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a»«*\x acquitted of a prominent share in what posterity has tKawiced to t*e a. judicial murder.

Olfabarneveldt -was married in 1575 to Maria van Utrecht, fit kit iwo sons, the lords of Grocneveld and Stoutenburg, and 1m daughters. A conspiracy against the life of Maurice, in ttich the sons of Oldenbarneveldt look part, was discovered in 16:3. Stoutenburg, who was the chief accomplice, made his exipe and entered the service of Spain; Groeneveld was aecuted.

Bibliog*avhy.—1~. v. Deventer, Gcdenkstukken van Johan p. CUtttamnetdt en xijn tijd (1577-1609; 3 vols., 1860-1865); ). van OUknbaraeveUlt, Historic Wiirachtice van dt gkcivnckcnnisc . . . Uste vender fndf droevige dool van J. v. O. . . . vyl de verklaringt Ki Z. E. dicnaar Johan Francken (1620); Historic van tut Ian en stenen van den Heer Johan van Olden Bamevetdt (1648}; Green van Prinsterw, Maurure it BamaeUt (1875); I. L. Motley, Life and DaOk a] John of Bammldt (2 vols., 1874). (G. E.)

OLDENBURG, a grand-duchy of Germany, with an area of 2479 sq. m. It consists of three widely separated portions of territory—(i) the duchy of Oldenburg, (a) the principality of Lubeck, and (3) the principality of Birkenfeld. It ranks tenth among the states of the German empire and has one vote in the Bundesrat (federal council) and three members in the Reichstag.

I. The duchy of Oldenburg, comprising fully four-fifths of the entire area and population, lies between 52° 29' and 53° 44' N. and between 7° 37' and 8° 37' E., and is bounded on the N. by the North Sea and on the other three sides by Hanover, with the exception of a small strip on the cast, where it is conterminous with the territory of the free city of Bremen. It forms part of the north-western German plain lying between the Wcscr and the Ems, and, except on the south, where the Dammergebirge attain a height of 478 ft., it is almost entirely flat, with a slight inclination towards the sea. In respect of its soil it is divided broadly into two parts—the higher and inland-lying Ctrst, consisting of sandy plains intermixed with extensive heaths and moors, and the marsh lands along the coast, consisting of rich but somewhat swampy alluvial soil. The latter, which compose about one-fifth of the duchy, are protected against the inroads of the sea by dikes as in Holland; and beyond these are the so-called Wallen, generally covered at high tide, but at many points being gradually reclaimed. The climate is temperate and humid; the mean temperature of the coldest month at the town of Oldenburg is 26° F. of the wannest 66*. Storms are numerous, and their violence is the more felt owing to the almost entire absence of trees; and fogs and ague are prevalent in the marsh lands. The chief rivers arc the Hume, flowing into the Weser, and the Hase and Lcda flowing into the Ems. The Weser itself forms the eastern boundary for 42 m , and internal navigation is greatly facilitated by a canal, passing through the heart of the duchy and connecting the Hunte and the Leda. On the north there are several small coast streams conducted through the dikes by sluices, the only one of importance being the Jade, which empties itself into the Jade Busen, a deep gulf affording good accommodation for shipping. The duchy also contains numerous small lakes, the chief of which is the Hummer See in the south-cast corner, measuring 4 m. in length by 2$ in width. About 30% of the area of the duchy is under cultivation and 17% under pasture and meadows, while the rest consists mainly of marsh, moor and heath. Forests occupy a very small proportion of the whole, but tkere are some fine old oaks. In the Geest the principal crops are rye. oats, potatoes and buckwheat, for which the heath is sometimes prepared by burning. Large tracts of moorland, however, are useful only as producing peat for fuel, or as affording past ure to the flocks of small coarse-woollcd Oldenburg sheep. The rich soil of the marsh lands produces good crops of wheat, oats, rye, hemp and rape, but is especially adapted for grazing. The cattle and horses raised on it arc highly esteemed throughout Germany, and the former are exported in large numbers to England. Bee-keeping is much in vogue on the moors. The live lock of Oldenburg forms a great part of its wealth, and the ratio

among the German states. Then are few large estates, and the ground is mostly in the hands of small farmers, who enjoy the right of fishing and shooting on their holdings. Game is scarce, but fishing is fairly productive. The mineral wealth of Oldenburg is very small. Woollen and cotton fabrics, stockings, jute and cigars are made at Varel, Delmenhorst and Lohne; cork-cutting is extensively practised in some districts, and there are a few iron-foundries. Trade is relatively of more importance, chiefly owing to the proximity of Bremen. The agricultural produce of the duchy is exported to Scandinavia, Russia, England and the United States, in return for colonial goods and manufactures. Varel, Brake and Elsfleth are the chief commercial harbours.

II. The principality of Liibeck has an area of 209 sq. m. ant shares in the general physical characteristics of east Holstcin, within which it lies. On the east it extends to Liibeck Bay of the Baltic Sea, and on the south-east it is bounded by the Trave. The chief rivers are the Schwartau, a tributary of the Trave, and the Schwentine, flowing northwards to the Gulf of Kiel. The scenery of Liibeck is often picturesque, especially in the vicinity of the Plon See and the Eutin See, the most important of the small lakes with which it is dotted. Agriculture is practised here even more extensively than in the duchy of Oldenburg, about 75% of the area being cultivated. The population in 1905 was 38,583

III. The principality of Birkenfeld, 312 sq. m. in extent, lies in the midst of the Prussian province of the Rhine, about 30 m. W. of the Rhine at Worms and 150 m. S. of the duchy of Oldenburg. The population in 1005 was 46,484. (See Bikkenfeld.)

The total population of the grand-duchy of Oldenburg in 1880 was 337,478, and in 1005 438,856. The bulk of the inhabitants are of the Saxon stock, but to the north and west of the duchy there are numerous descendants of the ancient Frisians. The differences between the two races are still to some extent perceptible, but Low German (Platl-deutsch) is universally spoken, except in one limited district, where a Frisian dialect has maintained itself. In general characteristics the Oldenburg peasants resemble the Dutch, and the absence of large landowners has contributed to make them sturdy and independent. The population of Oldenburg is somewhat unequally distributed, some parts of the marsh lands containing over 300 persons to the square mile, while in the Geest the number occasionally sinks as low as 40. About 70% of the inhabitants belong tb the " rural " population. The town of Oldenburg is the capital of the grand-duchy. The war-harbour of Wilhelmshaven, on the shore of the Jade Buscn, was built by Prussia on land bought from Oldenburg. The chief towns of Birkenfeld and Liibeck respectively are Birkenfeld and Eutin.

Oldenburg is a Protestant country, and the grand-duke is required to be a member of the Lutheran Church. Roman Catholicism, however, preponderates in the south-western provinces, which formerly belonged to the bishopric of MUnster. Oldenburg Roman Catholics are under the sway of the bishops of Mtinslcr, who is represented by an official at Vechta. The educational system of Oldenburg is on a similar fooling to that of north Germany in general, though the scattered position of the farmhouses interferes to some extent with school attendance.

The constitution of Oldenburg, based upon a decree of 1849, revised in 1852, is one of the most liberal in Germany. It provides for a single representative chamber (Laadtaa), elected indirectly by universal suffrage and exercising concurrent rights of legislation and taxation with the grand-duke. The chamber which consists of forty members, one for every 10,000 inhabit ants, is elected every three years. The executive consists of three ministers, who are aided by a committee of the Landtag, when that body is not in session. The local aflairs of Birkenfeld and Liibeck are entrusted to provincial councils of fifteen members each. All citizens paying taxes and not having been convicted of felony are enfranchised. The municipal communities enjoy an unusual amount of independence. The finances of each constituent stole of the grand-duchy are managed separately. administration. The total revenue and expenditure are each about £650,000 annually. The grand-duchy had a debt in 1007 of £2,958,409.

of cattle, sheep and horses to the population is one of the highest i and there is also a fourth budget concerned with the joint

History.—The earliest recorded inhabitants of the district now called Oldenburg were a Teutonic people, the Chauci, who were af tcrwards merged in the Frisians. The chroniclers delight in tracing the genealogy of the counts of Oldenburg to the Saxon hero, Widukind, the stubborn opponent of Charlemagne, but their first historical representative is one Eli mar (d. 1108) who is described as comes in confinio Saxoniae et Frisiae, EUmar's descendants appear as vassals, although sometimes rebellious ones, of the dukes of Saxony; but they attained the dignity of princes of the empire when the emperor Frederick I. dismembered the Saxon duchy in 1180. At this time the county of Delmenhorst formed part of the dominions of the counts of Oldenburg, but afterwards it was on several occasions separated from them to form an apanage for younger branches of the family. This was the case between 1262 and 1447, between 1463 and 1547, and between 1577 and 1617. The northern and western parts of the present grand-duchy of Oldenburg were in the hands of independent, or semi-independent, Frisian princes, who were usually heathens, and during the early part of the 13th century the counts carried on a series of wars with these small potentates which resulted in a gradual expansion of their territory. The free city of Bremen and the bishop of MUnster were also frequently at war with the counts of Oldenburg.

The successor of Count Dietrich (d. 1440), called Forlunalus, was his son Christian, who in 1448 was chosen king of Denmark as Christian I. In 1450 he became king of Norway and in 1457 king of Sweden; in 1460 he inherited the duchy of Schleswig and the county of Holstcin, an event of high importance for the future history of Oldenburg. In 1454 he handed over Oldenburg to his brother Gerhard (c. 1430-1499) a turbulent prince, who was constantly at war with the bishop of Bremen and other neighbours. In 1483 Gerhard was compelled to abdicate in favour of his sons, and he died whilst on a pilgrimage in Spain. Early in the i6th century Oldenburg was again enlarged at the expense of the Frisians. Protestantism was introduced into the county by Count Anton I. (1505-1573), who also suppressed the monasteries; however, he remained loyal to Charles V. during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and was able thus to increase his territories, obtaining Delmenhorst in 1547. One of Anton's brothers, Count Christopher (c. 1506-1560), won some reputation as a soldier. Anton's grandson, Anton GUnther (1583-1667), who succeeded in 1603, proved himself the wisest prince who had yet ruled Oldenburg. Jever had been acquired before he became count, but in 1624 he added Knyphausen and Varcl to his lands, with which in 1647 Delmenhorst was finally united. By his prudent neutrality during the Thirty Years' War Anton GUnther secured for his dominions an immunity from the terrible devastations to which nearly all the other states of Germany were exposed. He also obtained from the emperor the right to levy tolls on vessels passing along the Weser, a lucrative grant which soon formed a material addition to his resources.

. When Count Anton Giinther died in June 1667 Oldenburg was inherited by virtue of a compact made in 1649 by Frederick III., king of Denmark, and Christian Albert, duke of HolsleinGottorp. Some difficulties, however, arose from this joint ownership, but eventually these were satisfactorily settled, and from 1702 to 1773 the county was ruled by the kings of Denmark only, this period being on the whole one of peaceful development. Then in 1773 another change took place. Christian VII. of Denmark surrendered Oldenburg to Paul, duke of HolsteinGottorp, afterwards the emperor Paul of Russia,' and in return Paul gave up to Christian his duchy of Holstein-Gottorp and his claims on the duchies of Schleswig and Holstcin. 'At once Paul handed over Oldenburg to his kinsman, Frederick Augustus, bishop of LUbeck, the representative of a younger branch of

1 His father. Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp (1700-1739), a descendant of Christian I. of Denmark, married Anne, daughter of Peter the Great, and became tsar as Peter III. in 1762.

the family,1 and in 1777 the county was raised to the rank of a duchy. The bishop's son William, who succeeded his father as duke in 1785, was a man of weak intellect, and his cousin Peter Frederick, bishop of LUbeck, acted as administrator and eventually, in 1823, inherited the duchy. This prince is the; direct ancestor of the present grand duke.

To Peter fell the onerous task of governing the duchy during the time of the Napoleonic wars. In 1806 Oldenburg was occupied by the French and the Dutch, the duke and the regent being put to flight; but in 1807 William was restored, and in 1808 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. However, in 1810 his lands were forcibly seized by Napoleon because he refused to exchange them for Erfurt. This drove him to join the Allies, and at the congress of Vienna his services were rewarded by the grant of the principality of Birkenfeld, an addition to his lands due to the good offices of the tsar Alexander I. At this time Oldenburg was made a grand duchy, but the title of grand-duke was not formally assumed until 1829, when Augustus succeeded his father Peter as ruler. Under Peter's rule the area of Oldenburg had been increased, not only by Birkenfeld, but by the bishopric of Liibeck (secularized in 1802) and some smaller pieces of territory.

Oldenburg did not entirely escape from the revolutionary movement which swept across Europe in 1848, but no serious disturbances took place therein. In 1849 the grand-duke granted a constitution of a very liberal character to his subjects. Hitherto his country had been ruled in the spirit of enlightened despotism, which was strengthened by the absence of a privileged class of nobles, by the comparative independence of the peasantry, and by the unimportance of the towns; and thus a certain amount of friction was inevitable in the working of the new order. In 1852 some modifications were introduced into the constitution, which, nevertheless, remained one of the most liberal in Germany. Important alterations were made in the administrative system in 1855, and again in 1868, and church affairs were ordered by a law of 1853. In 1863 the grand-duke Peter II. (1827-1000), who had ruled Oldenburg since the death of his father Augustus in 1853, seemed inclined to press a claim to the vacant duchies of Schleswig and Holstcin, but ultimately in 1867 he abandoned this in favour of Prussia, and received some slight compensation. In 1866 he had sided with this power against Austria and had joined the North German Confederation; in 1871 Oldenburg became a state of the new German empire. In June loco Frederick Augustus (b. 1852) succeeded his father Peter as grandduke. By a law passed in 1904 the succession to Oldenburg was vested in Frederick Ferdinand, duke of Schlcswig-HolstcinSondcrburg-GIUcksbiirg, and his family, after the extinction of the present ruling house. This arrangement was rendered advisable because the grand-duke Frederick Augustus had only one son Nicholas (b. 1897), and his only brother George Louis (1855) was unmarried.

For the history of Oldenburg see Runde, Otdenburgischt Chronik (Oldenburg, 1863); E. I'U-itncr, Oldenburg im 19 Jahrhuntlert (Oldenburg, 1899-1900); and Oldenburgiscnti Quellenbuch (Oldenburg, 1903). Sec also the Jjhrbuchjur die Ctschuhte des Hfriogtums Oldenburg (1892 scq.).

OLDENBURG, a town of Germany, and capital of the grandduchy of Oldenburg. It is a quiet and pleasant-looking town, situated 27 m. by rail W. of Bremen, on the navigable Hunte and the Hunlc-Ems canal. Pop. (1905), including the suburbs, 28,565. The inner or old town, with its somewhat narrow streets, is surrounded by avenues laid out on the site of the former ramparts, beyond which are the villas, promenades and gardens of the modem quarters. Oldenburg has almost nothing to show in the shape of interesting old buildings. The

1 To thw branch belonged Adolphus Frederick, son of Christian Augustus bishop of Liibeck (d. 1726), who in 1751 became king of Sweden.

Another branch of the Oldenburg family, descended from John, son of Christian III. of Denmark, is that of Holstcin-Sondcrburg. This was subdivided into the lines of Sondcrburg-Augustenburp and Sonderburg-Glucksburp- Prince Christian, who married Princess Helena of Great Britain, belongs to the former of them. To the latter belong the kings of Denmark, Greece and Norway.

Evangelical Lambertikirche, though dating from the 13th century, has been so transformed in the last century (1874-1886) as to show no trace of its antiquity. The palaces of the grand-duke, and the old town-hill are Renaissance buildings of the i;th and iSth centuries. Among the other prominent buildings—all modern—are the palace of the heir apparent, the new town? hall, the theatre, the law-courts, the gymnasium, the commercial school, the three hospitals and the new Roman Catholic church. The grand-ducal picture gallery in the Augusteum includes works by Veronese, Velasquez, Murillo and Rubens, and there are collections of modern paintings and sculptures in the two palaces. The public library contains x 10,000 volumes and the duke's private library 55,000. There is also a large natural history museum and a museum with a collection of antiquities. The industries of Oldenburg, which are of no great importance, include iron-founding, spinning and the making of glass, tobacco, gloves, soap and leather. A considerable trade is carried on in grain, and the horse fairs are largely frequented. According to popular tradition Oldenburg was founded by Walbert, grandson of the Saxon hero, Widukind, and was named after his wife Altburga, but the first historical mention of it occurs in a document of 1108. It was fortified in. 1155, and received a municipal charter in 1345. The subsequent history of the town is merged in that of the grand* duchy.

See Sello, Historiukt Wanderung durck die Stadt Oldenburg (Oldenburg. 1896); and All-Oldenburg (Oldenburg, 1903); and Kohl, Die AUmende der Stadt Oldenburg (Oldenburg, 1903).

OLDFIELD. ANNE (1683-1730), English actress, was born in London, the daughter of a soldier. She worked for a time as apprentice to a semptress, until she attracted George Farquhar*s attention by reciting some lines from a play in his bearing. She thereupon obtained an engagement at Drury Lane, where her beauty rather than her ability slowly brought her into favour, and it was not until ten years later that she *-as generally acknowledged as the best actress of her time. In polite comedy, especially, she was unrivalled, and even the usually grudging Gibber acknowledged that she had as much as be to do -with the success of the Careless Husband (1704), in which she created the part of Lady Modish, reluctantly given her because Mrs Verbruggcn was ill. In tragedy, too, she won laurels, and the list of her parts, many of them original, is a long and varied one. She was the theatrical idol of her day. Her exquisite acting and lady-like carriage were the delight of her contemporaries, and her beauty and generosity found innumerable eulogists, as well as sneering detractors, Alexander Pope, in his Sober Advice from Horace, wrote of her— "Engaging Oldfield, who, with grace and ease,

Could join the arts to ruin and to please."

It was to her that the satirist alluded as the lady who detested being buried in woollen, who said to her maid—

'* No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace

Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless face;

One would not, sure, be frightful when one's dead,

And—Betty—give this cheek a little red."

She was but forty-seven when she died on the 23rd of October 1730. leaving all the court and half the town in tears.

She divided her property, for that time a large one, between ter natural sons, the first by Arthur Mainwaring (1668-1712)— who had left her and his son half his fortune on his death— and the second by Lieut.-Gencral Charles Churchill (d. 1745)Mrs Oldfield was buried in Westminster Abbey, beneath the monument to Congreve, but when Churchill applied for perBtis&ioo to erect a monument there to her memory the dean of Westminster refused it.

OLD FORGE, a borough of Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, r S A . on the Lackawanna river, about 6 m. S.W. of Scranton. Pop, (tooo) 5630 (2404 foreign-born, principally Italians); (igio) 11,334. It is served by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and the Lehigh Valley railways. The principal public buildings are the town-ball and the high school. The borough is situated in the anthracite coal region, and the mining of coal is the principal industry, though there are also various manufactures.

Old Forge was settled in 1830 and incorporated as a borough in 1899.

OLDHAM, JOHN (1653-1683), English satirist, son of a Presbyterian minister, was born at Shipton Moync, near Telbury, Gloucestershire, on the gth of August 1653. He graduated from St Edmund Hall, Oxford, in 1674, and was for three years an usher in a school at Croydon. Some of his verses attracted the. attention of the town, and the carl of Rochester, with Sir Charles Sedley and other wits, came down to see him. The visit did not affect his career apparently, for he stayed at Croydon until 1681, when he became tutor to the grandsons of Sir Edward Thurland, near Rcigatc. Meanwhile he had tried, he says, to conquer his inclination for the unprofitable trade of poetry, but in the panic caused by the revelations of Titus Gates, he found an opportunity for the exercise of his gift for rough satire. Garnet's Ghost was published as a broadside in 1679, but the other Satires on the Jesuits, although written at the same time, were not printed until 1681. The success of these dramatic and unsparing invectives apparently gave Oldham hope that he might become independent of teaching. But his undoubted services to the Country Party brought no reward from its leaders. He became tutor to the son of Sir William Hickes, and was eventually glad to accept the patronage of William Picrrepont, carl of Kingston, whose kindly offer of a chaplaincy he had refused earlier. He died at Holmc-Picrrepoint, near Nottingham, on the oth of December 1683, of smallpox.

Oldham took Juvenal for his model, and in breadth of treatment and power of invective surpassed his English predecessors. He was original in the dramatic setting provided for his satires. Thomas Garnet, who suffered for supposed implication in the Gunpowder Plot, rose from the dead to encourage the Jesuits in the first satire, and in the third Ignatius Loyola is represented as dictating hi? wishes to his disciples from his death-bed. Oldham wrote other satires, notably one "addressed to a, friend about to leave the university," which contains a well-known description of the state of slavery of the, private chaplain, and another " dissuading from poetry," describing the ingratitude shown to Edmund Spenser, whose ghost is the speaker, to Samuel Butler and to Abraham Cowley. Oldham's verse is rugged, and his rhymes often defective, but he met with a generous appreciation from Dryden, whose own satiric bent was perhaps influenced by his efforts. He says (" To the Memory of Mr Oldham," Works, cd. Scott, vol. xi. p. 99):—

"For sure our souls were near allied, and thine
Cast in the same poetic mould with mine."

The real wit and rigour of Oldham's satirical poetry are undeniable, while its faults—its frenzied extravagance and lack of metrical polish—might, as Dryden suggests, have been cured with time, for Oldham was'only thirty when he died.

The best edition of his works is The Compositions in Prose and Verse of Mr John Oldham . . . (1770), with memoir and explanatory notes by Edward Thompson.

OLDHAM, THOMAS (1816-1878) British geologist, was born in Dublin on the 4th of May 1816. He was educated there at Trinity College, graduating B.A. in 1836, and afterwards studied engineering in Edinburgh, where he gained a good knowledge of geology and mineralogy under Jameson. On his return to Ireland in 1839 he became chief assistant to Captain (afterwards Major General) Portlock, who conducted the geological department of the Ordnance Survey, and he rendered much help in the field and office in the preparation of the Report on the Geology of Londonderry, 6*c. (1843). Subsequently he served under Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) James, the first local director of the Geological Survey of Ireland, whom he succeeded in 1846. Meanwhile in 1845 he was appointed professor of Geology in the university of Dublin. In 1848 he was elected F.R.S. In 1849 he discovered in the Cambrian rocks of Bray Head the problematical fossil named Oldkamia. In 1850 he was selected to take charge of the Geological Survey of India, which he organized, and in due course he established the Memoirs, the Palacontologia Indict and the Records^ to which he contributed many important articles. In 1864 he published an elaborate report On Ike Coal Resources of India. He retired in 1876, and died at Rugby on the lythof July 1878.

OLDHAM, a municipal county and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, 7 m. N.E. of Manchester, on the London & Norlh-Wcstcrn, Great Central and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways and the Oldham canal. Pop. (1891) 131.463; (1901) 137,346. The principal railway station is called Mumps, but there arc several others. The town lies high, near the source of the small river Mcdlock. Its growth as a manufacturing centre gives it a wholly modern appearance. Among several handsome churches the oldest dates only from the later iSth century. The principal buildings and institutions include the town-hall, with tetrastyle portico copied from the Ionic temple of Ceres near Athens, the reference library, art gallery and museum, the Union Street baths, commemorating Sir Robert Peel the statesman, and the county court. Of educational establishments the chief arc the Lyceum, a building in Italian style, containing schools of art and science, and including an observatory; the largely-endowed blue-coat school founded in 1808 by Thomas Hcnshaw, a wealthy manufacturer of hats; the Hulmc grammar school (1895), and municipal technical schools. The Alexandra Park, opened in 1865, was laid out by operatives who were thrown out of employment owing to the cotton famine in the years previous to that date. The site is picturesquely undulating and terraced. Oldham is one of the most important centres of the cotton manufactures, the consumption of cotton being about one-fifth of the totalimportation into the United Kingdom, the factories numbering some 230, and the spindles over 13 millions, while some 35,000 operatives arc employed. The principal manufactures are fustians, velvets, cords, shirtings, sheetings and nankeens. There arc also large foundries and mill and cotton machinery works; and works for the construction of gas-meters and sewing-machines; while all these industries arc assisted by the immediate presence of collieries. There arc extensive markets and numerous fairs are held. Oldham was incorporated in 1849, and became a county borough in 1888. The corporation consists of a mayor, u aldermen and 36 councillors. The parliamentary borough has returned two members since 1832. Area of municipal borough, 4736 acres.

A Roman road, of which some traces are still left, passes through the site of the township, but it does not appear to have been a Roman station. It is not mentioned in Domesday; but in the reign of Henry HI. Alwardus dc Aldholmc is referred to as holding land in Vcrnct (Wcrncth). A daughter and co-heiress of this Alwardus conveyed Wcrncth Hall and its manor to the Cudworths, a branch of the Yorkshire family, with whom it remained till the early part of the i8th century. From the Oldhams was descended Hugh Oldham, who died bishop of Exeter in 1519. From entries in the church registers it would appear that linens were manufactured in Oldham as early as 1630. Watcrmills were introduced in 1770, and with the adoption of Arkwright's inventions the cotton industry grew with great rapidity.

OLD MAID, a game of cards. Any number may play, and the full pack is used, the Queen of Hearts being removed. The cards arc dealt out one by one until exhausted, and each player then sorts his hand and discards the pairs. The dealer then offers his hand, spread out face downwards to the next player, who draws a card, which, if it completes a pair, is discarded, but otherwise remains in the hand. The process continues from player to player, until all the cards have been paired and discarded excepting the odd queen, the holder of which is the " Old Maid."

OLDMIXON, JOHN (1673-1742), English historian, was a son of John Oldmixon of Oldmixon, near Bridgwaler. His first writings were poems and dramas, among them being Amores Brilannici; Epistles historical and gallant (1703); and a tragedy, The Governor of Cyprus. His earliest historical work was The British Empire in America (1708 and again 1741), which was followed by The Secret History of Europe (1712-1715); by Arcana Gal! it a, or the Secret History of France (or the last Century

(1714); and by other smaller writings. More important, however, although of a very partisan character, are Oldmixon's works on English history. His Critical history of England (17 241726) contains attacks on Clarendon and a defence of Bishop Burnct, and its publication led to a controversy between Dr Zachary Grey (1688-1766) and the author, who replied to Grey in his Clarendon and Whitlock compared (1727). On the same lines he wrote his History of England during the Reigns of the Royal House of Stuart (iT}o). Herein he charged Bishop Atterbury and other of Clarendon's editors with tampering with the text of the History. From his exile Altcrbury replied to this charge in a Vindication, and although Oldmixon continued the controversy it is practically certain that he was in the wrong. Hccomplcted a continuous history of England by writing the History of England during lite Reigns of William and Mary, Anne and George I. (1735); and the History of England during the Reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary and Elisabeth (1739). Among his other writings are, Memoirs of North Britain (1715), Essay on Criticism (1728) and Memoirs of the Press 1710-1740 (1742), which was only published after his death. Oldmixon had much to do with editing two periodicals, /'•'.••- Muses Mercury and The Medley, and he often complained that his services were overlooked by the government. He died on the 9lh of July 1742.

OLD POINT COMFORT, a summer and -winter resort, in Elizabeth City county, Virginia, U.S.A., at the southern end of a narrow, sandy peninsula projecting into Hampton Roads (at the mouth of the James river), about 12 m. N. by W. of Norfolk. It is served directly by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, and indirectly by the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (Pennsylvania System), passengers and freight being carried by steamer from the terminus at Cape Charles; by steamboat lines connecting with the principal cities along the Atlantic coast, and with cities along the James river, by ferry, connecting with Norfolk and Portsmouth; and by electric railway (3 m.) to Hampton and (r 2 m.) to Newport News. There is a U.S. garrison at Fort Monroe, one of the most important fortifications on the Atlantic coast of the United States. Old Point Comfort is included in the reservation of Fort Monroe. The fort lies within the tract of 252 acres ceded, for coast defence purposes, to the Federal government by the state of Virginia in 1821, the survey for the original fortifications having been made in 1818, and the building begun in 1819. It was named in honour of President Monroe and was first regularly garrisoned in 1823; in 1824 the Artillery School of Practice (now called the United States Coast Artillery School) was established to provide commissioned officers of the Coast Artillery with instruction in professional work and to give technical instruction to the non-commissioned staff. During the Civil War the fort was the rendezvous for several military expeditions, notably thoscof General Benjamin F. Butler to Hallcras Inlet, in 1861; of General A. E. Burnside, to North Carolina, in 1862; and of General A. H. Terry, against Fort Fisher, in 1865; within sight of its parapets was fought the famous duel between the "Monitor" and the " Merrimac" (March 9, 1862). Jefferson Davis was a prisoner here for two years, from the 22nd of May 1865, and Clement Claiborne Clay (1819-1882), a prominent Confederate, from the same date until April 1866. Between Fort Monroe and ScwclTs Point is Fort Wool, almost covering a small island called Rip Raps. The expedition which settled Jamestown rounded this peninsula (April 26, 1607), opened its scaled instructions here, and named the peninsula Poynt Comfort, in recognition of the sheltered harbour. (The " Old " was added subsequently to distinguish it from a Point Comfort settlement at the mouth of the York river on Chesapeake Bay). On the site of the present fortification a fort was erected by the whites as early as 1630.

OLD TOWN, a city of Penobscot county, Maine, U.S.A., on the Penobscot river, about 12 m. N.E. of Bangor. Pop. (1890) 5312; (1900) 5763 (1247 foreign-born); (1910) 6317. It is served by the Maine Central and the Bangor & Aroostook railways, and by an electric line connecting with Bangor. The city proper is on an island (Marsh, or Old Town Island), but considerable territory on the W. bank of the river is included

wilKu :<••: munia'pal limits. The manufacture of lumber is tic principal industry of the city On Indian Island (opposite tie tity) is the principal settlement of the Pcnobscot Indians, in Abnaki tribe, now wards of the state. The abbe Louis Pierre Thury was sent here from Quebec about 1687 and built a church in 1688-1689; in 1705 the mission passed under the control of the Jesuits. The first while settler in the vicinity seems to have been John Marsh, who came about 1774, and who bought the island now known as Marsh Island. From 1806 to 1840, when it was incorporated as a separate township, Old Toim was a part of Orono. In 1891 it was chartered as a city. One of the oldest railways in the United States, and the first in Maine, was completed to Old Town from Bangor in 1836.

OLDYS, WILLIAM (1696-1761), English antiquary and bibliographer, natural son of Dr William DM vs. chancellor of Lincoln, «i bom on the I4th of July 1696, probably in London. His father had also held the office of advocate of the admiralty, but lost it in 1693 because he would not prosecute as traitors and pirates the sailors who had served against England under James II. William Oldys, the younger, lost part of his small patrimony in the South Sea Bubble, and in 1724 went to Yorkshire, spending the greater part of the next six years as the guest of the earl of Malton. On his return to London he found that his landlord had disposed of the books and papers left ia his charge. Among these was an annotated copy of Gerard Lingbaine's Dramalick Potts. The book came into the hands of Thomas Coxctcr (1689-1747), and subsequently into Thcophilus Gibber's possession, and furnished the basis of the List's of Ike Poets (1753) published with Gibber's name on the title page, though most of it was written by Robert Shicls. In 1731 Oldys sold his collections to Edward Harley, second carl of Oxford, who appointed him his literary secretary in 1738. Three years later his patron died, and from that time he worked for the booksellers. His habits were irregular, and in 1751 his debts drove him to- the Fleet prison. After two years' imprisonment he was released through the kindness of friends who paid his debts, and in April 1755 he was appointed Norroy king-at-arms by the duke of Norfolk. He died on the i^th of April 1761.

Oldys's chief works are: The British Librarian, a review of scarce Ud valuable books in print and in manuscript (1737-1738); the Hcrtfi&n MucfUany (1744-I746), a collection of tracts and pa mphlets in the carl of Oxford's library, undertaken in conjunction with Dr Johnson; twenty-two articles contributed to the Biographia BrilmtitKO. (1747-1760); an edition of Ralcieh's History of the World, with a Life of the author (1736); Life of Charles Cotton prefixed to Sir John Hawkins's edition (1760) of the CompleoJ Antler. In 1727 OUyi began to annotate another Langbaine to replace the one he ktd lost. This valuable book, with a MS. collection qf notes bv OWys on various bibliographical subjects, is preserved in the British Klu^cum.

CLEAN, a city of Caltaraugus county, in south-western New York, U.S.A., on Clean Creek and the N. side of the Allegheny river, 70 m. S.E. of Buffalo. Pop. (i8So), 3036; (1890), 7358; dooo), 9463, of whom 1514 were foreign-born and 122 were negroes; (1910 census), 14.743. The city is served by the Erie, the Pittsburg, Shawmut & Northern, and the Pennsylvania railways (the last has large car shops here); and is connected with Bradford, Pa., Allcgany, Pa., Salamanca, N Y., Little Valley, N.Y., and Bolivar, N.Y., by electric lines. Olean is situated in a level valley 1440 ft. above sea-level. The surrounding country is rich in oil and natural gas. Six miles from Clean and 2000 ft. above the sea-level is Rock City, a group of immense, strangely regular, conglomerate rocks (some of them pure white) covering about 40 acres. They are remnants of t bed of Upper Devonian Conglomerate, which broke along the joint planes, leaving a group of huge blocks. In the city ire a public library, a general hospital and a state armoury; »nd at Allcgany (pop. 1910. 1286), about 3 m W of Olcan, is Si Bonavcnturc's College (1859; Roman Catholic). Olcan's factory product was valued at $4,677,477 in 1005; the city is the terminus of an Ohio pipe lint, and of a sea-board pipe line for petroleum; and among its industries are oil-refining and the refining of wood alcohol, tanning, currying, and finishing leather; and the manufacture of flour, glass (mostly bottles),

lumber, &c. The vicinity was settled in 1804, and this was the first township organized (1808), being then coextensive with the county. Olcan Creek was called Ischue (or Ischua); then Olcan was suggested, possibly in reference to the oil-springs in the vicinity. The village was officially called Hamilton for a time, but Olean was the name given to the post-office in 1817, and Olcan Point was the popular local name. In 1909 several suburbs, including the village of North Olean (pop. in 1005, 1761), were annexed to Olcan, considerably increasing its area and population. Sec Hillary oj CoMuratigiii County, New York (Philadelphia, 1879).

OLEANDER, the common name for the shrub known to botanists as Ncrium Oleander. It is a native of the Mediterranean and Levant, and is characterized by its tall shrubby habit and its thick lance-shaped opposite leaves, which exude a milky juice when punctured. The flowers arc borne in terminal clusters, and arc like those of the common periwinkle (Kinca), but are of a rose colour, rarely white, and the throat or upper edge of the tube of the corolla is occupied by outgrowths in the form of lobcd and fringed petal-like scales. The hairy anthers adhere to the thickened stigma. The fruit or seed-vessel consists of two long pods, which, bursting along one edge, liberate a number of seeds, each of which has a tuft of silky hairs like thistle down at the upper end. The genus belongs to the natural order Apocynaccae, a family that, as is usual where the juice has a milky appearance, is marked by its poisonous properties. Cases are recorded by Lindlcy of; children poisoned by the flowers. The same author also narrates how inthecourseof thePcninsular War some French soldiers died in consequence of employing skewers made from ficshly-cut twigs of oleander for roasting their meat. The oleander was known to the Greeks under three names, viz. rhododendron, ncrion and rhododaphnc, and is well described by Pliny (xvi. 20), who mentions its rose-like flowers and poisonous qualities, at the same time stating that it was considered serviceable as a remedy against snake-bite. The name is supposed to be a corruption of lorandrun, lauridcndrum (Du Cange), influenced by olca, the olive-tree, lorandrtim being itself a corruption of rhododendron. The modern Greeks still know the plant ast>ooejob.<t>vT), although in a figure in the Rinuccini MSS. of Dioscoridcs a plant is represented under this name, which, however, had rather the appearance of a willow herb (Epilobium). The oleander has long been cultivated in greenhouses in England, being, as Gerard says, " a small shrub of a gallant shewc "; numerous varieties, differing in the colour of their flowers, which arc often double, have been introduced.

OLEASTER, known botanically as Elacagnus horlcmis, a handsome deciduous tree, 15 to to ft. high, growing in the Mediterranean region and temperate Asia, where it is commonly cultivated for its edible fruit. The brown smooth branches are more or less spiny; the narrow leaves have a hoary look from the presence of a dense covering of star-shaped hairs; the small fragrant yellow flowers, which arc borne in the axils of the leaves, arc scaly on the outside. The genus contains other species of ornamental deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees. E. argenlea, a native of North America, has leaves and fruit covered with shining silvery scales. In E. gfabra, from Japan, the evergreen leaves arc clothed beneath with rustcoloured scales; variegated forms of this are cultivated, as also of E. liungens, another Japanese species, a spiny shrub with leaves silvery beneath.

[graphic]

Ncrium Oleander,

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