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hospital of San Lazaro is said to date in part from the time of the Cid (?.».), who here married Ximena in 1074.
Much has been done for education. Palcncia has also hospitals, a foundling refuge, barracks and a bull-ring. Local industries include iron-founding, and the making of rugs, alcohol, leather, soap, porcelain, linen, cotton, wool, machinery and matches.
Palencia, the Pallamia of Strabo and Ptolemy, was the chief town of the Vaccaei. Its history during the Gothic and Moorish periods is obscure; but it was a Castilian town of some importance in the I2th and i iih centuries. The university founded here in 1208 by Alphonso IX. was removed in 1239 to Salamanca.
PALENQUE, the modern name of a deserted city in Mexico, in the narrow valley of the Otolum, in the north part of the state of Chiapas, 80 m. S. of the Gulf port of Carmen. About 30 m. away, on the left bank of the Usumacinta river, stand the ruins of Men-ch6 or Lorillard city. The original name of Palenque has been lost, and its present name is taken from the neighbouring village, Santo Domingo del Palenque. Unlike the dead cities of the Yucatan plains, Palenquc is surrounded by wooded bills and overgrown by tropical vegetation.
There is less stone carving on the exterior walls, door jambs and pillars of the buildings than on those of the Yucatan Peninsula; this is due to the harder and more uneven character of the limestone. Probably owing to the same cause, there is less cut stone in the walls, the Palenque builders using plaster to obtain smooth surfaces. There is, however, considerable carving on the interior walls, the best specimens being on the tablets, affixed to the walls with plaster. Modelling in stucco was extensively used. A few terra-cotta images have been found. Paint and coloured washes were liberally used to cover plastered surfaces and for ornamentation, and paints seem to have been used to bind plastered surfaces. The Palenque builders apparently used nothing but stone tools in their work.
The so-called Great Palace consists of a group of detached buildings, apparently ten in number, standing on two platforms of different elevations. Some of the interior structures and the detached one on the lower southern terrace are in a fair state of preservation. The plan of construction shows three parallel walls enclosing two corridors covered with the peculiar pointed arches or vaults characteristic of Palenque. The buildings appear to have been erected at different periods. A square tower rises from a central part of the platform to a height of about 40 ft., divided into a solid masonry base and three storeys connected by interior stairways. The Temple of Inscriptions, one of the largest and best preserved, is distinguished chiefly for its tablets, which contain only hieroglyphics. Sculptured slabs form balustrades to the steps leading up to the temple, and its exterior is ornamented with figures in stucco, the outer faces of the four pillars in front having life-size figures of women with children in their arms. The small Temple, of Beau Relief stands on a narrow ledge of rock against the steep slope of the mountain. Its most important feature is a large stucco bas-relief, occupying a central position on the back wall of the sanctuary. It consists of a single figure, seated on a throne, beautifully modelled both in form, drapery and ornaments, with the face turned to one side and the arms outstretched, and is reproduced by H. H. Bancroft. The temp.les on the east side of the Otolum are distinguished by tall narrow vaults, perforated by numerous square openings giving the appearance of coarse lattice work. The Temple of the Sun stands upon a comparatively low pyramidal foundation. The interior consists of the usual pair of vaulted corridors. The sacred tablet on the back wall of the sanctuary is carved in low relief in limestone, and consists of two figures, apparently a priest and his assistant making offerings. There are rows of hieroglyphics on the sides and over the central design. The Temple of the Cross is a larger structure of similar design and construction. The tablet belonging to this temple has excited controversy, because the design contains a representation of a Latin cross. The Temple of the Cerro, called that of the Cross No. 2, because its tablet is very similar to that just mentioned,
stands back against the slope of the mountain, and is in great part a ruin. (For history and further details see Cextial America; § Archaeology.)
PALERMO (Greek, llaropiias; Latin, Panhomaa, Panenaa], a city of Sicily, capital of a province of the same' p»">t in the kingdom of Italy, and the see of an archbishop. Fop. (1006), town 264,036, commune 323,747. The city stands in the N.W. of the island, on a small bay looking E., the ccist forming the chord of a semicircle of mountains which bent in the campagna of Palermo, called the Conca d'Oro. The most striking point is the mountain of Hiercte, now called Pellegriiu (from the grotto of Santa Rosalia, a favourite place of pilgrimage) at the N. of this semicircle; at the S.E. is the promontory td Zaffarano, on which stood Soluntum (?.;.).
A neolithic settlement and necropolis weie discovered in 1897 at the foot of Monte Pellegrino, on the N.E. side (E. Salim in Notizie dcgli .S'< ,;•,;', 1007, 307). Palermo has been commonly thought to be an original Phoenician settlement of unknoira date (though its true Phoenician name is unknown), but Holm (ArMmo sloria Sicilians, 1880, iv. 421) has suggested that the settlement was originally Greek.1 There is no record of any Greek colonies in that part of Sicily, and Panormus certainly was Phoenician as far back as history can carry us. According to Thucydides (vi. 2), as the Greeks colonized the E. of the island, the Phoenicians withdrew to the N.W., and concentrated themselves at Panormus, Motye, and Soluntum. Like th: other Phoenician colonies in the west, Panormus came under the power of Carthage, and became the head of the Carthagiaiia dominion in Sicily. As such it became the centre of that strife between Europe and Africa, between Aryan and Semitic nun, in its later stages between Christendom and Islam, which forms the great interest of Sicilian history. As the Semitic head c4 Sicily, it stands opposed to Syracuse, the Greek head. Under the Carthaginian it was the head of the Semitic pan of Sicily, when, under the Saracen all Sicily came under Semitic rule, it was the chief seat of that rule. It was thrice won for Europe, by Greek, Roman and Norman conquerors—in 276 B.C by the Epirot king Pyrrhus, in 254 B.C. by the Roman consuls Aulus Atilius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, and in Aj>. 10-1 by Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger, the first count of Sicily. After the conquest by Pyrrhus the city was socu recovered by Carthage, but this first Greek occupation was tie beginning of a connexion with western Greece and its islands which was revived under various forms in later times. After the Roman conquest an attempt to recover the city for Carthage was made in 250 B.c., which led only to a great Roman victory (see Punic Wars). Later, in the First Punic War, Haroilcv Barca was encamped for three years on Hiercte or Pellegrino, but the Roman possession of the city was not disturbed. Panormus received the privileges of autonomy and immunity from taxation. It seems probable that at the end of the repubtc the coinage for the west of Sicily was struck here (Mommsai. Rim. Milnswescn, 665). A colony was sent here by Augustus, and the place remained of considerable importance, thocgi inferior to Catana. A fortunate chance has preserved to us a large number of the inscriptions set up in the Forum (Moramsea, Corpus inscr. lot. x. 752). The town was taken by the VanciU Genseric in A.D. 440. It afterwards became a part of the EastGothic dominion, and was recovered for the empire by Beiiszrha in 535. It again remained a Roman possession for enctry three hundred years, till it was taken by the Saracens in SjiPanormus now became the Moslem capital. In 1062 the Pisan fleet broke through the chain of the harbour and carried oS much spoil, which was spent on the building of the great chcrcfc of Pisa. After the Norman conquest the city remained for a short time in the hands of the dukes of Apulia. But in 100.3 half the city was ceded to Count Roger, and in 1122 the rest wis ceded to the second Roger. When he took the kingly titk in 1130 it became " Prima sedes, corona regis, ct rcgni capot,"
'The coins bearing the name of Iots are no longer assigned K Panormus: but certain coins with the name ri (ZU; about 410* c.( belong to it.
During the Norman reigns Palermo was the main centre of Sicilian history, especially during the disturbances in the reign of William the Bad (1154-1166). The emperor Henry VI. entered Palermo in 1104, and it was the chief scene of his cruelties. In 1108 his son Frederick, afterwards emperor, was crowned there. After his death Palermo was for a moment a commonwealth. It passed under the dominion of Charles of Anjou in 1266. In the next year, when the greater part of Sicily revolted on behalf of Conradin, Palermo was one of the few towns which was held for Charles; but the famous Vespers of 1282 put an
end to the Angevin dominion. From that time Palermo shared in the many changes of the Sicilian kingdom. In 1535 Charles V. landed there on his return from Tunis. The last kings crowned at Palermo were Victor Araadeus of Savoy, in 1713, and Charles III. of Bourbon, in 1735. The loss of Naples by the Bourbons in 1798, and again in 1806, made Palermo once more the seat of a separate Sicilian kingdom. The city rose against Bourbon rule in 1820 and in 1848. In 1860 came the final deliverance, at the hands of Garibaldi-, but with it came also the yet fuller loss of the position of Palermo as the capital of a kingdom of Sicily.
Silc.—The original city was built Ob a tongue of land between two inlets of the sea. There is no doubt that the present main Street, the Cassaro (Roman coslrum,Arabic Kosr), Via Marmorca or Via Toledo (Via Vittorio Emmanuele), represents the line of the ancient town, with water on each side of it. Another
peninsula with one side to the open sea, meeting as it were the main city at right angles, formed in Polybius's time the Neapolis, or new town, in Saracen limes Khalesa, a name which still survives in that of Calsa, But the two ancient harbours have been dried up; the two peninsulas have met; the long street has been extended to the present coast-line; a small inlet, called the Cala, alone represents the old haven. The city kept its ancient shape till after the time of the Norman kings. The old state of things fully explains the name U<'• n.,•,,.,.
There arc not many early remains in Palermo. The Phoenician and Greek antiquities in the museum do not belong to the city itself. The earliest existing buildings date from the time of the Norman kings, whose palaces and churches were built in the Saracenic and Byzantine styles prevalent in the island. Of Saracen works actually belonging to the time of Saracen occupation there are no whole buildings remaining, but many inscriptions and a good many columns, often inscribed with passages from the Koran, which have been used up again in later buildings, specially in the porch of the metropolitan church. This last was built by Archbishop Walter (ft. 1170)— an Englishman sent by Henry II. of England as tutor to William II. of Sicily—and consecrated in 1185, on the site of an ancient basilica, which on the Saracen conquest became a mosque, and on the Norman conquest became a church again, first of the Greek and then of the Latin rite. What remains of Walter's building is a rich example of the Christian-Saracen style, disfigured, unfortunately, by the addition of a totally unsuitable dome by Ferinando Fuga in 1781-1801. This church contains the tombs of the emperor Frederick II. and his parents—massive sarcophagi of red porphyry with canopies above them—and also the royal throne, higher than that of the archbishop: for the king of Sicily, as hereditary legate of the see of Rome, was the higher ecclesiastical officer of the two. But far the best example of the style is the chapel of the king's palace (cappella palatina), at the west end of the city. This is earlier than Walter's church, being the work of King Roger in 1143. The wonderful mosaics, the wooden roof, elaborately fretted and painted, and the marble incrustation of the lower part of the walls and the floor are very fine. Of the palace itself the greater part was rebuilt and added in Spanish times, but there are some other parts of Roger's work left, specially the hall called Sala Normanna.
Alongside of the churches of this Christian-Saracen type, there is another class which follows the Byzantine type. Of these the most perfect is the very small church of San Cataldo. But the best, much altered, but now largely restored to its former state, is the adjoining church of La Martorana, the work of George of Antioch, King Roger's admiral. This is rich with mosaics, among them the portraits of the king and the founder. Both these and the royal chapel have several small cupolas, and there is a still greater display in that way in the church of San Giovanni degli Eremiti, which it is hard to believe never was a mosque. It is the only church in Palermo with a bell-tower, itself crowned with a cupola.
Most of these buildings are witnesses in different ways to the peculiar position of Palermo in the 12th century as the "city of the threefold tongue," Greek, Arabic, and Latin. King Roger's sun dial in the palace is commemorated in all three, and it is to be noticed that the three inscriptions do not translate one another. In private inscriptions a fourth tongue, the Hebrew, is also often found. For in Palermo under the Norman kings Christians of both rites, Mahommedans and Jews were all allowed to flourish after their several fashions. In Saracen times there was a Slavonic quarter on the southern side of the city, and there is still a colony of United Greeks, or more strictly Albanians.
The series of Christian-Saracen buildings is continued in the country houses of the kings which surround the city, La Favara and Mhnncrno, the works of Roger, and the better known Ziza and Cuba, the works severally of William the Bad and William the Good. The Saracenic architecture and Arabic inscriptions of these buildings have often caused them to be taken for works of the ancient ameers; but the inscriptions of themselves prove their date. All these buildings are the genuine work of Sicilian art, the art which had grown up in the island through the presence of the two most civilized races of the age, the Greek and the Saracen. Later in the mh century the Cistercians brought in a type of church which, without any great change of mere style, has a very different effect, a high choir taking in some sort the place of the cupola. The greatest example of this is the neighbouring metropolitan church of Monrcale (?.».); more closely connected with Palermo is the church of San Spirito, outside the city on the south side, the scene of the Vespers,
Domestic and civil buildings from the i2th century to the 15th abound in Palermo, and they present several types of genuine national art, quite unlike anything in Italy. Of palaces the finest is perhaps the massive Palazzo Chiaramonte, now used as the courts of justice, erected subsequently to 1307. One of the halls has interesting paintings of 1377-1380 on its wooden ceiling; and in the upper storey of the court is a splendid three-light Gothic window. The later houses employ a very flat arch, the use of which goes on in some of the houses and smaller churches of the Renaissance. S. Maria della Catena may be taken as an especially good example. But the general aspect of the streets is later still, dating from mere Spanish times. Still many of the houses arc stately in their way, with remarkable heavy balconies. The most striking point in the city is the central space at the crossing of the main streets, called the Quattro Canton!. Two of the four are formed by the ancient Via Marmorea, but the Via Macqucda, which supplies the other two, was cut through a mass of small streets in Spanish times.
The city walls are now to a great extent removed. Of the gates only two remain, the Porta Nuova and the Porta Felice; both are fine examples of the baroque style, the former was erected in 1584 to commemorate the return of Charles V. fifty years earlier, the latter in 1582. Outside the walls new quarters have sprung up of recent years, and the Tealro Massimo and the Politeama Garibaldi; the former (begun by G. B. Basile and completed by his son in 1897) has room for 3200 spectators and is the largest in Italy.
The museum of Palermo, the richest in the island, has been transferred from the university to the former monastery of the Filippini. Among the most important are the objects from prehistoric tombs and the architectural fragments fr-ora Sclinus, including several metopes with reliefs, which are of great importance as illustrating the development of Greek sculpture. None of the numerous Greek vases and terra-cottas is quite of the first class, though the collection is important. The bronzes are few, but include the famous ram from Syracuse. There is also the Casuccini collections of Etruscan sarcophagi, sepulchral urns and pottery. Almost the only classical antiquities from Palermo itself are Latin inscriptions of the imperial period, and two large coloured mosaics with figures found in the Piazza Vittoria in front of the royal palace in 1869: in 1906 excavations in the same square led to the discovery of a large private house, apparently of the 2nd or jrd century A.d., to which these mosaics no doubt belonged. Of greater local interest are the medieval and Renaissance sculptures from Palermo itself, a large picture gallery, and an extensive collection of Sicilian majolica, &c.
The university, founded in 1779, rose to importance in recent years (from 300 students in 1872 to 1495 in 1897), but has slightly lost in numbers since. The city wears a prosperous and busy appearance. The Marina, or esplanade at the south of the town, affords a fine sea front with a view of the bay; near it are beautiful public gardens. In the immediate neighbourhood of the city are the oldest church in or near Palermo, the Lepers' church, founded by the first conqueror or deliverer, Count Roger, and the bridge over the forsaken stream of the Orelo, built in King Roger's day by the admiral George. There are also some later medieval houses and towers of some importance. These all lie on to the south of the city, towards the hilt called Monte Griffone (Griffon-Greek), and the Giant's Cave, which has furnished rich stores for the palaeontologist. On
the other side, towards Pellcgrino, is the new harbour of Palermo,' round which a new quarter has sprung up, including a yard capable of building ships up to 475 ft. in length, and a dry dock for vessels up to 563 ft.
The steamship traffic at Palermo in 1906 amounted to 2035 vessels, with a total tonnage of 2,403,851 tons. Palermo is one of the two headquarters (the other being Genoa) of the Navigazione: Generate Itahana, the chief Italian steamship company. The principal imports were 36,567 tons of timber (a large increase oa the normal figures), 21,401 ' tons of wheat and 151,360 tons of coal; while the chief exports were 116,400 gallons of wine, 37.835 tons of sumach and 122,023 tons of oranges and lemons. Finding; most of its valuable rates hypothecated to the meeting of old defacs, the municipality of Palermo has embarked upon municipal ownership and trading in various directions.
The plain of Palermo is very fertile, and well watered by sprinp and streams, of the latter of which the Oreto is the chief. It * planted with orange and lemon groves, the products -of which are largely exported, and with many palm-trees, the fruit of which. however, does not attain maturity. It also contains many vilUi of the wealthy inhabitants of Palermo, among the most beautiful of which is L; Favorita, at the foot of Monte Pellegrino on the west, belonging to the Crown.
Authorities— Besides works dealing with Sicily generally, ibe established local work on Palermo is Descrizion* dt Palermo a^trft. by Sal vat ore Morso (2nd ed., Palermo, 1827). Modern research aod criticism have been applied in Die mitteldtterliehe Kvnst in /*j/fra». by Anton Springer (Bonn, 1860); Hiilotiscke Toftoirapiue Mb Panormus, by Julius Schubring (Lubeck. 1870); Siudti di O*rm
•toalcrmttzna. by Adolf Holm (Palermo, 1880). See also "The Normans in Palermo," in the third series of Historical Essays, by E. A. Freeman (London, 1879). The description of Palermo ia the second volume of Gsclfel's guide-book, Unter-Iialien xnd SiaHem (Leipzig), leaves nothing to wish for. Various articles in the Archivio storico siciliano and the series of Document* per xrnrt alia storia della Sicitia, both published by the Societi siciliana per la storia patria, may also be consulted. (E. A. P.; T. As.)
PALES, an old Italian goddess of flocks and shepherds The festival called Parilia (less correctly Palilia) was celebrated in her honour at Rome and in the country on the 2ist of April In this festival Pales was invoked to grant protection and increase to flocks and herds; the shepherds entreated forgiveness for any unintentional profanation of holy places of which their flocks might have been guilty, and leaped three tiroes across bonfires of hay and straw (Ovid, Fasti, iv. 731-805). The Parilia was not only a herdsmen's festival, but was regarded as the birthday celebration of Rome, which was supposed to have been founded on the same day. Pales plays a very subordinate part in the religion of Rome, even the sex of the divinity being uncertain. A male Pales was sometimes spoken of, corresponding in some respects to Pan; the female Pales was associated with Vesta and Anna Perenna.'
PALESTINE, a geographical name of rather loose applicant. Etymological strictness would require it to denote exclusively the narrow strip of coast -land once occupied by the Phili5tir.es. from whose name it is derived. It is, however, conventionally used as a name for the territory which, in the Old Testament. is claimed as the inheritance of the pre-cxilic Hebrews; thus it may be said generally to denote the southern third of the province of Syria. Except in the west, where the country is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, the limit of this territory cannot be laid down on the map as a definite line. The modem subdivisions under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Emprrearc ia no sense conterminous with those of antiquity, and hence do mot afford a boundary by which Palestine can be separated exactly from the rest of Syria in the north, or from the Sinai tic mod Arabian deserts in the south and east; nor are the records oi ancient boundaries sufficiently full and definite to make possible the complete demarcation of the country. Even the conventios above referred to is inexact: it includes the Philistine territory. claimed but never settled by the Hebrews, and exdndes the outlying parts of the large area claimed in Num. ixtiv as the Hebrew possession (from the " River of Egypt " to Hamath). However, the Hebrews themselves have preserved, in the
1 The figures for 1905 (40,005 tons, almost entirely frtxn Roma) were abnormally high, while those for 1906 are - ' - " — "below the average.
proverbial expression '" from Dan to Beersheba" (Judg. i, &c.), an indication of the normal north-and-south limits of their land; and in defining the area of the country under discussion it is this indication which is generally followed.
Taking as a guide the natural features most nearly corresponding to these outlying points, we may describe Palestine as the strip of land extending along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea from the mouth of the Litany or Kasimiya River (33° 20' N.) southward to the mouth of the Wadi Ghuzza; the lattei joins the sea in 31° 28' N., a short distance south of Gaza, and runs thence in a south-easterly direction so as to include on its northern side the site of Beersheba. Eastward there is no such definite border. The River Jordan, it is true, marks a line of delimitation between Western and Eastern Palestine; but it is practically impossible to say where the latter ends and the Arabian desert begins. Perhaps the line of the pilgrim road from Damascus to Mecca is the most convenient possible boundary. The total length of the region is about 140 m.; its breadth west of the Jordan ranges from about 23 m. in the north to about 80 m. in the south. According to the English engineers who surveyed the country on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund, the area of this part of the country is about 6040 sq. m. East of the Jordan, owing to the want of a proper survey, no figures so definite as these arc available.The limits adopted are from the south border of Hermon to the mouth of the Mojib (Arnon), a distance of about 140 m.: the whole area has been calculated to be about 3800 sq. m. The territory of Palestine, Eastern and Western, is thus equal to rather more than one-sixth the size of England.
There is no ancient geographical term that covers all this area. Till the period of the Roman occupation it was subdivided into independent provinces or kingdoms, different at different times (such as Philistia, Canaan, Judah, Israel, Bashan, &c.), but never united under one collective designation. The extension of the name of Palestine beyond the limits of Philistia proper is not older than the Byzantine Period.
Physical Features.—Notwithstanding its small size, Palestine presents a variety of geographical detail so unusual as to be in itself sufficient to mark it out as a country of especial interest. The bordering regions, moreover, are as varied in character as is the country itself—-sea to the west, a mountainous and sandy desert to the south, a lofty steppe plateau to the cast, and the great masses of Lebanon to the north. In describing the general physical features of the country, the most significant point to notice is that (though it falls westward to the sea and rises eastward to an elevated ^)lain) the rise from west to east is not continuous, but is sharply interrupted by the deep fissure of the Ghor or Jordan valley; which, running from north to south—for the greater part of its length depressed below sea-level—forms a division in the country of both physical and political importance. In this respect the function of the river Jordan in Palestine offers a strange contrast, often remarked upon, to that of the Nile in Egypt. The former is of no use for irrigation, except in the immediate neighbourhood of its banks, and is a barrier to cross which involves the Labour of a considerable ascent at any point except its most northern section. The latter is at once the great fertilizer and the great highway of the country which it serves.
Western Palestine is a region intersected by groups of mountain peaks and ranges, forming a southern extension ot the Lebanon system and running southward till they finally lose themselves in the desert. The watershed of this system is so placed that from two-thirds to three-fourths of the country is on its western side. This fact, taken in connexion with the great depth of the depression of the Ghor below the Mediterranean—already 682 ft. at the Sea of Galilee—has a peculiar effect on the configuration of the country. On the west side the slope is gradual, especially in the broad plain that skirts the coast for the greater part cf its length; on the east side it is steep—precipitous indeed, towards the southern end—and intersected by valleys worn to a tremendous depth by the force of the torrents that once ran down them.
This territory of Western Palestine divides naturally into two longitudinal strips—the maritime plain and the mountain region. These it will be convenient to consider separately.
1. Tke Maritime Plain, which, with a few interruptions, extends akmg the Mediterranean coast from Lebanon to Egypt, is a strip of land of remarkable fertility. It is formed of raised beaches and sea-beds, ranging from the Pliocene period downwards, and resting on Upper Eocene sandstone. It varies greatly m width. At the mouth of the Kasimiya it is some 4 m. across, and this breadth it maintains to a short distance south of Tyre, where it tuddenly narrows; until, at Raa el-Abiad, it has been necessary to
cut a passage in the precipitous face of the cliff to allow the coastroad to be carried past it. This ancient work is the well-known "Ladder of Tyre, South of this promontory the plain begins to widen again; on the latitude of Acre (Akkaj, from which this part of the plain takes its name, it is from 4 to 5 rn. across; while farther south, at Haifa, it is of still greater width, and opens into the extensive Merj Ibn 'Amir (Plain of Esdraelon) by which almost the whole of Western Palestine is intersected. South of Haifa the promontory of Carmcl once more effaces the plain; here the passage along the coast is barely 200 yds. in width. At 'Athlit, 9 m. to the south, it is about 2 m.; from this point it expands uniformly to about 20 m., which U the breadth at the latitude of Ascalon. South of this it is shut in and broken up by groups of low hills. From the Kasimiya southwards the maritime plain is crossed by numerous river-beds, with a few exceptions winter torrents only. Among the perennial streams may be mentioned the Na'aman, south of Acre; the Mukatta* Kishon. at Haifa; the Nahr ez-Zcrka, sometimes called the Crocodile River—so named from the crocodiles still occasionally to be seen in it; the Nahr el-Falik; the 'Aujeh a few miles north of Jaffa and the Nahr Rubin. The surface of the plain rises gradually from the coast inland to an altitude of about 200 ft. It is here and there diversified by small hills.
II. The Mountain Region, the great plain of Esdraelon, which forms what from the earliest times has been recognized to be the easiest entrance to the interior of the counti~y_, cuts abruptly through the mountain system, and so divides it into two groups. Each of these may be subdivided into two regions presenting their own special peculiarities.
• a. The Galilean Mountains, north of the plain of Esdraelon, fall into two regions, divided by a line joining Acre vith the north end of the Sea of Galilee. The northern region (Upper Galilee) is virtually an outlier of the Lebanon Mountains. At the north end is an elevated plateau, draining into the Kasimiya. The mountains are intersected by a complex system of valleys, of which some thirty run down to the Mediterranean. The face toward the Jordan valley is lofty and steep. The highest point is Jcbcl Jermak, 3934 ft. above the sea; about it, on the eastern and northern sides, arc lofty plateaus. The region is fruitful, and in places well wooded; it is beyond question the most picturesque part of Palestine. The southern region (Lower Galilee) shows somewhat different characteristics. It consists of chains of comparatively low hills, for the greater part running east and west, enclosing a number of elevated plains. The principal of these plains is El-Buttauf, a tract 400 to 500 ft. above sea-level, enclosed within hills 1700 ft. high and measuring 9 m. east to west and 2 m. north to south. It is marshy at its eastern end and very fertile. This is the plain of Zebulun or Asochis, of antiquity. The plain of Tur'an, southeast of El-Buttauf, is smaller, but equally fertile. Among the principal mountains of this district may be named Jebel Tur'an, 1774 ft. and Jcbcl ct-Tur (Tabor) 1843 ft.; the latter is an isolated mass of regular shape which commands the plain of Esdraelon. Eastward the country falls to the level of the Ghor by a succession of steps, among which the lava-covered Sahel el-Ahma may be mentioned, which lies west of the cliffs overhanging the Sea of Galilee. The chief valleys of this region are the Nahr Na'aman and its branches, which runs into the sea south of Acre, and the Wadi Mukatta', or Kishon, which joins the sea at Haifa. On the east may be mentioned the Wadi er-Rubadiya, Wadi cl-Hamam and Wadi Fajjas, flowing into the Sea of Galilee or else into the Jordan.
6. The great plain of Esdraelon is one of the most importantand striking of the natural features of Western Palestine. It is a large triangle, having its corners at Jenin, Jcbcl et-Tur, and the outlet of the Wadi Mukatta', by which last it communicates with the sea-coast. On the south-west it is bounded by the range of hills that terminates in the spur of Carmel. The modern name, as above-mentioned, is Merj Ibn 'Amir (" the meadow-land of the *on of *Amir"); in ancient times it was known as the Valley of Jczrecl, of which name Esdraelon is a Greek corruption; ana by another name (Har-Magcdon) derived from that of the important town of Mcgiddo—it is referred to symbolically in Kev. xvi. 16. It is the great highway, and also the great battlefield, of Palestine. At the village of Afuleh its altitude is 260 ft. above the sea-level. In winter it is swampy, and in places almost impassable. The fertility of this region is proverbial. There are several small subsidiary plains that extend from it both north and south into the lurrounding mountain region; of these we need only mention a broad valley running north-eastwards between Jebel Duhi. a range 15 m. Ions and 1690 ft. high, on the one side, and Mt Tabor and the hills of Nazareth on the other side. East of the watershed are a number of valleys running to the Ghor; the most remarkable of these are the Wadi cl-I3iren and the Wadi Jalud, the latter containing the river that 6ows from the fine spring called 'Ain Jalud.
c. The second of the divisions into which we have grouped the mountain system lies south of the plain of Esdraelon. This is divisible into the districts of Samaria and Judaea. In thefirstof these the mountain ranges are complex, appearing to radiate from a centre at which lies Merj el-Ghuruk, a small plain about 4 m. east to west and 2 m. north to south. This plain has no outlet and is marshy in the rainy season. Connected with it are other email plains unnecessary to enumerate. For the greater part the
central point above mentioned—though interrupted by many passes—to the end of the promontory which makes the harbour of Haifa, at its foot, the best on the Palestine coast. The highest mountains in the Samaria district are, however, in the neighbourhood of Nablus (Shechcm). They include the rugged bare mass of Gerizim (2849 ft.), the smoother cactus-clad cone of Ebal (3077). and farther touth Tell 'Asur (5318) at which point begins the
Judaean range. On the eastern side of the watershed the mo&t important feature is perhaps the great valley system that connects the Mukhnah (the plain south of Nablus) with the Char — beginning with the impressive Wadi Bilan and proceeding through the important and abundantly watered Wadi Far'a. Tell 'Asur stands a bhon distance north of Beittin (Bethel). South of it is the long zigzag range known as Jebel el-Kuds, named from Jerusalem (el-Kuds) the chief town built upon it. The highest point is Ncby Samwd (Mizpah). 2035 ft. above the sea, north of Jerusalem. This city itself stands at an altitude of 2500 ft. To the south of it begins the subdivision of the Judaean mountains Rcw known as Jebel el-Khalil, from Hebron (cl-Khalil), which stands in an elevated basin some 500 ft. above the altitude of Jerusalem; it is here that the Judaean Mountains attain their greatest height. South of Hebron the ridge gradually becomes lower, and finally breaks up and loses itself in the southern desert.
On the west side of the watershed the mountainous district extends about KaH way to the sea, broken by deep valleys and passes. Among these the most iraportant are the Wadi Sclman (Valley of Aiialon) which seems to have been the pnncipal route to Jerusalem in ancient times; the Wadi Isma'in south of this. along which runs the modern carriage road from Jaffa to Jerusalem; and the Wadi es-Surar, a higher section of the bed of tbe Nahr Rubin, along which now run- tbe railway line; farther to the south we may mention the Wadi es-Sunt, which opec* up the country from Tell es-Sati (Gath*) eastward.
Between the mountainous country of Judaea and the maritime plain is an undulating region anciently known as tbe Shephefah. It is composed of horizontal strata of limestone, forming groups of hifls intersected by a network of small and fertile valleys. In this region, which ts of great historical importance, are tbe remains of many ancient cities. The adjacent part of the maritime plain is C«bposed of a rich, light brown loamy w-1 Although cultivated with most primiiit appliances, and with little or no attempt at irrigation or artificial fertilization, ta* average yield is eight- to twirive-loW annually. This part of the plain is (ia European nomenclature) divided into wo at about the latitude of Jaffa, that to the north being the plain of Sarona (Shares). the southern half being the plain of tbe Philistines.
On the east side of the watershed tie ground slopes rapidly from its bright d 2500 ft. above sea-level to a ma 1 1 nfdepth of 1300 ft. below sea-level, withia a distance of about 20 m. It is a wmste, destitute of water and with but soaty vegetation. It has never been bro^t into cultivation; but in the first Christ** centuries the caves in its valley* we «* chosen refuge of Christian moM5iici-=aIt descends to the level of tbe Char r> terraces, deeply cut through by Rn*TMj ravines such as the Wadi es-Su»eirut. \\» Kelt, Wadi ed-Dabr, Wadi en-Nar (Kedror < and Wadi el 'Areijeh.
The southern district, which includes t~-e white marl region of Beersheba. was i^ ancient times called the Negeb. It is a i steppe region which (though it cona many remains of ancient towns and *«te ments, and was evidently at one time a territory of great importance) is now #ln»cwr eii tirely inhabited by nomads. It should, however, be mentioicd thai L Turkish government has developed a town at Beersh-cba. the jurisdiction of a Kaimmakara (lieutenant-governor). *«* t
ooravaH?y i» treated in a *P|TM« *rtiSt Jordan). There has been no systematic survey of Eastern such as was carried out in Western Palestine between ifi75 «« <»