« السابقةمتابعة »
New Zealand.—In 1898 a bill. Introduced by the Rt. Hon. R. J. Scddon, premier, became law which provided for the payment of an old-age pension out of the consolidated fund (revenue of the general government) to oersons duly qualified, without contribution by the beneficiaries. The claimants must be 65 years of age, resident in the colony, and have so resided for 25 years. They must be free from conviction for lesser legal olTcnccs for 12 years, and for more serious breaches of the law for 25 years, previous to the application. They must be of good moral character and have a record of sobriety and respectability for five years. Their yearly income must not exceed £52, and they must not be owners of property exceeding in value £270. Aliens, aborigines, Chinese and Asiatics arc excluded. The pensions arc for £18 per annum, but for each £i of yearly income over and above £34. and also for each £15 of capital over and above jfjjo, £i is deducted from the amount of the pension. Applications have to be made to the deputy registrars of one of 72 districts into which the colony is for this purpose divided. The claim is then recorded and submitted to a stipendiary magistrate, before whom the claimant has to prove his qualifications and submit to cross-examination. If the claim is admitted, a certificate is issued to the deputy registrar and in due course handed to the claimant. Payment is made through the local post-office as desired by the pensioner. The act came into force on the 1st of November 1898. An amending act of 1905 increased the amount of the maximum pension to £26 a year. Sec further, New Zealand. The authors of the measure maintain that it is a great success, while others point to the invidious character of the crossexamination required in proving the necessary degree of poverty, and allege that the arrangement penalizes the thrifty members of the poorer class, and is a direct incentive to transfer of property, of a more or less fraudulent character, between members ol a family.
Victoria,—By the Old-Age Pensions Act 1900, £75,000 was appropriated for the purpose of paying a pension of not more than los. per week to any person who fulfilled the necessary conditions, of which the following were the principal: The pensioner must be 65 years of age or permanently disabled, must fill up a declaration that he has lived twenty years in the state; has not been convicted of drunkenness, wife-desertion, &c.; that his weekly income and his property do not exceed a given sum (the regulation of this and other details is intrusted to the governor in council). Further sums were subsequently appropriated to the purposes of the act.
Authorities.—Report and Evidence of Select Committee on National Provident Insurance (1887); Report of Royal Commission on Aged Poor (1895); Report of Lord Rothschild's Committee (1898); Report of the Select Committee on Aged Deserving Poor (1899); Report of Departmental Committee, &c., about the Aged Deserving Poor (1900); J. A. Spender, The State and Pensions tn Old Aec (1892); George King, Old Age Pensions (1809); Reports of Poor Law Conferences; Annual Reports of the Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies; E. W. Brabrook, Provident Societies and the Public Welfare (1898), ch. viii. For: Charles Booth. The Aged Poor in England attd Wales (1894); Old Age Pensions (1899); Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, "The Labour Question," Nineteenth Century (November 1892); Speeches (2ist April 1891 and 24th May 1899^); Rev. J. Frome Wilkinson, Pensions and Pauperism (1892); Publications of the National Providence League. Against: C. J. Radlcy, Stlf-Ilelp versus State-Pensions (3rd cdi\\or\); Plea for Liberty (1892); Report of Royal Commission from a Friendly Society Point of View, reprint from Oddfellows' Magazine (1895); The Foresters' Miscellany (February 1902); Unity, a Monthly Journal of Foresters, &c. (February 1902); C. S. Loch. Old-Age Pensions and Pauperism (1892); Reply of Bradficld Board of Guardians to circular of National Provident League (1891); Publications of the Charity Organization Society.
OLDBURY, an urban district in the Oldbury parliamentary division of Worcestershire, England, 5 m. W. of Birmingham, on the Great Western and London & North-Western railways and the Birmingham canal. Pop. (1901) 25,191. Coal, iron and limestone abound in the neighbourhood, and the town possesses alkali and chemical works, rail way-carriage works, iron, edgetool, nail and steel works, makings, corn-mills, and brick and tile kilns. The urban district includes the townships of Langlcy and Warlcy.
OLDCASTLE, SIR JOHN (d. 1417), English Lollard leader, was son of Sir Richard Oldcastle of Almcley in Herefordshire. He is first mentioned as serving in the expedition to Scotland in 1400, when he was probably quite a young man. Next year he was in charge of Builth castle in Brecon, and serving all through the Welsh campaigns won the friendship and esteem of Henry, the prince of Wales. Oldcaslle represented Herefordshire in the parliament of 1404. Four years later he married Joan, the heiress of Cobham, and was thereon summoned to parliament as Lord Cobham in her right. As a trusted supporter of the prince, Oldcaslle held a high command in the expedition which the young
Henry sent to France in 1411. Lollardy had many supporters in Herefordshire, and Oldcastle himself had adopted Lollard opinions before 1410, when the churches on his wife's estates in Kent were laid under interdict for unlicensed preaching. In the convocation which met in March 1413, shortly before the death of Henry IV., Oldcastlc was at once accused of heresy. But his friendship with the new king prevented any decisive action till convincing evidence was found in a book belonging to Oldcastle, which was discovered in a shop in Paternoster Row. The matter was brought before the king, who desired that nothing should be done till he had tried his personal influence. Oldcastle declared his readiness to submit to the king " all his fortune in this world," but was firm in his religious beliefs. When he fled from Windsor to his own castle at Cowling, Henry at last consented to a prosecution. Oldcastlc refused to obey the archbishop's repealed citations, and it was only under a royal writ that he at last appeared before the ecclesiastical court on the 2jrdof September. In a confession of his faith he declared his belief in the sacraments and the necessity of penance and true confession; but to put hope, failh or trust in images was the great sin of idolatry. But he would not assent to the orthodox doctrine of the sacrament as stated by the bishops, nor admit the necessity of confession to a priest. So on the 251*1 of September he was convicted as a heretic. Henry was still anxious to find a way of escape for his old comrade, and granted a respite of forty days. Before that lime had expired Oldcaslle escaped from the Tower by the help of one William Fisher, a parchmentmaker of Smilhficld (Kilty, Afenwrials of London, 641). Oldcastle now put himself at the head of a wide-spread Lollard conspiracy, which assumed a definitely political character. The design was to seize the king and his brothers during a Twelfth-night mumming at Ellham, and perhaps, as was alleged, to establish some sort of commonwealth. Henry, forewarned of their intention, removed to London, and when the Lollards assembled in force in St Giles's Fields on the loth of January they were easily dispersed. Oldcaslle himself escaped into Herefordshire, and for nearly four years avoided capture. Apparently he was privy lo the Scrope and Cambridge plot in July 1415, when hcslirrcd some movemcnl in the Welsh Marches, On the failure of the scheme he went again into hiding. Oldcaslle was no doubt the insligalor of ihc abortive Lollard plols of 1416, and appears to have intrigued with ihe Scols. But at last his hiding-place was discovered and in November 1417 he was captured by the Lord CharUon of Fowls. Oldcaslle who was "sore wounded ere he would be taken," was brought to London in a horse-litter. On the i4lh of December he was formally condemned, on the record of his previous conviction, and that same day was hung in St Giles's Fields, and burnt " gallows and all." Il is not clear that he was burnt alive.
Oldcaslle died a marlyr. He was no doubt a man of fine quality, but circumstances made him a traitor, and it is impossible altogether to condemn his execution. His unpopular opinions and early friendship with Henry V. created a traditional scandal which long continued. In the old play The Famous Victories of Henry V., written before 1588, Oldcastle figures as the prince's boon companion. When Shakespeare adapted that play in Henry IV., Oldcastle still appeared; but when the play was printed in 1598 Falslaff's name was substituted, in deference, as it is said, to the then Lord Cobham. Though the fat knight still remains " my old lad of the Castle," the stage character has nothing to do with the Lollard leader.
Bibliography.—The record of Oldcastlc'* trial is printed in Fasciculi Zizaniorum (Rolls scries) and in WillcinVs Concilia, iii.
turn followed the Briefs Chronycle of John Bale, first published in 1544. For notes on Oldcastlc's early career, consult J. H. Wylic, History of England under Henry IV. For literary history see the Introductions to Richard James's lie* Lancastreme (Chctham Soc., 1845) and toGrosart'sedition of the Poems of Richard James (1880). See also W. Barske. Oldcastle- Falstaff in der englischen Literatur bis tit Shakespeare (Palaestra, 1. Berlin, 1005). For a recent Life, ace W. T. Waugh in the English Historical Review, vol. xx. (C. L. K.)
OLD CATHOLICS (Ger. Altkatkoliktn), the designation assumed by those members of the Roman Catholic Church who refused to accept the decrees of the Vatican Council of 1870 defining the dogma of papal infallibility (see Vatican Council and Infallibility) and ultimately set up a separate ecclesiastical organization on the episcopal model. The Old Catholic movemeat, at the outset at least, differed fundamentally from the Protestant Reformation of the i6th century in that it aimed not at any drastic changes in doctrine but at the restoration of the ancient Catholic system, founded on the diocesan episcopate, which under the influence of the ultramontane movement of the igth century had been finally displaced by the rigidly centralized system of the papal monarchy. In this respect it represented a tendency of old standing within the Church and one which, in the iSib century, had all but gained the upper hand (see Febkonianish and Gallicanisw). Protestantism takes for its standard the Bible and the supposed doctrines and institutions of the apostolic age. Old Catholicism sets up the authority of the undivided Church, and accepts the decrees of the first seven general councils—down to the second council of Nicaea (787), a principle which has necessarily involved a certain amount of doctrinal divergence both from the standards of Rome and those of the Protestant Churches.
The proceedings of the Vatican council and their outcome had at first threatened to lead to a serious schism in the Church. The minority against the decrees included many of the most distinguished prelates and theologians of the Roman communion, and the methods by which their opposition had been overcome seemed to make it difficult for them to submit. The pressure put upon them was, however, immense, and the reasons for submission may well have seemed overwhelming; in the end, after more or less delay, all the recalcitrant bishops gave in (hcii adhesion to the decrees.
The "sacrificio dell' intcllctto," as it was termed—the subordination of individual opinion to the general authority of Iht Church—was the maxim adopted by one and all. Seventeen of the German bishops almost immediately receded from the position they had taken up at Rome and assented to the dogma, publishing at the same lime a pastoral letter in which they sought to justify their change of sentiment on the ground of expediency in relation to the interests of the Church (Michclis, Dcr ncue Fuldacr HirUnbritJ, 1870). Their example was followed by all the other bishops of Germany. Darboy, archbishop of Paris, and Dupanloup, bishop of Orleans, in France adopted a like course, and took with them the entire body of the French clergy. Each bishop demanded in turn the same submission from the clergy of his diocese, the alternative being suspension from pastoral functions, to be followed by deprivation of office. It may be urged as some extenuation of this general abandonment of a great principle, that those who had refused to subscribe to (he dogma received but languid support, and in some cases direct discouragement, from their respective governments. The submission of the illustrious Karl Joseph von Ilcfclc was generally attributed to the influence exerted by the court of Wurttcmberg.
The universities, being less directly under the control of the Church, were prepared to show a bolder front.* Dr J. F. von Schultc, professor at Prague, was one of the first to publish a formal protest. A meeting of Catholic professors and distinguished scholars convened at Nuremberg (August 1870) recorded a like dissent, and resolved on the adoption of measures for bringing about the assembling of a really free council north of the Alps. The Appd cux Etfqucs Catholiquts of M. Hyacinthc Loyson (better known as "Pcrc Hyacinlhc"), after referring to the overthrow of " the two despotisms," " the empire of the Napoleons and the temporal power of the popes," appealed to the Catholic bishops throughout the world to put an end to the schism by declaring whether the recent decrees were or were not binding on the faith of the Church. This appeal, on Hs appearance in La Lilcrta early in 1871, was suppressed by the order of the king of Italy. On the 28th of March Dollingcr, in a tetter of some length, set forth the reasons which com
pelled him also to withhold his submission alike as" a Christian, a theologian, an historical student and a citizen." The publication of this letter was shortly followed by a sentence of excommunication pronounced against Dollingcr and Professor Johannes Friedrich (<;•"•'), and read to the different congregations from the pulpits of Munich. The professors of the university, on the other hand, had shortly before evinced their resolution of affording Dollingcr all the moral support in their power by an address (April 3, 1871) in which they denounced the Vatican decrees with unsparing severity, declaring that, at the very time when the German people had "won for themselves the post of honour on the battlefield among the nations of the earth," the German bishops had stooped to the dishonouring task of "forcing consciences in the service of an unchristian tyranny, of reducing many pious and upright men to distress and want, and of persecuting those who had but stood steadfast in their allegiance to the ancient faith" (Friedberg, Akienstucke z. ersien Valicanischen Contil, p. 187). An address to the king, drawn up a few days later, received the signatures of 12,000 Catholics. The refusal of the riles of the Church to one of the signatories, Dr Zenger, when on his deathbed, elicited strong expressions of disapproval;1 and when, shortly after, it became necessary to fill up by election six vacancies in the council of the university, the feeling of the electors was indicated by the return of candidates distinguished by their dissent from the new decrees. In the following September the demand for another and a free council was responded to by the assembling of a congress at Munich. It was composed of nearly 500 delegates, convened from almost all parts of the world; but the Teutonic clement was now as manifestly predominant as the Latin element had been at Rome. The proceedings were presided over by Professor von Schulte, and lasted three days. Among those who took a prominent part in the deliberations were Landammann Keller, Windschcid, Dfillinger, Rcinkcns, Maasscn (professor of canon law at Vienna), Friedrich and Huber. The arrangements finally agreed upon were mainly provisional; but one of the resolutions plainly declared that it was desirable if possible to effect a reunion with the Oriental Greek and Russian Churches, and also to arrive at an " understanding " with the Protestant and Episcopal communions.
In the following year lectures were delivered at Munich by various supporters of the new movement, and the learning and eloquence of Rcinkcns vcre displayed with marked effect. In France the adhesion of the abbe" Michaud to the cause attracted considerable interest, not only from his reputation as a preacher, but also from the notable step in advance made by his declaration that, inasmuch as the adoption of the standpoint of the Tridcntinc canons would render reunion with the Lutheran and the Reformed Churches impossible, the wisest course would be to insist on nothing more with respect to doctrinal belief than was embodied in the canons of the first seven oecumenical councils. In the same year the Old Calhoh'cs, as they now began to be termed, entered into relations with the historical little Jansenist Church of Utrecht. Dollinger, in delivering his inaugural address as rector of the university of Munich, expressed his conviction that theology had received a fresh impulse and that the religious history of Europe was entering upon a new phase.
Other circumstances contributed to invest Old Catholicism with additional importance. It was evident that the relations between the Roman Curia and the Prussian government were becoming extremely strained. In February 1872 appeared the first measures of the Falk ministry, having for their object the control of the influence of the clergy in the schools, and in May the pope refused to accept Cardinal Hohcnlohc, who during the council had opposed the definition of the dogma, as Prussian minister at the Vatican. In the same year two humble parish priests, Rcnftlc of Mering in Bavaria and Tangermann of Unkcl in the Rhincland, set an example of independence by refusing
1 "Hie rites were administered and the burial service conducted by Fricdrich, who had refused to acknowledge hw excommunication.
to accept the decrees. The former, driven from his parish church, was followed by the majority of his congregation, who, in spite of every discouragement, continued faithful to him; and for years after, as successive members were removed by death, the crosses over their graves recorded that they had died "true to their ancient belief." Tangermann, the poet, expelled in like manner from his parish by the archbishop of Cologne, before long found himself the minister of a much larger congregation in the episcopal city itself. These examples exercised no little influence, and congregations of Old Catholics were shortly after formed at. numerous towns and villages in Bavaria, Baden, Prussia, German Switzerland, and even' in Austria. At Warnsdorf in Bohemia a congregation was collected which still represents one of the most important centres of the movement. In September the second congress was held at Cologne. It was attended by some 500 delegates or visitors from all parts of Europe, and the English Church was represented by the bishops of Ely and Lincoln and other distinguished members. At this congress Friedrich boldly declared that the movement was directed "against the whole papal system, a system of errors during a thousand years, which had only reached its climax in the doctrine of infallibility."
The movement thus entered a new phase, the congress occupying itself mainly with the formation of a more definite organization and with the question of reunion with other Churches. The immediate effect was a fateful divergence of opinion; for many who sympathized with the opposition to the extreme papal claims shrank from the creation of a fresh schism. Prince Chlodwig Hohenlohe, who as prime minister of Bavaria had attempted to unite the governments against the definition of the dogma, refused to have anything to do with proceedings which could only end in the creation of a fresh sect, and would make the prospect of the reform of the Church from within hopeless; more important still, Dollingcr refused to take part in setting up a separate organization, and though he afterwards so far modified his opinion as to help the Old Catholic community with sympathy and advice, he never formally joined it.
Meanwhile, the progress of the quarrel between the Prussian government and the Curia had been highly favourable to the movement. In May 1873 the celebrated Falk laws were enacted, whereby the articles 15 and 18 of the Prussian constitution were modified, so as to legalize a systematic state supervision over the education of the clergy of all denominations, and also over the appointment and dismissal of all ministers of religion. The measure, which was a direct response to the Vatican decrees, inspired the Old Catholics with a not unreasonable expectation that the moral support of the government would henceforth be enlisted on their side. On the nth of August .Professor J. H. Rcinkens of Breslau, having been duly elected bishop of the new community,1 was consecrated at Rotterdam by Bishop Heykamp of Deventer, the archbishop of Utrecht, who was to have performed the ceremony, having died a few days before. In the meantime the extension of the movement in Switzerland had been proceeding rapidly, and it was resolved to hold the third congress at Constance. The proceedings occupied three days (ii'ili to i.;th September), the subjects discussed being chiefly the institution of a synod* as the legislative and executive organ of the Church, and schemes of reunion with the Greek, the African and the Protestant communions. On the solh of September the election of Bishop Reinkens was formally recognized by the Prussian government, and on the 7th of October he took the oath of allegiance to the king.
The following year (1874) was marked by the assembling of the first synod and a conference at Bonn, and of a congress
1 Rcinkens was elected at Cologne in primitive Christian fashion by clergy and people, the latter being representatives of Old Catholic congregations.
1 The diocesan synod, under the presidency of the bishop, consists of the clergy of the diocese and one lay delegate for every 200 church members. It now meets twice a year and transacts the business prepared for it by an executive committee of 4 clergy and 5 lavmcn. In Switzerland the organization is still more democratic; the bibhop does not preside over the synod and may be deposed by it.
at Freiburg-im-Breisgau. At the congress Bishop Reinkens spoke in hopeful terms of the results of his observations during a recent missionary tour throughout Germany. The conference, held on the I4lh, isth and i6th of September, had for its special object the discussion of the early confessions as a basis of agreement, though not necessarily of fusion, between .the different communions above-named. The meetings, which were presided over by Dollinger, successively took into consideration the Filioque clause in the Nicene creed, the sacraments, the canon of Scripture, the episcopal succession in the English Church, the confessional, indulgences, prayers for the dead, and the cucharist (see Doluncek). The synod (May 37-79) was the first of a series, held yearly till 1879 and afterwards twice a year, in which the doctrine and discipline of the new Church were gradually formulated. The tendency was, naturally, to move further and further away from the Roman model; and though the synod expressly renounced any claim to formulate dogma, or any intention of destroying the unity of the faith, the " Catholic Catechism" adopted by it in 1874 contained several articles fundamentally at variance with the teaching of Rome.' At the first synod, too, it was decided to make confession and fasting optional, while later synods pronounced in favour of using the vernacular in public worship, allowing the marriage of priests, and permitting them to administer the communion in both kinds to members of the Anglican Church attending their services. Of these developments that abolishing the compulsory celibacy of the clergy led to the most opposition; some opposed it as inexpedient, others—notably the Jansenist clergy of Holland— as wrong in itself, and when it was ultimately passed in 1878 some of the clergy, notably Tangermann and Reusch, withdrew from the Old Catholic movement.
Meanwhile the movement had made some progress in other countries—in Austria, in Italy and in Mexico; but everywhere it was hampered by the inevitable controversies, which either broke up its organization or hindered its development. In Switzerland, where important conferences were successively convened (at Solothurn in 1871, at Olten in .1872, 1873 and 1874), the unanimity of the "Christian Catholics," as they preferred to call themselves, seemed at one time in danger of being shipwrecked on the question of episcopacy. It was not until September i8th, 1876, that the conflict of opinions was so far composed as to allow of the consecration of Bishop Hcrzog by Bishop Reinkens. The reforms introduced by M. Hyacinthe Loyson in his church at Geneva received only a partial assent from the general body. Among the more practical results of his example is to be reckoned, however, the fact that in French Switzerland nearly all the clergy, in German Switzerland about one half, arc married men.
The end of the Ktillurkampf in 1878, and the new alliance between Bismarck and Pope Leo XIII. against revolutionary Socialism, deprived the Old Catholics of the special favour which had been shown them by the Prussian government; they continued, however, to enjoy the legal status of Catholics, and their communities retained the rights and the property secured to them by the law of the 4th of July 1875. In Bavaria, on the other hand, they were in March 1890, after the death of Dollingcr, definitely reduced to the status of a private religious sect, with very narrow rights. When Bishop Reinkens died in January 1806 his successor Theodor Weber, professor of theology at Breslau, elected bishop on the 4th of March, was recognized only by the governments of Prussia, Baden and Hesse. The present position of the Old Catholic Church has disappointed the expectation of its friends and of its enemies. It has neither advanced rapidly, as the former had hoped, nor retrograded, as the latter have frequently predicted it would do. In Germany there are 90 congregations, served by 60 priests, and the number of adherents is estimated at about 60,000. In Switzerland there are 40 parishes (of which only one, that at Lucerne, is in the
• E.f. especially Question 164: " this (the Christian) community is invisible," ana Question 167, " one may belong to the invisible Church («.*. of those sharing in Christ's redemption) without belong' ing to the visible Church.
Roman Catholic cantons), 60 clergy and about 50,000 adherents. In Austria, though some accessions have been received since !be Los ion Rom movement began in 1899, the Old Catholic Church has not made much headway; it has some 15 churches and about 15,000 adherents. In Holland the Old Catholic or Jansenist Church has 3 bishops, about 30 congregations and over £000 adherents. In France the movement headed by Loyson did .not go iar. There is but one congregation, in Paris, where it has built for itself a beautiful new church on the Boulevard Blanqin. Its priest is George Volet, who was ordained by Hcrzog, and it has just over 300 members. It is under the supervision of the Old Catholic archbishops of Virecht. In Italy a branch of the Old Catholic communion was established in iSSi by Count Enrico di Campello, a former canon of St Peter's at Rome. A church was opened in Rome by Monsignor Savarese and Count Campello, under the supervision of the bishop of Long Island in the United States, who undertook the superintendence of the congregation in accordance with the regulations laid down by the Lambeth conference. But dissensions arose between the two men. The church in Rome was closed; Savarese returned to the Roman Church; and Campello commenced a reform work in the rural districts of Umbria, under the episcopal guidance of the bishop of Salisbury. This was in 1885. In 1000 Campello returned to Rome, and once more opened a church there. In 1902 he retired from active participation in the work, on account of age and bodily infirmity, and his place at the head of it was taken by Professor Cicchitti of Milan. Campello ultimately returned to the Roman communion. There are half-a-dozen priests, who are either in Roman or Old Catholic orders, and about twice as many congregations. Old Catholicism has spread to America. The Polish Romanists there, in 1809, complained of the rule of Irish bishops; elected a bishop of their own, Hcrr Anton Kozlowski; presented him to the Old Catholic bishops in Europe for consecration; and he presides over seven congregations in Chicago and the neighbourhood. The Austrian and Italian churches possess no bishops, and the* Austrian government refuses to allow the Old Catholic bishops of other countries to perform their functions in Austria. Every Old Catholic congregation has its choral onion, its poor relief, and its mutual improvement society. Theological faculties exist at Bonn and Bern, and at the former a residential college for theological students was established by Bishop Reinkcns. Old Catholicism has eight newspapers— two in Italy, two in Switzerland, and one each in Holland, Germany, Austria and France. It has held reunion conferences at Lucerne in r8o>, at Rotterdam in 1894, and at Vienna in 1897. At these, members of the various episcopal bodies have been welcomed. It has also established a quarterly publication, the Rente Internationale tie tlilologie, which has admitted articles in French, German and English, contributed not merely by Old Catholics, but by members of the Anglican, Russian, Greek and Slavonic churches. Old Catholic theologians have been very active, and the work of Dollingcr and Reusch on the Jesuits, and the history of the Roman Church by Professor Langcn, have attained a European reputation.
An outline of the whole movement up to the year 1875 will be found in T\u Nnr Reformation, by " Theodorus "(J. Bass Mullingcr); and an excellent resumd of the main facts in the history of the movement in each European country, as connected with other developments of liberal thought, and with political histcry, is given in the second volume of Dr F. Nippold's llandbttrli der ncuesten KacktnrexkicUe, vol. ii. (1883). See also A. M. E. Scarth, The Slsrj of At Old Catholic and Kindred Movements (London, 1883); Buhler. Da Allkathclirismtu (Leiden, 1880); J. F von Schulte, Dtr AUkaihotiziimia (Gicsaen, 1887); and article in Hauck-Herzog's fultnf-jk. far frot. Theol. und Kircke, i. 415. Fordctails the following sources may be consulted: (a) For the proceedings of the successive congresses: the Slcnographisfhe Bfrtchte, published at Munich, Cologne, Constance, &c.; those of the congress of Constance •ere summarized in an English form, with other elucidatory matter, by Professor John Mayor. (6) For the questions involved in the consecration of Bishop Reinkens: Rechtsculachtfn uber die Frage der AKerkemnanf des altkaUioliscken Bischojs Dr Rfinbens in Boyern (Munich. 1874); Emil FriedberE, Der Slant vnd d. Bischofswahlen in DntttUand (Leipzig. 1874); F. von Sybel, £><w altkalholischc Bisthum uj dot Verm&ccn d. romijthkatholisihen Kirchengtscllschaften in
Preussert (Bonn, 1874). (c) Reintcns's own speeches and pastorals, some of which have been translated into English, give his personal views and experiences; the Life of Huber has been written and published by Ebcrhard Stirngicbl; and the persecutions to which the Old Catholic clergy were exposed have been set forth in a pamphlet by J. Mayor, Facts and Documents (London, 1875). (d) For Switzerland, C. Hcrzog, Bcitrdge xur Vorgexhichle der Chriakalhol. Kirch! der Schma (Bern, 1896).
OLD DEER, a parish and village in the district of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Pop. (1001), 4313. The village lies on the Deer or South Ugie Water, 10} m. W. of Pcterhead, and 2 m. from Mintlaw station on the Great North of Scotland Railway Company's branch line from Aberdeen to Pcterhead. The industries include distilling, brewing, and the manufacture of woollens, and there are quarries of granite and limestone. Columba and his nephew Drostan founded a monastery here in the 6th century, of which no trace remains. A most interesting relic of the monks was discovered in 1857 in the Cambridge University library by Henry Bradshaw. It consisted of a small MS. of the Gospels in the Vulgate, fragments of the liturgy of the Celtic church, and notes, in the Gaelic script of the 12th century, referring to the charters of the ancient monastery, including a summary of that granted by David I. These are •among the oldest examples of Scottish Gaelic. The MS. was also adorned with Gaelic designs. It had belonged to the monks of Deer and been in the possession of the University Library since 1715. It was edited by John Stuart (1813-1877) for the Spalding Club, by whom it was published in 1869 under the title of The Book of Deer. In 1118 William Comyn, carl of Buchan, founded the Abbey of St Mary of Deer, now in ruins, J m. farther up the river than the monastery and on the opposite bank. Although it was erected for Cistercians from the priory of Kinloss, near Forres, the property of the Columban monastery was removed to it. The founder (d. 1233) and his countess were buried in the church. The parish is rich in antiquities, but the most noted of them—the Stone of Deer, a sculptured block of syenite, which stood near the Abbey—was destroyed in 1854. The thriving, village of New Deer (formerly called Auchriddic) lies about 7 m. W. of the older village; it includes the ruined castle of Fcddcrat.
OLDENBARNEVELDT, JOHAN VAN (1547-1619), Dutch statesman, was born at Amersfoort on the I4th of September 1547. The family from which he claimed descent was of ancient lineage. After studying law at Louvain, Bourgcs and Heidelberg, and travelling in France and Italy, Oldcnbarncvcldt settled down to practise in the law courts at the Hague. In religion a moderate Calvinist, he threw himself with ardour into the revolt against Spanish tyranny and became a zealous adherent of William the Silent. He served as a volunteer for the relief of Haarlem (i 573) and again at Leiden (1574). In 1576 he obtained the important post of pensionary of Rotterdam, an office which carried with it official membership of the States of Holland. In this capacity his industry, singular grasp of affairs, and persuasive powers of speech speedily gained for him a position of influence. He was active in promoting the Union of Utrecht (1579) and the acceptance of the countship of Holland and Zetland by William (1584) On the assassination of Orange it was at the proposal of Oldcnbarneveldt that the youthful Maurice of Nassau was at once elected stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Holland. During the governorship of Leicester he was the leader of the strenuous opposition offered by the States of Holland to the centralizing policy of the governor. In 1586 he was appointed, in .succession to Paul Buys, to the post of Land's Advocate of Holland. This great office, which he held for 32 years, gave to a man of commanding ability and industry unbounded influence in a many-headed republic without any central executive authority. Though nominally the servant of the States of Holland he made himself politically the personification of the province which bore more than half the entire charge of the union, and as its mouthpiece in the states-general he practically dominated that assembly. In a brief period he became entrusted with such large and far-reaching authority in all the details of administration, as to be virtually " minister of all affairs."
During the two critical years which followed the withdrawal of Leicester, it was the statesmanship o( the advocate which kept the United Provinces from falling asunder through their own inherent separatist tendencies, and prevented them from becoming an c_asy conquest to the formidable army of Alexander of Parma. Fortunately for the Netherlands the attention of Philip was at their time of greatest weakness riveted upon his contemplated invasion of England, and a respite was afforded which enabled Oldenbarncvcldt to supply the lack of any central organized government by gathering into his own hands the control of administrative affairs. His task was made the easier by the whole-hearted support he received from Maurice of Nassau, who, after 1589, held the Stadholdcralc of five provinces, and was likewise captain-general and admiral of the union. The interests and ambitions of the two men did not clash, for Maurice's thoughts were centred on the training and leadership of armies and he had no special capacity as a statesman or inclination for politics. The first rift between them came in 1600. when Maurice was forced against his will by the slates-general, under the advocate's influence, to undertake an expedition into Flanders, which was only saved from disaster by desperate efforts which ended in victory at Nicuwporl. In 1398 Oldenbarncvcldt took part in special embassies to Henry IV. and Elizabeth, and again in 1605 in a special mission sent to congratulate James I. on his accession.
The opening of negotiations by Albert and Isabel in 1606 for a peace or long truce led to a great division of opinion in the Netherlands. The archdukes having consented to treat with the United Provinces " as free provinces and states over which they had no pretensions," Oldenbarncvcldt, who had with him the States of Holland and the majority of burgher regents throughout the county, was for peace, provided that liberty of trading was conceded. Maurice and his cousin William Louis, stadholdcr of Frisia, with the military and naval leaders and the Calvinist clergy, were opposed to it, on the ground that the Spanish king was merely seeking an interval of repose in which to recuperate his strength for a renewed attack on the independence of the Netherlands. For some three years the negotiations went on, but at last after endless parleying, on the 9th of April 1609, a truce for twelve years was concluded. All that the Dutch asked was directly or indirectly granted, and Maurice felt obliged to give a reluctant and somewhat sullen assent to the favourable conditions obtained by the firm and skilful diplomacy of the advocate.
The immediate effect of the truce was a strengthening of Oldcnbarnevcldt's influence in the government of the republic, now recognized as a "free and independent state"; external peace, however, was to bring with it internal strife. For some years there had been a war of words between the religious parties, known as the Gomarists (strict Calvinisls) and the Arminians (moderate Calvinists). In 1610 the Arminians drew up a petition, known as the Remonstrance, in which they asked that their tenets (defined in five articles) should be submitted to a national synod, summoned by the civil government. It was no secret that this action of the Arminians was taken with the approval and connivance of the advocate, who was what was styled a libertine, i.e. an upholder of the principle of toleration in religious opinions. The Gomarists in reply drew up a Contra-Rcmonstrance in seven articles, and appealed to a purely church synod. The whole land was henceforth divided into Remonstrants and Contra-Rcmonstrants; the Slates of Holland under the influence of Oldcnbarncvcldt supported the former, and refused to sanclion the summoning of a purely church synod (1613). They likewise (1614) forbade the preachers in ihc Province nf Holland lo treat of disputed subjects from their pulpits. Obedience was difficult to enforce without military help, riots broke out in certain towns, and when Maurice was appealed to, as captain-general, he declined to act. He did more, Ihough in no sense a theologian; he declared himself on the side of ihc Conlra-Rcmonstrants, and established a preacher of that persuasion in a church at the Hague (1617).
The advocate now took a bold step. He proposed that the
States of Holland should, on their own authority, as a sovereign province, raise a local force of 4000 men (waanlgeldcrs) to keep the peace. The stales-general meanwhile by a bare majority (4 provinces to 3) agreed to the summoning of a national church synod. The States of Holland, also by a narrow majority, refused their assent to this, and passed (Augusl 4, 1617) a strong resolution (Sclierpe Resolutic) by which all magistrates, officials and soldiers in the pay of the province were required to lake an oalh of obedience lo the states on pain of dismissal, and were to be held accountable not to the ordinary Iribunals, but lo the Stales of Holland. It was a declaration of sovereign independence on the part of Holland, and the stales-general look up Ihe challenge and delcrmined on decisive aclion. A commission was appoinled with Maurice at its head lo compel the disbanding of the uvardfcldcrt. On the 3151 of July 1618 the stadholdcr appeared at Utrecht, which had thrown in its lol wilh Holland, at the head of a body of troops, and at his command the local levies at once laid down their arms. His progress through the towns of Holland met with no opposition. The states party was crushed without a blow being struck. On the 23rd of Augusl, by order of the states-general, the advocate and his chief supporters, de Grool and Hoogcrbeels, were arrested.
Oldenbameveldt was wilh his friends kept in the strictest confinement unlil November, and then brought for examination before a commission appointed by the stales-general. He appeared more than sixty times before the commissioners and was examined most severely upon the whole course of his official life, and was, most unjustly, allowed neither to consult papers nor to put his defence in writing. On the zolh of February 1619 he was arraigned before a special courl qf twenty-four members, only half of whom were Hollanders, and nearly all of them his personal enemies. It was in no sense a legal court, nor had it any jurisdiction over the prisoner, but the protest of the advocate, who claimed his right lo be tried by the sovereign province of Holland, whose servant he was, was disregarded. He was allowed no advocates, nor the use of documents, pen or paper. It was in fact not a Irial at all, and Ihe packed bench of judges on Sunday, the 12lh of May, pronounced sentence of death. On the following day the old statesman, at the age of seventy-one, was beheaded in the Binncnhof at the Hague. Such, lo use his own words, was his reward for serving his country forty-three years.
The accusations brought against Oldenbarncvcldt of having been a traitor lo his country, whose interests he had betrayed for foreign gold, have no basis in fact. The whole life of the advocale disproves ihcm, and not a shred of evidence has ever been produced lo Ihrow suspicion upon the pauiol statesman's conduct. All his private papers fell into the hands of his foes, but not even the biltcrcsl and ablcsl of his personal enemies, Francis Aarsscns (see Aarssens), could extract from them anything to show that Oldenbarnevclu't al any lime betrayed his country's inlcrcsls. That he was an ambitious man, fond of power, and haughty in his altiludc lo ihose who differed from him in opinion, may be granlcd, bul il musl also be conceded lhat he sought for power in order to confer invaluable services upon his country, and thai impalicnce of opposition was not unnatural in a man who had exercised an almost supreme control of administrative affairs for upwards of three decades. His high-handed course of action in defence of what he conceived to be the sovereign righls of his own province of Holland lo decide upon religious questions within its borders may be challenged on the ground of inexpediency, bul nol of illegality. The harshness of the trcatmcnl melcd oul by Maurice to his father's old friend, the failhful counsellor and prelector of l.is own early years, leaves a stain upon the stadholdcr's memory which can never be washed away. That the prince should have fell compelled in the last resort to take up arms for the Union against the attempt of the province of Holland 10 defy the aulhority of the Generality may be justified by the plea rcipublicae salui supremo lex. To eject the advocate from power was one thing, to execute him as a traitor quite another. The condemnation of Oldcnbarncvcldt was carried out with Maurice's consent and approval, and he