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En S. of the Canadian and Arkansas rivers, and by treaties negotiated in 1824, 1833 and 1851 the Creeks received for themselves and the Seminoles a patent for the remaining or middle portion. Many of the Indians of these tribes brought slaves with them from the Southern states and during the Civil War they supported the Confederacy, but when that war was over the Federal government demanded not only the liberation of the slaves but new treaties, panly on the ground that the tribal lands must be divided with the frcedmcn. By these treaties, negotiated in 1866, the Chcrokces gave the United States permission to settle other Indians on what was approximately the western half of their domain; the Seminoles, to whom the Creeks in 1855 had granted as their portion the strip between the Canadian river and its North Fork, ceded all of theirs, and the Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws ceded the western half of theirs back to the United States for occupancy by f rcedmen or other Indians. In the E. portion of the-lands thus placed at its disposal by the Cherokees and the Creeks the Federal government within the Best seventeen'years made a number of small grants as follows: to the Seminoles in 1866, to the Sauk and Foxes in 1867, to the Osagcs, Kansas, Pottawatomics, Absentee Shawnees and Wichitas in 1871-1872, to the Pawnees in 1876, to the Poncas and Nez Perces in 1878, to the Otoes and Missouris in 1881, and to the lowas and Kickapoos in 1883; in the S.W. quarter of the Territory, also, the Kiowas, Comanches and Apaches were located in 1867 and the Cheycnnes and Arapahocs in 1869. There still remained unassigned the greater part of the Cherokee Strip besides a tract embracing 1,887,800 acres of choice land in the centre of the Territory,and the agitation forthe opening of this to settlement by white people increased until in 1889 a complete title to the central tract was purchased from the Creeks and Seminoles. Soon after the purchase President Benjamin Harrison issued a proclamation announcing that this land would be opened to homestead settlement at twelve o'clock noon, on the 22nd of April 1889. At that hour no less than 20,000 people were on the border, and when the signal was given there ensued a remarkably spectacular race for homes. In the next year that portion of Indian Territory which lay S. of the Cherokee Strip and W. of the lands occupied by the five tribes, together with the narrow strip N. of Texas which had been denied to that state in 1850, was organized as the Territory of Oklahoma. In the meantime negotiations were begun for acquiring a clear title to the unoccupied portion ot the Cherokee Strip, for individual allotments to the members of the several small tribes nho had received tribal allotments since 1866, and for the purchase of what remained after such individual allotments had been made. As these negotiations were successful most of the land between the tract first opened and that of the Creeks was opened to settlement in 1891, a large tract to the W. of the centre was opened in 1892, a tract S. of the Canadian river and W. of the Chickasaws was opened in 1902, and by 1904 the entire Territory had been opened to settlement with the exception of a tract in the N.E. which was occupied by the Osagcs, Kaws, Poncas and Olocs. By the treaties with the five southern tribes they were to be permitted to make their own laws so long as they preserved their tribal relations, but since the "Civil War many whites had mingled with these Indians, gained control for their own selfish ends of such government as there was, and made the country a refuge for fugitives from justice. Consequently, in 1893, Congress appointed the Dawes Commission to induce the tribes to consent to individual allotments as well as to a government administered from Washington, and in 1898 the Curtis Act was passed for making such allotments and for the establishment of a territorial government. When the allotments were nearly all made Congress in 1906 authorized Oklahoma and Indian Territories to qualify for admission to the Union as one state. As both Territories approved, a constitutional convention (composed of 100 Democrats and 12 Republicans) net at Guthrie on the 2othof November 1906. The constitution framed by this body was approved by the electorate on the i?lh of September 1907, and the state was admitted to the Union on the 16ih of November.
Governor! of Oklahoma—Territorial.
George W. Steele 1890-1891
Robert Martin (acting) 1891-1891
Abraham J. Seay , 1892-1893
William Cary Renfrew ...... 1893-1897
Cassius McDonald Barnes ...... 1897-1901
William M.Jenkins , , .,' ^ , , 1901
Thompson B. Ferguson • . , * , . 1901-1906
Frank Franti ....,.,. 1906-1907
Charles Nathaniel Haskell, Democrat. i . 1907-1911
Bibuography.—Sec the Biennial Reports (Cuthric, 1904 sqq.) of the Oklahoma Department of Geology and Natural History; the Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin No. i: Preliminary Report on the Mineral Resources of Oklahoma (Norman, 1908); C. N. Gould, Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma (Washington, I9O_5), being Water Supply and Irrigation Paper, No. 148 of the United States Geological Survey; A. I. Henry, Climatology of the
Mineral Resources of the United States, annual reports published by the United States Geological Survey (Washington, 1883 sqq.); Charles Evansand C. O. Dunn, Oklahoma Civil Government (Ardmore, 1008); C. A. Beard, "Constitution of Oklahoma," in the Political Science Quarterly, vol. 24 (Boston, 1909); R. L. Owen, "Comments on the Constitution of Oklahoma, in the Proceedings of the American Political Science Association, vol. £ (Baltimore, 1009); S. J. Buck, The Settlement of Oklahoma (Madison, 1907), reprinted from the Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letlers;and D. C. Gideon, Indian Territory, Descriptive, Biographical and Genealogical . . . with a General History of the Territory (New York. 1901).
OKLAHOMA CITY, a city and the county-scat of Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, U.S.A., on the North Fork of the Canadian river, near the geographical centre of the state. Pop. (1890) 4151; (1900) 10,037; (1907) 32,452; (1910) 64,205. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the St Louis & San Francisco railways, and by inter-urban electric lines. It lies partly in a valley, partly on an upland, in a rich agricultural region. The city is the scat of Epworth University (founded in 1901 by the joint action of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South). Oklahoma City's prosperity is due chiefly to its jobbing trade, with an extensive farming and stock-raising region, but it has also cotton compresses and cotton gins, and various manufactures. The total value of the factory products in 1905 was $3,670,730. Natural gas is largely used as a fuel. A large settlement was established here on the 22nd of April 1889, the day on which the country was by proclamation declared open for settlement. The city was chartered in 1890.
OKUBO TOSHIMITSU (1830-1878), Japanese statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, was one of the five great nobles who led the revolution in 1868 against the shogunatc. He became one of the mikado's principal ministers, and in the Satsuma troubles which followed he was the chief opponent of Saigo Takamori. But the suppression of the Satsuma rebellion brought upon him the personal revenge of Saigo's sympathizers, and in the spring of 1878 he was assassinated by six clansmen. Okubo was one of the leading men of his day, and in 1872 was one of the Japanese mission which was sent round the world to get ideas for organizing the new regime.
OKUMA (SHIGENOBU), Count (1838- ), Japanese statesman, was born in the province of Hizen in 1838. His father was an officer in the artilleiy, and during his early years his education consisted mainly of the study of Chinese literature. Happily for him, however, he was able to acquire in his youth a knowledge of English and Dutch, and by the help of some missionaries he succeeded in obtaining books in those languages on both scientific and political subjects. These works effected a complete revolution in his mind. He had been designed by his parents for the military profession, but the new light which now broke in upon him determined him to devote his entire energies to the aboli'.ion of the existing feudal system and to the establishment of a constitutional government. With impetuous zeal he urged his views on his countrymen, and though he took no active part in the" revolution of 1868, the effect of his opinions exercised no slight weight in the struggle. Already he was a marked man. and no sooner was the government reorganized, with the mikado as the sole wicldcr of power, than he was appointed chief assistant in the department of foreign affairs. In 1869 he succeeded to the post of secretary of the joint departments of the interior and of finance, and for the next fourteen years he devoted himself wholly to politics. In 1870 he was made a councillor of sute, and a few months later he accepted the office of president of the commission which represented the Japanese government at the Vienna Exhibition. In 1872 he was again appointed minister of finance, and when the expedition under General Saigo was sent to Formosa (1874) to chastise the natives of that island for the murder of some shipwrecked fishermen, he was nominated president of the commission appointed to supervise the campaign. By one of those waves of popular feeling to which the Japanese people are peculiarly liable, the nation which had supported him up to a certain point suddenly veered round and opposed him with heated violence. So strong was the feeling against him that on one occasion a would-be assassin threw at him a dynamite shell, which blew oft one of his legs. During the whole of his public life he recognized the necessity of promoting education. When he resigned office in the early 'eighties he established the Scmmon Cako, or school for special studies, at the cost of the 30,000 yen which had been voted him when he received the title of count, and subsequently he was instrumental in founding other schools and colleges. In 1896 he joined the Matsukata cabinet, and resigned in the following year in consequence of intrigues which produced an estrangement between him and the prime minister. On the retirement of Marquis Ito in 1898 he again took office, combining the duties of premier with those of minister of foreign affairs. But dissensions having arisen in the cabinet, he resigned a few months later, and retired into private life, cultivating bis beautiful garden at Wascda near T6ky6.
OLAF, the name of five kings of Norway.
Olaf I. Trygcvesson (969-1000) was born in 969, and began his meteqric career in exile. It is even said that he was bought as a slave in F.slhonia. After a boyhood spent in Novgorod under the protection of King Valdemar, Olaf fought for the emperor Otto III. under the Wcndish king Burislav, whose daughter he had married. On her death he followed the example of his countrymen, and harried in France and the British Isles, till, in a good day for the peace of those countries, he was converted to Christianity by a hermit in the Scilly Islands, and his marauding expeditions ceased since he would not harry those of his new faith. In England he married Gyda, sister of Olaf Kvaran, king of Dublin, and it was only after some years spent in administering her property in England and Ireland that he set sail for Norway, fired by reports of the unpopularity of its ruler Earl Haakon. Arriving in Norway in the autumn of 995, he was unanimously accepted as king, and at once set about the conversion of the country to Christianity, undeterred by the obstinate resistance of the people. It has been suggested that Olaf's ambition was to rule a united, as well as a Christian, Scandinavia, and we know that he made overtures of marriage to Sigrid, queen of Sweden, and set about adding new ships to his fleet, when negotiations fell through owing to her obstinate heathenism. He made an enemy of her, and did not hesitate to involve himself in a quarrel with King Svcyn of Denmark by marrying his sister Thyrc, who had fled from her heathen husband Burislav in defiance of her brother's authority. Both his Wcndish and his Irish wife had brought Olaf wealth and good fortune, but Thyre was his undoing, for it was on an expedition undertaken in the year 1000 to wiest her lands from Burislav that he was waylaid off the island Svold, near RUgen, by the combined Swedish and Danish fleets, together with the ships of Earl Haakon's sons. The battle ended in the annihilation of the Norwegians. Olaf fought to the last on his great vessel, the " Long Snake," the mightiest ship in the North, and finally leapt overboard and was ijo more seen. Full of energy and daring, skilled in the use of every kind of weapon, genial and
open-handed to his friends, implacable to his enemies, Olaf's personality was the ideal of the heathendom he had trodden down with such reckless disregard of his people's prejudices, and it was no doubt as much owing to the popularity his charactor won for him as to the strength of his position that he was able to force his will on the country with impunity. After his death he remained the hero of his people, who whispered that he was yet alive and looked for his return. "But however that may be," says the story, " Olaf TryggvcssSn never came back to his kingdom in Norway."
Olaf (II.) Haraldss&n (995-1030), king from 1016-1029, called during his lifetime " the Fat," and afterwards known as Si Olaf, was born in 995, the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. After some years' absence in England, fighting the Danes, he returned to Norway in 1015 and declared himself king, obtaining the support of the five petty kings of the Uplands. In 1016 he defeated Earl Svcyn. hitherto the virtual ruler of Norway, at the battle of Ncsje, and within a few years had won more power than had been enjoyed by any of his predecessors on the throne. He had annihilated the petty kings of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance of Christianity throughout the kingdom, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the king of Sweden and married his daughter in his despite, and had conducted a successful raid on Denmark. But his success was short-lived, for in 1029 the Norwegian nobles, seething with discontent, rallied round the invading Knul the Great, and Olaf had to flee to Russia. On his return a year later he fell at the battle of Stiklestod, where his own subjects were arrayed against him. The succeeding years of disunion and misrule under the Danes explain the belated affection with which his countrymen came to regard him. The cunning and cruelly which marred his character were forgotten, and his services to his church and country remembered. Miracles were worked at his tomb, and in 1164 he was canonized and was declared the patron saint of Norway, whence his fame spread throughout Scandinavia and even to England, where churches are dedicated to him. The Norwegian order of knighthood of Si Olaf was founded in 1847 by Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, in memory of this king.
The three remaining Norwegian kings of this name arc persons of minor importance (sec Norway: History).
OLAF, or Anlaf (d. 981), king of the Danish kingdoms of Northumbria and of Dublin, was a son of Sitric, king of Dcira, and was related to the English king v£ihclstan. As his name indicates he was of Norse descent, and he married a daughter of Constantinc II., king of the Scots. When Silric died about 937 /Ethelstan annexed Dcira, and Olaf took refuge in Scotland and in Ireland until 937, when he was one of the leaders of the formidable league of princes which was destroyed by &lhclslan at the famous battle of Brunanburh. Again he sought a home among his kinsfolk in Ireland, but just after jElhclslan's death in 940 he or Olaf Godfrcyson was recalled to England by the Northumbrians. Both crossed over, and in 941 the new English king, Edmund, gave up Dcira to the former. The peace between the English and the Danes did not, however, last long. Wulfstan, archbishop of York, sided with Olaf; but in 944 this king was driven from Norlhumbria by Edmund, and crossing to Ireland he ruled over the Danish kingdom of Dublin. From 949 to 952 he was again king of Northumbria, until he was expelled once more, and he passed the remainder of his active life in warfare In Ireland. But in 980 his dominion was shattered by the defeat of the Danes at the battle of Tara. He went to lona, where he died probably in 081, although one account says he was in Dublin in 994. This, however, is unlikely. In the sagas he is known as Olaf the Red.
This Olaf must not be confused with his kinsman and ally, Olaf (d. 941), also king of Northumbria and of Dublin, who was a son of Godfrey, king of Dublin. The latter Olaf became king of Dublin in 934; but he was in England in 937, as he took part in the fipht at Brunanburh. After this event he returned to Ireland, but he appears to have acted for a very short tine a joint king of Northumbria with Ol.if Sitricson. It is pas&ble that he was the " Ola( of Ireland " who was called by Uk Northumbrians alter /Ethelstan's death, but both the Olafs
ipptar to have accepted the invitation. He was killed in 04
at Tyningbam near Dunbar. S« XV. F. Skene, Crllic Scotland, vol. i. (1876), and J. R. Crccn
Tiu dmqntsi oj England, vol. L (1899).
OLAND. an island in the Baltic Sea, next to Gotland the Ur;ost belonging to Sweden, stretching for 85 m. along the cast roast of the southern extremity of that country, from which ii is separated by Kalmar Sound which is from 5 to 15 m. broad. The greatest breadth of the island is 10 m., and its area 519 sq m. Pop. (loco) 30,408. Consisting for the most part of Silurian limestone, and thus forming a striking contrast to the mainland with its granite and gneiss, Oland is further remarkable on account of the peculiarities of its structure. Down the west side for a considerable distance runs a limestone ridge, rising usually in terraces, but at times in steep cliffs, to an extreme height of :co ft.; and along the cast side there is a parallel ridge of sand, resting on limestone, never exceeding oo ft. These ridges, known as the Western and Eastern Landborgar, are connected towards the north and the south by belts o( sand and heath, and the hollow between them is occupied, by a desolate and almost barren Iract: the southern portion, or Alfvar (forming fully half of the southern part of the island), presents a surface of bare red limestone scored by superficial cracks and unfalhomed fissures, and calcined by the heat refracted from the surrounding heights The northern portion is covered at best with a copse of hazel bushes. Outside the ridges, however, Oland has quite a different aspect, the hillsides being not infrequently clothed with clumps of trees, while the narrow strip of alluvial coast-land, with its cornfields, windmills, villages and church towers, appears fruitful and prosperous. There are a few small streams in the Bland; and one lake, Homsjo, about 3 m. long, deserves mention Of the fir woods which once clothed a considerable area in the north the Boda crown-park is the only remnant. Grain, especially barley, and sandstone, arc exported from the island, and there are cement works. A number of monuments of unknown age exist, including stones (stcnxaUiiin^cir) arranged in groups to represent ships. The only town is Borgholm, a walcring-place on the west coast, with one of the finest castle ruins in Sweden The town was founded in 1817, but the castle, dating at least from the i^th century, was one of the strongest fortresses, and afterwards, as erected by the architect Nicodcmus Tcssin the elder (1615-1681), one of the most stately palaces in the country Thr island was joined in 1824 to the administrative district (/4;r) of Kalmar Its inhabitants were formerly styled Oningar, and show considerable diversity of origin in the matter of speech, local customs and physical appearance.
From the raid of Ragnar Lodbrok's sons In 775 Oland is frequently mentioned m Scandinavian history, and especially as a battleground in the wars between Denmark and the northern kingdoms. In the middle ages it formed a separate legislative and administrative unity.
OLAUS MAGNUS, or Macvi (Magnus, it. Slora. great, being the family name, and not a personal epithet). Swedish ecclcsiistic and author, was born at Lmkdping in 1400 and died at Rome in 1558 Like his elder brother, Johannes Magnus, he obtained several ecclesiastical preferments (a canonry at Upsala and at Linkdping. and the archdeaconry of Strcngncs), and was employed on vinous diplomatic services (such as a mission to Rome, from Gustavus I , to procure the appointment of Johannes Magnus as archbishop of Upsala), but on the success oi the reformation in Sweden his attachment to the old church led him to accompany his brother into exile. Settling at Rome, fronj 1527. he acted as his brother's secretary, and ultimately became his successor in the (now titular) archbishopric of Upsala. Pope Paul III , in 1546, sent him to the council of Trent: later, he became canon of St Lambert in Liege. King Sigismund I. of Poland also offered him a canonry at Posen; bat most of his life, after his brother's death, seems to have been (pent in the monastery of St Brigitta in Rome, where he
subsisted on a pension assigned him by the pope. He is best remembered as the author of the famous Historic, de Gcitlibut Scptcntrionalibus (Rome, isss). a work which long remained for the rest ot Europe the chief authority on Swedish mailers and is still a valuable repertory of much curious information in regard to Scandinavian customs and folk-lore.
The Historia was translated into Italian (Venice, 1565). German (Strassburj;, 1567), English (London. 1658) and Dutch (Amsterdam, 1665); abridnmcnts of the work appeared also at Antwerp (1558 and 1562). Parii (a French abridged version, 1561). Amsterdam (1586). Frankfort (1618) and Leiden (1652). Olaus also wrote a Tabula terrarum srptcnlrionalium . . . (Venice, 1539).
OLBERS. HBNRICH WILHELH MATTHIAS (1758-1840), German astronomer, was born on the nth of October 1758 at Arbcrgen. a village near Bremen, where his father was minister. He studied medicine at Goltingcn, 1777-1780, attending at the same time Kacstncr's mathematical course; and in 1770, while watching by the sick-bed of a fellow-student, he devised a method of calculating comc'.ary orbits which made an epoch in the treatment of the subject, and is still extensively used. The treatise containing this important invention was made public by Baron von Zach under the title Ucbcr die Iciclitrstc und bcquimstt Uclhodc die Balm einci Comtlcn ni brrcclmen (Weimar, 1797) A table of eighty-seven calculated orbits was appended, enlarged by Encke in the second edition (1847) to 178, and by Gallc in the third (1864) to 242. Olbers settled as a physician in Bremen towards the end of 1781, and practised actively for above forty years, finally retiring on the ist oi January 1823. The greater part of each night (he never slept more than four hours) was meantime devoted to astronomy, the upper portion of his house being fitted up as an observatory. He paid special attention to comets, and that of 1815 (period seventy-four years) bears his name in commemoration of its detection by him. He also took a leading part in the discovery o( the minor planets, re-idcnlificd Ceres on the ist of January 1802, and detected Pallas on the 28th of March following. His bold hypothesis of their origin by the disruption of a primitive large planet (hlonallulie Carres fandcia, vi. 88), although now discarded, received countenance from the finding of Juno by Harding, and of Vesta by himself, in the precise regions of Cctus and Virgo where the nodes of such supposed planetary fragments should be situated. Olbers was deputed by his fellow-citizens to assist at the baptism of the king of Rome on the qth of June 1811, and he was a member of the corps Ifgislali/ in Paris 1812-1813. He died on the 2nd of March 1840, at the age of eighty-one. He was twice married, and one son survived him.
See Btcgraphtsche Skissen Krstorbfntr Brfmiscker Aente.. by Dr G Barkhauscn (Bremen. 1844). Alleemcine zeoiraphuche Ephcmcriden. iv 283 (1799). Abstracts Phil. Trans, iv. 268 (1843): Att'onomtsilie ftjchnchten. xxii. 265 (Bcssel), also appended o A Erman's Brirfwechsel tvnsclicn Olbf't und Btsstl (2 vol*., -eipzig. 1852); Al/grmrtne Deiilsclie Biogrotilite (S. Gunlher); R Grant. Hist cj Pliys Aslr. p. aw, R. Wolf. GeschtclHe drr Aslronomie. p 517. The first two volumes of Di C. Schilling's exhaust we work. Wilhrlm Olbers, sein Lfben ttnd seine Werke. appeared at Berlin in 1894 and 1900. a third and later volume including his personal correspondence and biography. A list of Olbcrs's tontrijunons to scientific periodicals is given at p. xxxv of the 3rd cd. of us Lftflilrut Mcthoae. and 1m unique collection of works relating o comets now forms part of the Pulkowa library.
OLBIA, the chief Greek settlement in the north-west of the suxine. It was generally known to the Greeks of Hellas as
Boryslhenes, though its actual site was on the right bank of he Hypanis (Bug) 4 m above its junction with the estuary of he Borysthcnes river (Dnieper). Euscbius says that it was oundcd from Miletus c. 650 B.c., a statement which is borne
out by the discovery of Milesian pottery of the 7lh century.
It first appears as enjoying friendly relations with its neighbours he Scythians and standing at the head of trade routes leading ar to the north-east (Herodotus iv ). Its wares also penetrated
northward. It exchanged the manufaclurcs of Ionia and, 'rom the 5th century, of Attica for the slaves, hides and corn of
•vythia Changes of the native population (sec Scvtiim) ntcrruptcd this commerce, and the city was hard put to it to defend itself against the surrounding barbarians. We know of these difficulties and of the democratic constitution of the city from a decree in honour of Protogcncs in the 3rd century B.C. (C.I.G. ii. 2058, Inscr. Or. Scplcnt. Pont. Euxin. i. 16). In the following century it fell under the suzerainty of Scilurus, whose name appears on its coins, and when his power was broken by Mithradalcs VI. the Great, of Pontus, it submitted to the latter. About 50 B.c. it was entirely destroyed by the Getae and lay waste for many years. Ultimately at the wish of, and, to judge by the coins, under the protection of the natives themselves, it was restored, but Dio Chrysostom (Or. xxxvi.), who visited it about A.m. 83, gives a curious picture of its poor state. During the 2nd century A.d. it prospered better with Roman support and was quite flourishing from the time of Septimius Severus, when it was incorporated in Lower Moesia, to 248, when its coins came to an end, probably owing to its sack by the Goths. It was once more restored in some sort and lingered on to an unknown date. Excavations have shown the position of the old Greek walls and of those which enclosed the narrower site of the Roman city, an interesting Hellenistic house, and cemeteries of various dates. The principal cult was that of Achilles Pontarchcs, to whom the archons made dedications. It has another centre at Lcuce (Phidonisi) and at various points in the north Euxine. Secondary was that of Apollo Prostates, the patron of the strategi; but the worship of most of the Hellenic deities is testified to in the inscriptions. The coinage begins with large round copper pieces comparable only to the Roman aes grave and smaller pieces in the shape of dolphins; these both go back into the 6th century B.c. Later the city adopted silver and gold coins of the Acginetic standard. See E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge. 1909); V. V. Latyshev, Olbia (St Petersburg, 1887. in Russian). For inscriptions, Boeckh, C.I.G. vol. ii.; V. V. Latyshev, Inscr. Orae Srplrxl. Panti Enxini, vols. i. and iv. For excavations, Reports of B. V. Pharmakovsky in Comptc rendu de la Comm. imp. arckcolon- (St Petersburg, loot sqq.). and Bulletin of the same, Nos. 8, 13, &c., summarized m Archdologischer Anzeigtr (1903 sqq.). (K. H. M.)
OLBIA (Gr. o\ftia, i.e. happy; mod. Teiranova Pausania, f.t>.),an ancient seaport city of Sardinia, on the cast coast. The name indicates that it was of Greek origin, and tradition attributes its foundation to the Boeotians and Thespians under lolaus (see Sardinia). Fais considers that it •was founded by the Phocacans of Massilia before the 4th century B.c. (in Tamponi,o/>. cil. p. 83). It is situated on low ground, at thcextrcmity of a deep recess, now called the Golfo di Tcrranova. It was besieged unsuccessfully by L. Cornelius Scipio in 259 B.C. Its territory was ravaged in 210 B.c. by a Carthaginian fleet. In Roman times it was the regular landing-place for travellers from Italy. Cicero notes the receipt of a letter from his brother from Olbia in 56 B.C., and obviously shared the prevailing belief as to the unhcallhincss of Sardinia. Traces of the preRoman city have not been found. The line of the Roman city walls has been determined on the N. and E., the N.E. angle being at the ancient harbour, which lay to the N. of the modern (Nolaie dcgli Scavi, 1890, p. 224). Among the inscriptions arc two tombstones, one of an imperial frcedwoman,1 the other of a frecdman of Actc, the concubine of Nero; a similar tombstone was also found at Carales, and tiles bearing her name have been found in several parts of the island, but especially at Olbia. where in building a modern house in 1881 about one thousand were discovered. Pais (op. cit. 89 sqq.) attributes to Olbia an inscription now in the Campo Santo at Pisa, an epistyle bearing the words " Cereri sacrum Claudia Aug. lib. Acte," and made of Sardinian (•*) granite. In any case it is clear that Acte must have had considerable property in the island (Corp. Inscr. Lat. x. 7980). Discoveries of buildings and tombs have frequently occurred within the area of the town and in its neighbourhood. Some scanty remains of an aqueduct exist outside the town, but hardly anything else of
1 The frcedwoman had been a slave of Acte before n.i*Mnp; into the property of the emperor, anrl took the cognomen Aftfniana—a practice which otherwise only ocrnrs in the case of slaves of citizens of the highest rank or of foreign kings.
antiquity is to be seen I'm situ. A large number of milestones, fifty-one in all, with inscriptions, and several more with illegible ones, belonging to the first twelve miles of the Roman road between Olbia and Carales, have been discovered, and are now kept in the church of S. Simplicio (Nolaie degli Scavi, 1888, P. 535, 1889, p. 258; 1802, pp. 217, 366; Classical Review, 1889, p. 228; 1890, p. 65, P. Tamponi, Sillogc Epigrafica, Oltiaise, Sassari, 1895). This large number may be accounted for by the fact that a new stone was often erected for a new emperor. They range in date from A.D. 245 to 375 (one is possibly of Domitian). The itineraries state that the main road from Carales to Olbia ran through the centre of the island to the cast of Gennargentu (see Sardinia); but a branch certainly diverged from the main road from Carales to Turris Libisonis (which kept farther west, more or less along the line followed by the modern railway) and came to Olbia. The distance by both lines is much the same; and all these milestones belong to the last portion which was common to both roads. (T. As.)
OLD-AGE PENSIONS. The provision of annuities for aged poor by the state was proposed in England in the iSth century— e.g. by Francis Maseres, cursitor baron of the Exchequer, in 1772, and by Mr Mark Rollc, M.P., in 1787. Suggestions for subsidizing friendly societies have also been frequent—e.g.byT. Paine in 1795, tentatively in Sturges Bourne's Report on the Poor Laws, 1817, and by Lord Lansdowne in 1837. The subject again became prominent in the latter part of the in:Ii century. Canon Blacklcy, who started this movement, proposed to compel every one to insure with a slate department against sickness and old age, and essentially his scheme was one for the relief of the ratepayers and a more equitablereadjustmenlof thepoorrate. * The terms provisionally put forward by him required that every one in youth should pay £10, in return for which the state was to grant 8s. a week sick allowance and 4S. pension after seventy. These proposals were submitted to the Select Committee on National Provident Insurance, 1X85-1887. This body reported unfavourably, more especially on the sick insurance part of the scheme, but the idea of old-age pension survived, and was taken up by the National Provident League, of which Mr (afterwards Sir) J. Rankin, M.P., was chairman. The subject was discussed in the constituencies and expectation was aroused. An unofficial parliamentary committee was formed, with Mr J. Chamberlain as chairman. This committee published proposals in March 1892, which show a very interesting change of attitude on the part of the promoters. Compulsion, which at the earlier period had found favour with Canon Blacklcy, Sir J. Rankin and even Mr Chamberlain, was no longer urged. The annuitant was no longer required to pay a premium adequate to the benefits promised, as in Canon Blackley's proposal. The benefit was no longer a pure annuity, but premiums were, in certain cases, returnable, and allowances were provided for widows, children (if any) and for the next of kin. Canon Blackley's professed object was to supersede the friendly societies, which, he alleged, were more or less insolvent; a proposal was now introduced to double every half-crown of pension derived by. members from their friendly societies. This suggestion was criticized, even by supporters of the principle of stale aid, on the ground that unless a pension was graluilous, the class from which pauperism is renlly drawn could not profit by it. Mr Charles Booth in particular took this line. He accordingly proposed that there should be a general endowment of old age, 55. a week to every one at the age of sixty-five. This proposal was calculated lo involve an expendilurc of £18,000,000 for England and Wales and £24,000,000 for the United Kingdom, exclusive of the cost of administration. While Mr Booth severely criticized the weak points of the conlributory and voluntary schemes, Ihcir most influential advocate, Mr Chamberlain, did not spare Mr Booth's proposals. Speaking at Highbury, for instance, on the 24th of May 1899, he described Mr Booth's universal scheme as " a gigantic system of out-door relief for every one, good and bad, thrifly and unthrifty, the waster, drunkard and idler, as well as the industrious," and very forcibly slated his inability to support it.
la 1893 Mr Gladstone referred the whole question to a royal commission (Lord Aberdare, chairman). A majority report, adverse to the principle of state pensions, was issued m 1805. A minority report, signed by Mr Chamberlain and Hirers, dissented, mainly on the ground that public expectation roukl be disappointed if nothing was done. In 1806 Lord Salisbury appointed a committee " of experts-" (Lord Rothschild, chairman) to report on schemes submitted, and, if necessary, to devise a scheme. The committee were unable to recommend any of the schemes submitted, and added that, " we ourselves are unable, after repeated attempts, to devise any proposal free from grave inherent disadvantages." This second condemnation ns not considered conclusive, and a select committee of the House of Commons (Mr Chaplin, chairman) was appointed to consider the condition of " the aged deserving poor." After an ineffectual attempt by Mr Chaplin to induce the committee to drop the pension idea, and to consider the provision made for the aged by the poor law, the committee somewhat hastily promulgated a scheme of gratuitous pensions for persons possessing certain qualifications. Of these the following were the most important: age of sixty-five; no conviction for crime; no poor-law relief, "unless under exceptional circumstances," KiLhin twenty years; non-possession of income of ics. a week; proved industry, or proved exercise of reasonable providence by some definite mode of thrift. The committee refrained from explaining the machinery and from estimating the cost, and suggested that this last problem should be submitted to yet another committee.
Accordingly a departmental committee (chairman, Sir E. Hamilton) was appointed, which reported in January loco. The estimated cost of the above plan was, by this committee, calculated at £10,300,000 in 1901, rising to £15,650,000 in 1921. Mr Chaplin had publicly suggested that £2,000,000, the proceeds of a is. duty on corn, would go a long way to meet the needs of the case—a conjecture which was obviously far too sanguine. These unfavourable reports discouraged the more responsible advocates of state pensions. Mr Chamberlain appealed to the friendly societies to formulate a plan, an invitation which they showed no disposition to accept. Efforts continued to be made to press forward Mr Booth's universal endowment scheme or some modification of it. To this Mr Chamberlain declared his hostility. And here the matter rested, till in his Budget speech In 1007 Mr Asquith pledged the Liberal government to start a scheme in 1908.
In 1908 accordingly there was passed the Old-Age Pensions Act, which carried into effect a scheme for state pensions, payable as from the ist of January 1009 to persons of the age sf 70 years and over. The act grants a pension according to i graduated scale of not exceeding 55. a week to every person, scale and female, who fulfils certain statutory conditions, and at the same time is not subject to certain disqualifications. The statutory conditions, as set out in §2 of the act, are: (i) The person must have attained the age of seventy; (2) must satisfy the pension authorities that for at least twenty years up to the dite of receipt of pension he has been a British subject and has had his residence in the United Kingdom; and (3) the person must satisfy the pension authorities that his yearly means do cot exceed £31, Ids. In § 4 of the act there are elaborate provisions for the calculation of yearly means, but the following nay be particularly noticed: (i) in calculating the means of > person being one of a married couple living together in the same house, the means shall not in any case be taken to be a less amount than half the total means of the couple, and (2) if any person directly or indirectly deprives himself of any income or property in order to qualify for an old-age pension, it shall nevertheless be taken to be part of his means. The disqualifications are (i) receipt of poor-law relief (this qualification was specially removed as from the xst of January 1911); (2) habitual failure to work (except in the case of those who have continuously for ten years up to the age of sixty made provision for their future by payments to friendly, provident or other societies or trade unions; (3) detention in a pauper or criminal lunatic uylum; (4) imprisonment without the option of a fine, which
disqualifies for ten years; and (5) liability to disqualification for a period not exceeding ten years in the case of an habitual drunkard. The graduated scale of pensions is given in a schedule to the act, and provide that when the yearly means of a pensioner do not exceed £21 he shall have the full pension of 55. a week, which diminishes by is. a week for every addition of £2, 125. 6d. to his income, until the latter reaches £31, ios., when no pension is payable. The pension is paid weekly, on Fridays (§ 5), and is inalienable (§ 6).
All claims for, and questions relating to, pensions are determined by the pension authorities. They are (i) pension officers appointed by the Treasury from among inland revenue officers; (2) a central pension authority, which is the Local Government Board or a committee appointed by it, and (3) local pension committees appointed for every borough and urban district with a population of over 20,000, and for every county.
During the first three months of the year 1009, in which the act came into operation, there were 837,831 claims made for pensions: 490,755 in England and Wales, 85,408 in Scotland, and 261,668 in Ireland. Of these claims a total of 647,494 were granted: 393,700 in England and Wales, 70,294 in Scotland, and 183,500 in Ireland. The pensions in force on the 3151 of March 1909 were as follows: 582,565 of 55., 23,616 of 48., 23,275 of 35., 11,429 of 2S., and 6609 of is. By the 30th of September the total amount of money paid to 682,768 pensioners was £6,063,658, and in the estimates of 1909-1910 a sum of £8,750,000 was provided for the payment of pensions.
Certnany.—The movement in favour of state aid to provision for old age has been largely due to the example of Germany. The German system (which for old age dates from 1891) is a form of compulsory and contributory insurance. One half of the premium payable is paid by the labourer, the other half by the employer. The state adds a subvention to the allowances paid to the annuitant. (See Gf.rmany.)
France.—By a law of April 1910 a system of • old-age pensions, designed to come into operation in 1911, was adopted. It is a contributory system, embracing all wage-earners, with the exception of railway servants, miners and sailors on the special reserve list of the navy. It applies also to small landowners, tenant farmers and farm labourers. All arc eligible for a pension at the age of 65, if in receipt of less than £120 a year. The actual rente or pension is calculated on the basis of the total obligatory contribution, together with a fixed viage're or state annuity. Male wage-earners are required to contribute 9 francs a year, and females 6 francs, the employers contributing a like amount. The largest pension obtainable is for life contributions and amounts to 414 francs. A clause in the act permits wage-earners to claim the rente at the age of 55 on a proportionately reduced scale without the viagere. The total cost of providing pensions in 1911 is estimated at over £5,500,000.
Denmark.—The Danish system of old-age pensions was instituted by a law of 1891, and has been extended by further acts of 1902 and 1908. By the law of 1891 the burden of maintaining the aged was in part transferred from the local to the national taxes, and relief from this latter source was called a pension. Recipients of public assistance must be over 60 years of age, they must be of good character and for 5 years previous to receipt must have had their domicile in Denmark without receiving public charity. Such public assistance may be granted either in money, or kind, or by residence in an institution, such as an hospital. The assistance given, whatever it may be, must be sufficient for maintenance, and for attendance in case of illness. The actual amount is determined by the poor-law authorities, but all private assistance amounting to more than 100 kroner (£5, 135.) a year is taken into account in measuring the poverty of the applicant. The cost of assistance is met in the first case by the commune in which the recipient is domiciled, but half the amount is afterwards refunded by the state. In 1007-1903, 71,185 persons were assisted—53,008 by money and 18,177 otherwise. .The total expenditure was £489,200, £242,660 being refunded by the state.