantities, and there are manufactures of linen and woollen stuffs, oil, porcelain, leather, paper and rugs. Palencia rugs are in great demand throughout Spain. The only town with more than 5000 inhabitants is Palencia (y.r.).

For the history, inhabitants, &c., see Castile.

PALENCIA, an episcopal city, and the capital of the Spanish province of Palencia; on the left bank of the river Carrion, on the Canal de Castilla, at the junction of railways from Leon and Santander, and 7 m. N. by W. of Venta de Baftos on the Madrid-Iran line. Pop. (1900), 15,940. Palencia is built in the midst of the level plains called the Tierra dc Campos, 2690 ft. above sea-level. Three bridges across the Carrion afford access to the modern suburbs on the right bank. The older and by far the more important part of the city is protected on the west by the river; on the other sides the old machicolated walls, 36 ft. high by 9 ft. in thickness, are in fairly good preservation, and beautified by alamedas or promenades, which were laid out in 1778. The" cathedral was begun in 1321, finished in 1504, and dedicated to St Antolin; it is a large building in the later and florid Gothic style of Spain. The site was previously occupied by a church erected by Sancho III. of Navarre and Castile (1026-1035) over the cave of St Antolin, which is still shown. The cathedral contains some valuable paintings, old Flemish tapestry, and beautiful carved woodwork and stonework. The church of San Miguel is a good and fairly well-preserved example of 13th-century work; that of San Francisco, of the same date, is inferior and has suffered more from modernization. The

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