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OLEFINE, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to open chain hydrocarbons having only singly and doubly linked pairs of carbon atoms. The word is derived from the French olffianl (from oUJier, to make oil), which was the name given to ethylenc, the first member of the scries, by the Dutch chemisls, J. R. Dciman, Pacts van Troostwyk, N. Bondl and A. Lauwcrcnburgh in 1795. The simple olefincs containing one doublylinked pair of carbon atoms have the general formula ('' M; the di-olcfincs, containing two doubly-linked pairs, have the general formula C»Hj,_a and arc consequently isomcric with I he simple acetylenes. Tri-, tetra- and more complicated members are also kmnvn. The name of any particular member of the series is derived from that of the corresponding member of the paraffin series by removing the final syllable " -anc," and replacing it by the syllabic " ylcne." Isomcrism in the olefine scries docs not appear until the third member of the series is reached.
The higher olefincs are found in the tar which is obtained by distilling bituminous shales, in illuminating gas, and among ihc products formed by distilling paraffin under pressure (T. E. Thorpe and J. Young, Ann., 1873, 165, p. i). The olefincs may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the alcohols of the general formula in, -OH, using sulphuric acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although phosphorus pcntoxidc, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous oxalic acid may frequently be substituted. In this method of preparation it is found that the secondary alcohols decompose more readily that the primary alcohols of the scries, and when sulphuric acid is used, two phases arc present in the reaction, the first being the building up of an intermediate sulphuric acid ester, which then decomposes into sulphuric acid and hydrocarbon: CjH1OH->CIHrHSO4->C2H4-r-H,SO4. As an alternative to the above method, V. Ipatiew (Bcr.t 1901, 34, p. 596 ct seq.) has shown that the alcohols break up into cthylcncs and water when their vapour is passed through a heated tube containing some " contact " substance, such as graphite, kicselguhr, &c. (see also J. B. Sendcrcns, Comptes rcndus, 1907, 144, pp. 382, 1109).
They may also be prepared by eliminating the halogen hydride from the alkyl halide* by heating with alcoholic potash, or with litharge at 220° C. (A. Eltekow, Ber., 1878, n, p. 414); by the action of metals on the halogen compounds C,H:*Brj; by boiling the aqueous solution of nitrites of the primary amines (V. Meyer, Ber.. 1876, 9. p. 543). CsH;NH,-f HNOj-Ni^HjO+C.H,: by ihc electrolysis of the alkali salts of saturated dicarboxylic acids; by the decomposition of 0-haloid fatty acids with sodium carbonate, CH,CHBr-CH(CH>)-COiH -CO, -f HBr+CH?CH:CH-CH,; by distilling the barium salts of acids CJI*..iOi with sodium met hy Lite in vacua (I. Mai, Ber., 1889, 22, p. 2135); from the higher alcohols by converting them into esters which arc then distilled (F. Krafft, Ber., 1883, 16, p. 3018): CuHw-CH,'CHrOH-»CuHiiCHrCHrO-CO-R-»
from tertiary alcohols by the action of acetic anhydride in the presence of a small quantity of sulphuric acid (L. Henry, Comptes rendus, 1907. 144, p. 552):
from the lower members of the scries by heating them with alkyl halidcs m the presence of lead oxide or lime: CiHio+2CHal «»2HI + CiHu; and by the action of the zinc alkyls upon the halogen substituted olefincs.
A. Mailhe (Chem. Ztit.. 1906. 30, p. 37) has shown that on passing the monohalogcn derivatives of the parafhns through a glass tube containing reduced nickel, copper or cobalt at 250° C., olefincs arc produced, together with the halogen acids, and recombination is prevented by passing the cases through a solution of potash. The reaction probably proceeds thus: MCli+C»Hi^iCI— >HCH* Cl-M-C.Hj,CI — >MCI:+C«Hj., since the haloid derivatives of the monovalcnt metals do not act similarly. The anhydrous chlorides of ntckcl, cobalt, cadmium, barium, iron and lead act in the same way as catalysts at about 300° C., and the bromides of lead, cadmium, nickel and barium at about 320° C.
In their physical properties, the defines resemble the normal paraffins, the lower members of the series being inflammable gases, the members from C» to Cm liquids insoluble in water.
In chemical properties, however, they differ very markedly from the paraffins. As unsaluratcd compounds they can combine with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum black, and paraffins ore formed; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) combine directly with them, giving dihalogcn substituted compounds; the halogen halidcs to form monohalogcn derivatives (hydriodic acid reacts most .readily, hydrochloric acid, least); and it is to be noted that the haloid acids attach themselves in such a manner that the halogen atom unites .itself to the carbon atom which is in combination with the fewest hydrogen atoms (\V. Markownikow, Ann., 1870, 153, p. 256).
They combine with hypochlorous acid to form chlorhydrins; and arc easily soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, giving rise to sulphuric acid esters; consequently if the solution be boiled with water, the alcohol from which the olefine was in the first place derived is regenerated. The oxides of nitrogen convert them into nitrocitcs and nitrosates (O. Wallach. Ann., 1887,241. p. 288, Sc.; J. Schmidt. Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2323 ct sen;.). They also combine with nit rosy I •bromide and chloride, and with many metallic haloid salts (platinum bichloride, iridium chloride), with mercury salts (see K. A. Hofmann and J. Sand, Bcr.t 1900. 33, pp. 1340 ct scq.), and those with a tertiary carbon atom yield double salts with zinc chloride. Dilute potassium permanganate oxidizes the olcfines to glycols (G. Wagner, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 3359). With ozone they form ozonidcs (C. Harries, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 839). The higher members of the scries readily polymerize in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid, zinc chloride, &c, I* or the first member of the series sec Ethvlene. •
Propylcne. CjH«, may be obtained by passing the vapour of trimcthylenc through a heated tube (S. At. Tanatar, Ber., 1899, 32, pp. 702, 1965). It is a colourless gas which may be liquefied by A pressure of 7 to 8 atmospheres. Btitylene, C«HB, exists in three isomcric forms: normal butylene, CjHi-CHiCHt; pscudo-butylene, CHi-CH:CH-CHi;andiBobulylcne,(CHj)iC:CHi. Normalbuiylcne is a readily condcnsible gas. Two spatial modifications of psevdobutylene, CHj-CH :CH-CH»,are known, the its and the trans; they are prepared by heating the sodium «alts of hydro-iodo-tiglic and
hydro-iodo-angclic acids respectively (J. Wislicenus, Ann., 1900, 313. p. 228). Isobutylene, (CHj)iC:CHj. is formed in the dry distillation of fats, and also occurs among the products obtained when the
vapour of fusel oil is led through a heated tube. It is a gas at ordinary temperature, and may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -5° C. It combines with acetyl chloride in the presence of zinc chloride to form a kctonc, which on warming breaks down into hydrochloric acid and rnesityl cxide (I. L. Kondakow, Jour. Runs, pnys. chcm. Soc. 26, p. 12). It polymerizes, giving i sod ibut ylcne. CiHu, and isotributylcnc, C,.l!;,. liquids which boil at 110-113* and 178-181° C. Amylcnc, dllro. exists in five isomeric forms, viz. (n) propylcthvlene, CHrCHrCHt-CH:CHa; isopropylcthylene. (CHj)jCli • Cif: Clli; symmetrical methyl-cthyl-ethylcne. CHi-CH : CH'CjrU; unsymmctrical mcthyl-cthyl-cthylcnc. <CH,)(C.H4)C:CH.; and trinu-thyl cthylcne. (CH,)-C:CH(CH,). The highest members of the series as yet known arc cerotene, C»Htt. which is obtained by the distillation of Chinese wax and is a paraffinlike solid which melts at 57° C., and melene. C»H«(?), whirh is obtained by the distillation of bccs'-wax. It melts at 62° C. (B. J. Brodic. Ann., 1848. 67, p. 210; 1849, 71, p. 156).
OLEG (7-912), prince of Kiev,succeeded Rurik,&s being ihc eldest member of the ducal family, in the principality ot Great Novgorod, the first Russian metropolis. Three years later he moved southwards and, after taking Smolensk and other places, fixed his residence at Kiev, which.he made his capital. He then proceeded to build a fortress there and gradually compelled ihe surrounding tribes to pay him tribute, extending his conquests in all directions (883-903) at the expense of the Khazars, who hitherto had held all southern Russia to tribute. In 907,
•iili a host made up of all the subject tribes, Slavonic and Finnic, fa sailed against the Creeks In a fleet consisting, according to ihe ivetopis,of 2000 vessels, each of which held 40 men; but this estimate Is plainly an exaggeration. On reaching Constantinople, Ofcg disembarked his forces, mercilessly ravaged the suburbs of the imperial city, and compelled the emperor to pay tribute, provide the Russians with provisions for the return journey, aad lake fifty of them over the city. A formal treaty was then concluded, which the Slavonians swore to observe in the names of their gods Pcrun and V'olos. Oleg returned to Kiev laden with golden ornaments, costly cloths, wines, and all manner of precious things. In 911 he sent an embassy of fourteen persons to Constantinople to get the former treaty confirmed and enlarged. The names of these ambassadors are preserved and they point to the Scandinavian origin of Oleg's host; there is not a Slavonic name among them. A new and elaborate treaty, the terms of which have come down to us, was now concluded between the Russians and Greeks, a treaty which evidently sought to bind the two nations closely together and obviate all possiblcdifferences which might arise between them in the future. There was also to be free trade between the two nations, and the Russians might enter the service of the Greek emperor if they desired it. The envoys returned to KJev in 912 after being shown the splendours of the Greek capital and being instructed in the rudiments of the Greek faith. In the autumn of the same year CHeg died and was buried at Kiev.
See S. M. Solovev, History of Russia (Rus.), vol. i. (Si Petersburg, 1895. &c.); M. F. Vladimirsky-Budjinov, Chrestomathy of the History ofRuui&n Lota (Rus.). pt. i. (Kiev, 1889). (R. N. B.)
"OLEIC ACID, CoHnOk or C|Hi7-CH: CH- [CHj, - COi H, an organic acid occurring as a glyccride, triolein, in nearly all fats, •nd in many oils—olive, almond, cod-liver, &c. (see Oils). It appears as a by-product in the manufacture of candles. To prepare it olive oil is saponified with potash, and lead acetate added; the lead salts are separated, dried, and extracted with ether, which dissolves the lead oleatc; the solution is then treated with hydrochloric acid, the lead chloride filtered off, the liquid concentrated, and finally distilled under diminished pressure. Oleic acid is a colourless, odourless solid, melting at 14* and boiling at 223° (10 mm.). On exposure it turns yellow, becoming rancid. Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic icid, C»H|T CH:CH-(CH2lT-COjH, which is crystalline and melts at 51° Hydriodic acid reduces both oleic and elaidic acid) to stearic acid.
Erycic acid. C.Hn-CHtCH-ICH-jn-CaH, and the isomeric brasftkiic acid, belong to the oleic acid series. They occur as glycerides in rape-seed oil, in the fatty oil of mustard, and in the oil of grape seeds. Linoleic acid. CuHJ3Ot, found as glyccride in drying oils, and ricinoleic acid, CnHjj(OH)Oj, found as glyceridc in castor wl closely resemble oleic acid.
OLEK. a semi-legendary Greek bard and seer, and writer of hymns. He is said to have been the first priest of Apollo, his connexion with whom is indicated by his traditional birthplace— Lycia or the land of the Hyperboreans, favourite haunts of the god The Delphian poetess Boeo attributed to him theintroduck/n of the cull of Apollo and the invention of the epic metre Many hymns, nomes (simple songs to accompany the circular dance of the chorus), and oracles, attributed to Olen, were preserved in Delos. In his hymns he celebrated Opis and Arg5, t»o Hyperborean maidens who founded the cult of Apollo in Delos. and in the hymn to Eilythyia the birth of Apollo and Artemis and the foundation of the Delian sanctuary His reputed Lycian origin corroborates the view that the cult of Apollo was an importation from Asia to Greece. His poetry generally was cf the kind called hieratic.
See Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, 305; Pausanlas 1. 18, ii. 13; v. 7; ix. 27; A. 5, Herodotus iv. 35.
OLERON, an island lying off the west coast of France, opposite the mouths of the Charcnte and Seudre, and included in the department of Charente-Inferieurc. In 1006 the population numbered 16,747. In area (66 sq. m.) it ranks next to Corsica among French islands. It is about 18 m. in length from N.W.
to S.E., and 7 in extreme breadth; the width of the strait (Pcrtuis de Maumusson) separating it from the mainland is at one point less than a mile. The island is flat and low-lying and fringed by dunes on the coast. The greater part is very fertile, but there are also some extensive salt marshes, and oyster culture and fishing are carried on. The chief products are corn, wine, fruit and vegetables. The inhabitants arc mostly Protestants and make excellent sailors. The chief places are St Pierre (pop. 1582 in 1006), Le Chateau d'OlSron (1546), and the watering-place of St Trojan-les-Bains.
Olfiron, the Uliarus Insula of Pliny, formed part of the duchy of Aquitaine, and finally came into the possession of the French crown in 1370. It gave its name to a medieval code of maritime laws promulgated by Eleanor of Guienne.
OLFACTORY SYSTEM, in anatomy. The olfactory system consists of the outer nose, which projects from the face, and the nasal cavities, contained in the skull, which support the olfactory mucous membrane for the perception of smell in their upper parts, and act as respiratory passages below.
The bony framework of the nose is part of the skull (<j.v.)t but the outer nose is only supported by bone above; lower down its shape is kept by an " upper " and " lower lateral cartilage " and two or three smaller plates known as "cartilagincs minorcs."
From R. Howdcn, in Cunningham'* Text-Book of Anatomy.
Fic. I.—Profile View of the Bony and Cartilaginous Skeleton of the Nose.
The expanded lower part of the side of the outer nose is known as the " ala " and is only formed of skin, both externally and internally, with fibro-fatty tissue between the layers. The inner nose or nasal cavities are separated by a septum, which is seldom quite median and is covered in its lower two-thirds by thick, highly vascular mucous membrane composed of columnar ciliated epithelium with masses of acinous glands (sec Epithelial Tissues) embedded in it, while in its upper part it is covered by the less vascular but more specialized olfactory membrane. Near the front of the lower part of the septum a slight opening into a short blind tube, which runs upward and backward, may sometimes be found; this is the vestigial remnant of " Jacobson's organ," which will be noticed later. The supporting framework of the septum is made up of ethmoid above, vomcr below, and the " septal cartilage " in front. The outer wall of each nasal cavity is divided into three mcatds by the overhanging turbinated bones (sec fig. 2) Above the superior turbinatcd is a space between il and the roof known as the " rcccssus sphcno-ethmoidahs," into the back ol which the " sphcnoida! air sinus " opens. Between the superior and middle lurbinated bones is the "superior meatus," containing the openings of the *' posterior cthmoidal air cells," while between the middle and inferior turbinatcds is the "middle mcalus," which is ihc largest of ihc three and contains a. rounded elevation known as the " bulla clhmoidalis." Above and behind this is often an opening for the "middlecthmoidal cells," while below and in front a deep sickle-shaped gutter runs, the "hiatus scmilunaris," which communicates above with the " frontal air sinus" and below with the opening into the " antrum of Highmorc " or " maxillary antrum" So deep is this hiatus semilunaris that if, in the d^ad subject, water is poured into the frontal sinus it all passes into the
2 Opening of antrum of Highmorc.
3. Hiatus scmilunaris,
4. Bulb ethmoidalis.
5. Agger nii.
6. Opening of anterior cthmoidal cells
7 Cut edge of superior turbinatcd bone
8. Cut cdyc of middle turbinatcd bone
9. Pharyngcal orifice of Eustachian tube.
antrum and none escapes through the nostrils until that cavity is full. The passage from the frontal sinus to the hiatus semilunaris is known as the " infundibulum," and into this open the 41 anterior ethmoidal cells," so that the antrum acts as a sink for the secretion of these cells and of the frontal sinus. Running downward and forward from the front of the middle turbinatcd bone is a curved ridge known as the " agger nasi," which forms the anterior boundary of a slightly depressed area called the "atrium."
The " inferior meatus" is below the inferior turbinated bone, and, when that is lifted up, the valvular opening of the nasal duct (sec Eye) is seen. In front of the inferior meatus there is a depression just above the nostril which is lined with skin instead of mucous membrane and from which short hairs grow; this is called the " vestibule." The roof of the nose is very narrow, and here the olfactory nerves pass in through the cribriform plate. The floor is a good deal wider so that a coronal section through each nasal cavity has roughly the appearance of a rightangled triangle. The anterior wall is formed by the nasal bones and the upper and lower lateral cartilages, while posteriorly
the sphcnoidal turbinated bone separates the nasal cavity from the sphenoida.1 sinus above, and below there is an opening into the naso-pharynx known as the "posterior nasal aperture" or "choanj." The mucous membrane of the outer wall is characteristic of the respiratory tract as high as the $u[>crior turbinated bone; it is ciliated all over and very vascular where it covers the inferior turbinatcd; superficial to and above the superior lurbinated the olfactory tract is reached and the specialised olfactory. epithelium begins.
In the third week of intra-utcrinc life two pits make their appearance on the under side of the front of the head, and arc known as the olfactory or nasal pits, they arc the first appearance of the true olfactory region of the nose, and some of their epithelial lining cell* send off axons (sec Nervous System) which arborize with the dcmlriics of the cells of the olfactory lobe of the brain and so form the olfactory nerves (see J. Disse, Anat. fltftf. 1897; also P. Anat. Soc., J. Anat. and Phys.t 1897, p. 12). Between the olfjctory pit* the broad median fronto-nasal process grows down from the forehead region to form the dorsum of the nose (sec fig. 3), and the anterior part of the nasal septum, while outside them the lateral nasal processes grow down, and later on meet the maxillary processes from the first visceral arch. In this way the nasal cavities arc formed, but for some time they are separated from the mouth by a thin buccona<ol membrane which eventually is broken through, after this the mouth and no*e arc one cavity until the formation of the palate in the third month (sot Mouth And Salivary Glands). In tlie third month Jncobson's organ may be seen as a wcll.9 marked tube lined with respirator)' mucous membrane and running upward and backward, close to the septum, from its orifice, which is just above tnc foramen of Stcnsen in the anterior palatine canal. In man it never has any connexion with the olfactory membrane or olfactory nerves. Internally and below it is surrounded by a delicate sheet of cartilage, which is distinct from that of the nasal septum. No explanation of the function ol Jacobson's organ in man is known, and it is probably entirely atavistic. At birth the nasal cavities are very shallow from above downward, but they rapidly deepen till the age of puberty. The external nose at birth projects very little from the plane of the face except at the tip, the button-like shape of which m babies is well known. In tnc second and third year the bridge becomes more prominent, but after puberty the nasal bones tend to tilt upward at their lower ends to form the eminence which is seen at its best in the Roman nose. (For further details see Quain's : ".'''.", vol. i., London, 1908.)
Comparative A natomy,
In Amphioxus among the Acrania there is a ciliated pit above the anterior end of the central nervous system, which is probably a rudiment of an unpaired olfactory organ. In the Cyclostomata (lampreys and hags) the pit is at first ventral, but later becomes dorsal and shares a common opening with the pituitary imagination. Il furthermore becomes divided internally into two lateral halves. In fishes there are also two lateral pits, the nostrils of which open sometimes, as in the elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), on to the ventral surface of the snout, and sometimes, as in the higher fishes, on to the dorsal surface. Up to this stage the olfactory organs are mere pits, but in the Dipnoi (mud-fish) an opening is established from them into the front of the roof of the mouth, and so they serve as respiratory passap.es as well as organs for the sense of smell. In the higher Amphibia the nasal organ becomes included in the skull and respiratory and olfactory parts are distinguished In this class, too, iurlini.il ingrowths are found, and the naso-lachrymal duct appears. In the lizards, among the Reptilia, the olfactory and respintory parts are very distinct, the latter being lined only by stratified epithelium unconnected with the olfactory nerves. There is one true turbinal bone growing from the cuter wall, and close to this is a large nasal gland In crocodiles the hard palate is formed, and there is henceforward a considerable distance between the openings of the external and internal narcs. I n this order, too (CrocodiUml
»r sinuses are first found extending from the olfactory cavities imo the skull-bones. The birds' arrangement is very like that of the reptiles; olfactory and respiratory chambers are present, and into the Utter projects the true turbinal, though there is a pseudo-turbmal to the upper or olfactory chamber. In mammals the olfactory chamber of the nose is variously developed; most of them arc * macrownatic," and have a large area of olfactory mucous membrane; some, like the seals, whalebone whales, monkeys and man are "mierosmattc." while the toothed whales have the olfactory region practically suppressed in the adult, and are said to be " anosmatic" There arc generally five turbinal bones in macrosmatk mammals, » that man has a reduced number The lowest of the series or "maxillo-iurbinal " is the equivalent of the single true turbinal bone
Diseases bp Olfactory Systew
Paternal Affections and Injuries of the Nose.—Acne rosacea is one of the most frequent nasal skin affections. In an early stage it consists of dilatation or congestion of the capillaries, and later of a hypertrophy of the sebaceous follicles. This may be accompanied by ihe formation of pustules. In an exaggerated stage the sebaceous
of birds and reptiles, and in most mammals is a double bcroll.onc I glands become overgrown, forming large protuberant nodular masse*
over which the dilated capillaries are
F«a < H Vwruj *ad A. Rot-own, In Cuoniaibam'i Tal-to* a.
I. Side view of the head of human embryo
about 27 days old, showing the olfactory pit and the visceral arches and clefts (from His).
II. Transverse section through the head of
an embryo, showing the relation of the olfactory pits to the forebrain and to the roof 01 the stomatodacal space. HI. Head of human embryo about 29 days oW. showing the division of the lower part of the mesial frontal process into
plainly visible. This condition is termed lipoma nasi (rhinophynia or hammer nose), though there is no increase in fatty tissue. Nasal acne occurs mainly in dyspeptics and tea drinkers, and the more advanced condition, lipoma nasi, chiefly in elderly men addicted to alcoholism. The treatment of acne is the removal of the dyspepsia with the local application of sulphur ointment or of a lotion of porchloridc of mercury. Unsightly capillaries may be destroyed by an application of the galvano^oiutcry or by electrolysis. Free dissection of the redundant tissue from around the nasal cartilages is necessary in lipoma nasi, skin being grafted on to the raw surface. The nasal bones are frequently frac* turcd as the result of direct violence, as by a blow from a cricket ball or stick. The fracture is usually transverse, and may be communicated, leading to much deformity if left untreated. The treatment is the immediate reposition of the bony fragments. The old-standing cases where there is considerable depression Ccrrbrml wiring the fragments may be resorted to. hcmj- I n numerous cases the subcutaneous injection of paraffin may improve the shape of the organ. Deflection of the sept urn may also result from similar injuries, and lateral displacement may cause subsequent nasal obstruction and OUact require the straightening of the septum. TM Lesions involving considerable loss of substance due to injury or to syphilitic or tuberculous disease have lea to many methods being devised to supply ihe missing part. In the Indian tiiethod of rhinoplasty a flap is cot from the forehead, to which it is left attached by a pedicle; the flap is then turned downwards to cover the missing portion of the nose; when the parts have united, the
the two globular processes, the inter- pedicle is cut through. In the Italian
IV Transverse section of head of embryo, arise from many conditions. It is par-
nore primitive. In reptiles the rool of the gutter closes in on each wie. jnd a rube is formed lying below and internal to the nasal cavity, opening anteriorly into the mouth and ending by a blind
;trrmity. posteriorly to which branches of the olfactory and ti geminal nerves arc distributed. In the higher reptiles (crocodiles and chrlonians) the organ is suppressed in the adult, and the same applies to birds; but in the lower mammals, especially the moiioIremev it is very well developed, and is enclosed in a cartilaginous sbcaih. from which a turbinal process projects into its interior. lo other mammals, with the exception of the Primates and perhaps the Chiroptera. the organ is quite distinct, though even in man, « has been *hown. its presence can be demonstrated in the embryo. TV special opening through which it communicates with the mouth athe foramen of Stensrn in the anterior palatine canal.
Sec j Symington on the organ of Jacubson in the Ornithorynchus,
phylia, o- as a sign of local disease. The trcatmci
congestion, heart disease, scurvy, haemodcpend
upon the cause. In patients with high arterial tension epistaxis may be of direct benefit In other cases rest on the back may be tried, with the local application of tanno-gallic acid or hazel in or adrenalin, either in a spray or on absorbent cotton. If these should not stop the haemorrhage the nose must be plugged. In cases which arise from specific forms of ulccration, such as tuberculosis and syphilis, the area should be rendered anaesthetic by cocaine, the bleeding point* found, and the vessels obliterated by ihe clwtrocautory. Polypi in the nasal passages are also a frequent cause of cpist.ixis.
Rhinitis, or inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose, occurs both in acute and chronic forms. Of the acute the simple catarrli.il form termed "coryza " forms the widely known " cold in the head." The tendency of acute coryza to affect entire fami'ies, and to be communicable from one person to another, points to it* infectious nature, though probably some predisposing condition of health is necessary for its development. It is considered proved that the symptoms are due to the presence and development of
several distinct micro-organising. Of those the most important is the micrococcus catarrhalis described by Martin Kirch ner in 1890, but Friedliinder's pncumo-bacillus has also been found. In ordinary cases of coryza, sneezing, congestion of the nasal mucous membrane and a profuse watery discharge usher in the attack, and the inflammation may extend to the pharynx, larynx and trachea, blocking of the Eustachian tube producing a temporary deafness. Later the discharge may become muco-purulent. One attack of coryza conveys no immunity from subsequent attacks and some persons seem particularly susceptible. The treatment is directed towards increasing the action of the kidneys, skin and bowels. A brisk mercurial purgative is indicated, and salicin and aspirin are useful in many cases. Considerable relief may be obtained by washing out the nasal cavities several times a day with a warm lotion containing boric acid. Those who are unusually prone to catch cold should habituate themselves to an open air life by day and an open window by night, adenoids or enlarged tonsils should be removed. and the diet should be modified so as not to contain an excess of starchy foods. An acute croupous inflammation occasionally attacks the nasal mucous membrane when the Klcbs-Lofflcr bacillus is not present, but the nasal membrane often shares in true diphtheria, or it may be the only organ to be infected thereby. The diagnosis is of course bacteriological
As a result of frequent catarrhal attacks the nasal mucous membrane may become the seat of a chronic rhinitis in which the turbinals become swollen with oedema, and congested and finally thickened by increase in the fibrous tissue. There is an excessive muco-purulent discharge, and the patient is unable to breathe through the nose, deafness and adenoid vegetations may be the result. In the early stages the nasal cavity should be washed out night and morning with an alkaline lotion, such as bicarbonate of soda, or a caustic, such as chromic acid, should be used in swabbing over the affected part. The application of the galvano-cautery here is useful, but when the areas are much hypertrophicd the hypcrtrophied portion of the inferior turbinals may have to be removed under cocaine. A special form of recurrent hypertrophic rhinitis is kay fever (q.v.).
Rhinitis Sicca is a form of chronic rhinitis in which there is but little discharge, crusts or scabs which may be difficult, to remove forming in the nasal cavities; the pharynx may be also affected.
Atrophic rhinitis or ozaena usually attacks children and young adults, following on measles or scarlet fever. Crusts form, and favour the retention of the purulent discharge. The disease may extend to the nasal sinuses and septic absorption take place. The treatment is to keep the nasal cavity clean by irrigation with solution of permanganate of potash or carbolic acid lotion, the nose then being wiped and smeared with lanolin or partially plugged with a tampon of cotton-wool, the process being repeated at frequent intervals, the general treatment being that for anaemia. Disease of the middle turbinated bone is also a cause of an offensive nasal discharge, and rhinitis occurring in infants gives rise to the obstructed respiration known as " the snuffles."
Three forms of nasal polypi are described, the mucous, the fibrous and the malignant. The general symptoms of nasal polypus are a feeling of stuffiness in one or both nostrils, inability to breathe down the nose and a thin watery discharge, A nasal tone of voice, together with cough and asthma, may be present, or there may be partial or complete loss of the sense of smell (anosmia). The treatment of mucous polypi is their removal by the forceps or the snare, the babe of the growth being afterwards carefully examined and cauterized with the galvano-cautery.
Fibrous polypi are usually very vascular, and may be a cause of severe cpistaxts as well as of obstruction of breathing, " dead voice," sleepiness and deafness. The increasing growth may lead to expansion of the bridge of the nose and deformity of the facial bones, known as " frog-face." The tendency of fibrous polypi to take on malignant sarcomatous characters is specially noticeable. Extirpation of the growth as soon as its nature is recognized is therefore urgently demanded.
The chief diseases of the nasal septum are abscesses, due to the breaking down of hacmatomata, syphilitic gummata (leading to deep excavation and bony destruction), tuberculous disease in which a small yellowish grey ulcer forms and what is known as perforating ulcer of the septum, which is met with just within the nostril. The latter lends to run a chronic course, and the detachment of one of its crusts may cause epistaxis. Rhinosclcrpma was first described by F. Hcbra in 1870, and is endemic in Russian Poland. Galicia and Hungary, but is unknown in England, except amongst alien immigrants. The infecting organism is a specific bacillus, and the disease starts as a chronic smooth painless obstruction with the formation of dense plate-like masses of tissue of stony hardness. Treatment other than that of excision of the masses has proved useless, thouph the recent plan of introduction of the injection of a vaccine of the bacillus may in future modify the progress of the disease.
The accessory sinuses of the nose are also prone to disease. The maxillary antrum may become filled with muco-pus, forming an empyema, pus escaping intermittently by way of the nose. The condition causes pain and swelling, and may require the irrigation and drainage of the antrum The, frontal sinuses may become filled with mucous, owing to the swelling of the nasal mucous membrane
over the middle turbinated bone, or an acute inflammation may spread to the frontal sinuses, giving rise to an empyema in that locality. There is severe frontal pain, and in some cases a fulness on the forehead over the affected side, the pus often pointing in this site, or there may be a discharge of pus through the nose. The treatment is that of incision and irrigation of the sinus (in some cases scraping out of the sinus) and there-establishment of communication with the nose, with free drainage. The cthmoidal and sphcnoidal sinuses are also frequently the site of cmpycmata, giving rise to pain in the orbit and the back of the nose, and a discharge into the nasopharynx. In the case of the ethmoidal sinus it may give rise to exophthatmus and to strabismus (squint), with the formation of a tumour at the inner wall of the orbit and fever and delirium at night. In the young the condition may become rapidly fatal. Suppuration in the sphcnoidal sinus may lead to blindness from involvement of the sheath of the optic nerve, and dangerous complications such as septic basal meningitis and thrombosis of the cavernous sinus may occur. Acute ethmoiditis and sphcnoiditis arc serious conditions demanding immediate surgical intervention. (H. L. H.)
OLGA, wife of Igor, prince of Kiev, and afterwards (from 945) regent for Sviatoslav her son, was baptized at Constantinople about 955 and died about 969. She was afterwards canonized in ihe Russian church, and is now commemorated on the nih of July
OLGIERD (d. 1377), grand-duke of Lithuania, was one of the seven sons of Gedymin, grand-duke of Lithuania, among whom on his death in 1341 he divided his domains, leaving the youngest, Yavnuty, in possession of the capital, WUna, with a nominal priority With the aid of his brother Kiejstut, Olgierd in 1345 drove out the incapable Yavnuty and declared himself grandduke. The two and thirty years of his reign (1345-1377) were devoted to the development and extension of Lithuania, and he lived to make it one of the greatest states in Europe. Two factors contributed to produce this result, the extraordinary political sagacity of Olgierd and the life-long devotion of his brother Kiejstut. The Teutonic knights in the north and the Tatar hordes in the south were equally bent on the subjection of Lithuania, while Olgierd's eastern and western neighbours, Muscovy and Poland, were far more frequently hostile competitors than serviceable allies. Nevertheless, Olgierd not only succeeded in holding his own, but acquired influence and territory at the expense of both Muscovy and the Tatars, and extended the borders of Lithuania to the shores of the Black Sea. The principal efforts of this eminent empire-maker were directed to securing those of the Russian lands which had formed part of the ancient grand-duchy of Kiev. He procured the election of his son Andrew as prince of Pskov, and a powerful minority of the citizens of the republic of Novgorod held the balance in his favour against the Muscovite influence, but his ascendancy in both these commercial centres was at the best precarious. On the other hand he acquired permanently the important principalities of Smolensk and Bryansk in central Russia. His relations with the grand-dukes of Muscovy were friendly on the whole, and twice he married orthodox Russian princesses; but this did not prevent him from besieging Moscow in 1368 and again in 1372, both times unsuccessfully. Olgierd's most memorable feat was his great victory over the Tatars at Siniya Vodui on the Bug in 1362, which practically broke up the great Kipchak horde and compelled the khan to migrate still farther south and establish his headquarters for the future in the Crimea. Indeed, but for the unceasing simultaneous struggle with the Teutonic knigbts, the burden of which was heroically borne by Kiejstut, Russian historians frankly admit that Lithuania, not Muscovy, must have become the dominant power of eastern Europe. Olgierd died in 1377, accepting both Christianity and the tonsure shortly before his death. His son Jagiello ultimately ascended the Polish throne, and was the founder of the dynasty which ruled Poland for nearly 200 years.
See Kazimierz Stadnicki, The Sons of Gedymitt (Pol.) (Lcmberg, 1849-1853), Vladimir Bonifatcvich Antonovich. Monograph on tnt History of Western Russia (Rus.), vol. i. (Kiev, 1885). (R. N. B.)
OLHAO. a seaport of southern Portugal, in the district of Faro, 5 m E. of Faro, on the Atlantic coast. Pop. (1000) Io.ooq. Olhao has a good harbour al the head of the Barra Nova, a deep channel among the sandy islands which fringe the coast. Wine, fruit, cork, baskets and sumach are exported in small coasting