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vessels; there are important sardine and tunny fisheries; and beats, sails and cordage are manufactured
OLIGARCHY (Gr. (JXi-yot, few, opx^, rule), in political philosophy, the term applied to a government exercised by a relatively small number of the members of a community. It is thus the Appropriate term for what is now generally known as " aristocracy" (<j»). The meaning of the terms has substantially altered since Plato's day, for in the Republic "oligarchy" HKant the rule of the wealthy, and "aristocracy " that of the reaUy best people
OLIGOCENE SYSTEM (from the Gr 6X170$, few, and *."•:.'•.. recent), in geology, the name given to the second division of the older Tertiary rocks, viz, those which occur above the Eocene and below the Miocene strata. These rocks were originally classed by Sir C. Lyell as "older Miocene," the term Oligoccne bcinj; proposed by H. E Beynch in 1854 and again in 1858. Following A. de Lapparcnt, the Oligoccne is here regarded as divisible into two stages, an upper one, the Etampian (from Etampes), equivalent to the Rupclian of A Dumont (1849), and a lower one, tlie Sannoisian (from Sannois near Paris), equivalent to the Tongrian (from Tongris in Limburg) of Dumont (1859). ThU lower division is the Ligurian of some authors, and corresponds with the Lattorfian (Latdorf) of K. Mayer in north Germany; it is in part the equivalent of the older term Ludian of de Lapparcnt. It should be pointed out that several authors rctiia the Aquitanian stage (see Miocene) at the top of the OUgccenc, but there are sufficiently good reasons for removing it to the younger system.
The Oiigocene deposits arc of fresh-water, brackish, marine and terrestrial origin; they include soft sands, sandstones, grits, marls, shales, limestones, conglomerates and lignites. The geographical aspect of Europe during this period is indicated on the accompanying map. Here and there, as in N Germany,
Uie sea gained ground that had been unoccupied by Eocene waters, but important changes, associated with the continuation of elevatory processes in the Pyrenees and Alps which had begun ia the preceding period, were in progress, and a general relative uplifting took place which caused much of the Eocene sea floor to be occupied at this time by lake basins and lagoons. Uk movements, however, were not all of a negative character »s regards the water areas, for oscillations were evidently frequent, and subsidence must have been considerable in some regions to admit of the accumulation of the great thickness of material found deposited there. Pernaps the most striking change from Eocene topography in Europe is to be seen in the extension of the Oiigocene sea over North Germany, whence it extended eastward through Poland and Russia to the AralCaspian region, communicating thence with Arctic waters by ^ay of a Ural depression. The Asian extension of the central mediterranean sea appears to have begun to be limited. It was liter in the period when the wide-spread emersion set in.
In Britain Oiigocene formations ar» found only in the Hampshire Basin and the Ible o( Wight; fror.t the admixture of fresh-water, marine and estuarine deposits. E. Forbes named these the " Fluviomarine series." The following are the more important subdivisions. in descending order: The Hamstead (Hampstead) beds, marine at the top, with Oitrea caliiffra, Natica, &c., estuarine and freshwater below, with Unto, $'t;if>aru$ and the remains of crocodiles, turtles and mammals. The Bembridge marls, fresh-water, estuarine and marine, resting upon the Bembridge limestone, with many fresh-water fossils such as Limnaea, Pianorbis, Chara, large land snails, Amphidromus, Helix, Clandina, and many insects and plant leaves. The Osborne beds, marls, clays and limestones, with L'mo, Limnaea, &c. The Headon beds (upper), fresh-water clays, marls and limestones (middle), brackish and marine, more sandy (lower), brackish and fresh-water clays, marls, tufaccous limestones ana sandstones. The clays and sands of the Bovcy Basin in Devonshire were formerly classed as Miocene, but they are now regarded by C. Reid as Eocene on the evidence of the plant remains, though there is still a possibility that they may be found to be of Oiigocene age.
In France the best-known tract of Oiigocene rocks rests in the Paris basin in close relationship with the underlying Eocene. These rocks include the first and second gypsum beds, the source of " plaster of Paris"; at Montrnarire the first or upper bed is 20 metres in thickness, and some of the beds contain siliceous nodules (fusils) and numerous mammalian remains. Above the gypsum beds is the travertine of Champigny-sur-Marnc, a scries of blue and white marls (supra-gypseous m^rU), followed by the " glaises verts " or greenish marls. At the top of the lower Oiigocene of this district is the lacustrine " calcaire de Brie " or middle travertine, which at Fertesous-Jouane is exploited for millstones; this is associated with the Fontaineblcau limestone, which at Chatcau-Landon and Souppes is sufficiently compact to form an important building stone, used in the Arc de Tnomphe and other structures in Paris. The upper Oiigocene of Paris begins with the marnes a huilrcs, followed by the brackish and fresh-water molasse of Etrcchy, and a series of sandy beds, of which the best known are those of Fontainebleati. Etampes and Ormoy; in these occur the groups of calcite crystals, charged with sand, familiar in all mineral collections. Elsewhere in France similar mixed marine, fresh-water and brackish beds are found: in Aqwtaine there are marine and lacustrine marls, limestones and molasse: marine beds occur at Biarritz; lacustrine and fresh-water marls and limestones with lignite appear in the sub-Pyrenees; in Provence there are brackish red clays, conglomerates and lignites, with limestones in the upper pans; and in Limagnc there are mottled sands, arkoses, clays and fresh-water limestones. In the Jura region and on the borders of the central mass:/ a pccujiar group of deposits, the terrain sidtrolithiquc, 19 found in beds and in pockets in Jurassic limestones. Sometimes this deposit consists of red clay (bolus) with nests of pisolitic iron, as in Jura and Franche-comt6, Alsace, &c.; occasionally, as in Bourgogne, Berry, the valley of the Aubois, Chatillon, it is made up of a breccia or conglomerate of Jurassic pebbles cemented with Umonite and carbonate of lime or silica (an intimate mixture of marl and iron ore in these districts is called "castillard "). At Quercy the cementing material is phosphate of lime derived from the bones of mammals (Adapts, Nfcrolemur, Palatothcrium, Xipkodon, &c.), which are so numerous that it has been suggested that these animals must have been suffocated by gaseous emanations. Similar ferruginous deposits occur in South Germany.
In the Alpine region the Oiigocene rocks assume the character of the Flysch, a complex assemblage of marly and sandy shales and soft sandstones with calcareous cement (" macigno "). The Flysch phase of deposition had begun before the close of the preceding period, but the bulk of it belongs to the Oiigocene, and is especially characteristic of the lower part. The Flysch may attain a very great thickness; in Dauphin6 it is said to be 2000 metres. Obscure plantlike impressions are common on certain horizons of this formation, and have received such names as Ckondrilcs, Fucoids, Hcltninthoidea. The " gres de Tavcyannaz" and " Wild fly sch " of Lake Thun contain fragments of eruptive rocks. Marine beds occur at BarrSme, Desert, ChambeVy, &c., and parallel with the normal Flysch in the higher Alps of Vaudois is a nummulitic limestone; both here and near Interlaken, in the marble of Ralligstocke, calcareous algae are abundant. Part of the " schistes des Gnsons " (" Biindner Schicfer ") have been regarded as of Oligoccne age. In the Leman region the " Flysch rouge " at the foot of the Dent du Midi belongs to the upper part of the Flysch formation.
In North Germany the lower Oiigocene consists largely of sandy marls, of ten glauconitic; typical localities are Egeln near Magdeburg and Latdorf near Bcrnburg; at Samland the glauconitic sand contains nodules of amber, with insects, derived from Eocene strata. The upper Oligocene beds, which cover a wide area, comprise the Stettin sands and Septarian Clay or Rupelton, marine beds tending to merge laterally one into another. In the Mainz basin a petroleumbearing sandy marl is found at Pechelbronn and Lobsann in Alsace underlying a fresh-water limestone which is followed by the marine "Meeressand " of Alzey. Lignites (Braunkohl) are widely spread in this region and appear at Latdorf, Leipzig, in Westphalia and Mecklenburg; at Halle is a variety called pyropissite, which is exploited at Weissenfels for the manufacture of paraffin.
In Belgium, a sandy series (Wemmelian. Asschian, Henisian) mainly of brackish-water origin, is succeeded by the marine sands of Bergh (with the clay of Boom), which pass up through the inferior s of Bolderberg into the Miocene. In Switzerland, beyond the limits of the Flysch, nearer the Alpine massif, is a belt of grits, limestones and clays in an uncompacted condition, to which the name “mo "is usually given; mixed with the molasse is an inconstant conglomeratic littoral formation, called Nagelfluh. The molasse occurs also in Bavaria, where it is several thousand feet thick and contains lignite!. Oligocene deposits occur in the Carpathian region and Tirol; as Flysch and brackish and lacustrine s with lignite in Klausenburg, lignites at Häring in Tirol. In the Spanish Pyrenees they are well developed; in the Apennines the scaly clays ("argille scagliose") are of this age; while in Calabria they are represented by thick conglomerates and Flysch. Flysch appears also in Dalmatia and Istria (where it is called “tassello") and in North Bosnia, where it contains marine limestones. Lignites are found at Sotzlca and Styria, marine beds in the Balkan peninsula, glaucomitic sands prevail in South Russia, Flysch with sands and grits in the Caucasus, while marine deposits also o the Aral–Caspian region and Armenia, and are to be traced into Persia. Oligocene rocks are known in North Africa, Algeria, Tunis and Egypt, with the silicified trees and basalt sheets north of the Fayum. In North America the rocks of this period have not been very clearly differentiated, but they may possibly be represented by the White river beds of S. Dakota, the white and blue marls of Jackson on the Mississippi, the “Jacksonian" white limestone of Alabama, the limestone of Ocala in Florida, certain lacustrine clays in the Uinta basin, and by the ribband shales with asphalt and petroleum in the coastal range of California. In South America and the Antilles upper Oligocene is found, and the lignite beds of Coronel and Lota in Chile and in the Straits of Magellan may be of this age; in Patagonia are the lower Oligocene marine s (“Patagonian") and s with mammalian remains. In New Zealand the Oamaru series of J. Hutton is regarded as Oligocene; at its base are interstratified basic volcanic rocks. § correlation of Oligocene strata is summarized in the following table:
OLIGOCLASE, a rock-forming mineral belonging to the plagioclase (q.v.) division of the felspars. In chemical composition and in its crystallographical and physical characters it is intermediate between albite (NaAlSiO2) and anorthite (Caal-Si-Os), being an isomorphous mixture of three to six molecules of the former with one of the latter. It is thus a sodalime felspar crystallizing in the anorthic system. Varieties intermediate between oligoclase and albite are known as oligoclase-albite. The name oligoclase was given by A. Breithaupt in 1826 from the Gr. 3MYos, little, and k\av, to break, because the mineral was thought to have a less perfect cleavage than albite. It had previously been recognized as a distinct species by J. J. Berzelius in 1824, and was named by him soda-spodumene (Natron-spodumen), because of its resemblance in appearance to spodumene. The hardness is 6} and the sp. gr. 2-65-2-67. In colour it is usually whitish, with shades of grey, green or red. Perfectly colourless and transparent glassy material found at Bakersville in North Carolina has occasionally been faceted as a gem-stone. Another variety more frequently used as a gemstone is the aventurine-felspar or “sun-stone” (q.v.) found as reddish cleavage masses in gneiss at Tvedestrand in southern
The land flora of this period was a rich one consisting largely of evergreens with characters akin to those of tropical India and Australia and subtropical America. so sabal palms, ferns, cinnamon-trees, gum-trees, oaks, figs, laurels and willows were common. Chara is a common fossil in the fresh-water beds. The most interesting feature of the land fauna, was undoubtedly, the astonishing variety of mammalians, especially the long series from the White river beds and others in the interior of North America. Pachyderms were very numerous. Many of the mammals were of mixed types, Hyaenodon (between marsupials and placentals), Adapis (between hyderms and lemurs), and many were clearly the forerunners of living genera. Rhinocerids were represented in the upper Oligocene by the hornless Aceratherium; Palacomastodon and Arsino.itherium, from Egypt, are early proboscidian forms which may have lived in this period; Anchitherium, Anchippus, &c., were forerunners of the horse. Palaeotherium, Anthracotherium, Palaeogale, Steneofiber, Cynodictis, Dinictis, Ictops, Palaeologus, Sciurus, , Hyopotamus, Ore , Poebrotherium, Protoceras, Hypertragulus and the gigantic. Titanotherids (Titanotherium, Brontotherium, &c.) are some of the important genera, representatives of most of the modern groups, including carnivores (Canidae and Felidae), insectivores, rodents, ruminants, camels. Tortoises were abundant, and the genus Rana made its appearance. Rays and dogfish were the dominant marine fish; logoonal brackish-water fish are represented by Prolebias, Smerdis, &c. Insects abounded and arachnids were rapidly developing. Gaste s were increasing in importance, most of the genera still existing (Cerithium, Potamides, Melania, large Naticas, Pleurotomaria, Volula, Turritella, Rostellaria, Pyrula). Cephalopods, on the other hand, show a falling off. Pelecypods include the genera Cardita, Pectangulus, Lucina, Ostrea, Cyrena, Cytherea. Bryozoa were very, abundant (Membranipora, Lepralia, Hornera, Idmonea). Echinoids were less numerous than
Norway; this presents a brilliant red metallic glitter, due to the
* The family to which Oliphant belonged is old and famous in Scottish history. Sir Laurence Oliphant of Aberdalgic, Perthshire, who was created a lord of the Scottish parliament before 1458, was olescended from Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgie and on the female side from King Robert the Bruce. Sir William (d. 1329) is renowned for his brave defence of Stirling castle against Edward I. in 1304. Sir Laurence was sent to conclude a treaty with England in 1484; he helped to establish the young king James IV; on his throne, and he died about 1500. His son John, the 2nd lord (d. 1516), having lost his son and heir, Colin, at Flodden, was succeeded É. his grandson Laurence (d. 1566), who was taken prisoner by the
nglish at the rout of Solway Moss in 1542. Laurence's son, Laurence, the 4th lord (1529-1593), was a partisan of Mary queen of Scots, and was succeeded by his grandson Laurence (1583–1631), who left no sons when he died. The 6th lord was Patrick Oliphant, a descendant of the 4th lord, and the title was held by his descendants.
Ha father was then attorney-general in Cape Colony, but was sooa transferred as chief justice to Ceylon. The boy's education was of the most desultory kind. Far the least useless portion of it belonged to the years 1848 and 1849, when he accompanied fca parents on a tour on the continent of Europe. In 1851 he accompanied Jung Bahadur from Colombo to Ncpaul. He passed an agreeable time there, and saw enough that was new to enable him to write his first book, A Journey to Katmandu (1352). From Ncpaul he returned to Ceylon and thence to England, dallied a little with the English bar, so far at least as to eat dinners at Lincoln's Inn, and then with the Scottish bar, so far at least as to pass an examination in Roman law. He was more happily inspired when he threw over his legal studies and went to travel in Russia. The outcome of that tour was his book on The Russian Shores oj the Black Sea (1853). Between 1853 and 1861 he was successively secretary to Lord Elgin during the negotiation of the Canada Reciprocity treaty at Washington, the companion of the duke of Newcastle on a visit to the Circassian coast during the Crimean War, and Lord Elgin's private secretary on his expedition to China. Each of these experiences produced a pleasant book of travel. In iS6i he was appointed first secretary in Japan, and might have made a succe-ssf uldiplomalic career if it had not been interrupted, alxtst at the outset, by a night attack on the legation, in which he nearly lost his life. It seems probable that he never properly recovered from this affair. He returned to England and resigned the service, and was elected to parliament in 1865 for the Stirling Burghs.
Oliphant did not show any conspicuous parliamentary ability, but made a great success by his vivacious and witty novel, Piccadilly (1870). He fell, however, under the influence of the spiritualist prophet Thomas Lake Harris (q.v.), who about 1861 had organized a small community, the Brotherhood of the New Life,1 which at this time was settled at Brocton on Lake Erie and subsequently moved to Santa Rosa in California. Harris obtained so strange an ascendancy over Oliphant that the latter left parliament in 1868, followed him to Brocton, andlived there the life of a farm labourer, in obedience to the imperious will of his spiritual guide. The cause of this painful and grotesque aberration has never been made quite clear. It was part of the Brocton regime that members of the community should be alia wed to return into the world from time to time, to make nocey for its advantage. After three years this was permitted to Oliphant, who, when once more in Europe, acted as correspondent of The Times during the Franco-Germ an War, and spent afterwards several years at Paris in the service of that journal. There he met Miss Alice le Strange, whom he married. In 1873 fee went back to Brocton, taking with him his wife and mother. During the years which followed he continued to be employed in the service of the community and its head, but on work very different from that with which he had been occupied on his first sojourn. His new work was chiefly financial, and look him much to New York and a good deal to England. As late as December iS;3 he continued to believe that Harris was an incarnation of the Deity. By that lime, however, his mind was occupied with a Urge project of colonization in Palestine, and he made in 1870 ineitensive journey in that country, going also to Constantinople,
ontU the death of Francis, the loth lord, in April 1748. It has lince been chimed by several persons, but without success.
Another member of the family was Laurence Oliphant (16011767) the Jacobite, who belonged to a branch settled at Cask in Perthshire. He took part in the rising of 1715, and both he and his ton Laurence (d. 1792) were actively concerned in that of 1745, brim; present at the battles of Falkirk and Cullodcn. After the ruin of I be Stuart cause they escaped to France, but were afterwards aflc*vd to return to Scotland. One of this OHphant's descendants *as Carolina. Baroness Nairne (ij.p.).
1 It should be mentioned that the unfavourable view of Harris sJcen by OHphant's own biographer, and certainly not shaken by mhseaucmt evidence, has been strongly repudiated by some who fcr*w him. Mr J. Cuming Walters, for instance, in the Westminster Gvzftte (London, July 28, 1906) defends the purity of his character. /t is difficult to arrive at the exact truth as to OHphant's relations •ith him, or the financial scandal which ended them; and it must be Admitted that Oliphant himself was at least decidedly cranky.
in the vain hope of obtaining a lease of the northern half of the Holy Land with a view to settling large numbers of Jews there. This he conceived would be an easy task from a financial point of view, as there were so many persons in England and America "anxious to fulfil the prophecies, and bring about the end of the world." He landed once more in England without having accomplished anything definite; but his wife, who had been banished from him for years and had been living in California, was allowed to rejoin him, and they went to Egypt together. In 1881 he crossed again to America. It was on this visit that he became utterly disgusted with Harris, and finally split from him. He was at first a little afraid that his wife would not follow him in his renunciation of "the prophet," but this was not the case, and they settled themselves very agreeably, with one house in the midst of the German community at Haifa, and another about twelve miles off at Dalieh on Mount Carmel.
It was at Haifa in 1884 that they wrote together the strange book called Sympneumata: Evolutionary Forces now active in Man> and in the next year Oliphant produced there his novel Masollam, which may be taken to contain its author's latest views with regard to the personage whom he long considered as " a new Avatar." One of his cleverest works, Altiora Peto. had been published in 1883. In 1886 an attack of fever, caught on the shores of the Lake of Tiberias, resulted in the death of his wife, whose constitution had been undermined by the hardships of her American life. He was persuaded that after death he was in much closer relation with her than when she was still alive, and conceived that it was under her influence that he wrote the book to which he gave the name of Scientific Religion. In November 1887 he went to England to publish that book. By the Whitsuntide of 1888 he had completed it and started for America, There he determined to marry again, his second wife being a granddaughter of Robert Owen the Socialist. They were married at Malvern, and meant to have gone to Haifa, but Oliphant was taken very ill at Twickenham, and died on the 2,jrd of December 1888. Although a very clever man and a delightful companion, full of high aspiration and noble feeling, Oliphant was only partially sane. In any case, his education was ludicrously inappropriate for a man who aspired to be an authority on religion and philosophy. He had gone through no philosophical discipline in his early life, and knew next to nothing of the subjects with regard to which he imagined it was in his power to pour a flood of new light upon the world. His shortcomings and eccentricities, however, did not'prevent his being a brilliant writer and talker, and a notable figure in any society.
See Mrs (Marparct) Oliphant. Memoir oj the Life of Laurence Oliphant and of Alice Oliphant his Wife (1892). (M. G. D.)
OLIPHANT, MARGARET OLIPHANT (1828-1807), British novelist and historical writer, daughter of Francis Wilson, was born at Wallyford, near Mussclburgh, Midlothian, in 1828. Her childhood was spent at Lasswade (near Dalkcith), Glasgow and Liverpool. As a girl she constantly occupied herself with literary experiments, and in 1849 published her first novel, Passages in the Life of Mrs Margaret Maitlaud. It dealt with the Scottish Free Church movement, with which Mr and Mrs Wilson both sympathized, and had some success. This she followed up in 1851 with Caleb Field, and in the same year met Major Blackwood in Edinburgh, and was invited by him to contribute to the famous Blackwood's Magazine. The connexion thus early commenced lasted during her whole lifetime, and she contributed considerably more than 100 articles to its pages In May 1852 she married her cousin, Frank Wilson Oliphant, at Birkcnhead, and settled at Harrington Square, in London. Her husband was an artistt principally in stained glass. He had very delicate health, and two of their children died in infancy, while the father himself developed alarming symptoms of consumption. For the sake of his health they moved in January 1859 to Florence, and thence to Rome, where Frank Oliphant died. His wife, left almost entirely without resources, returned to England and took up the burden of supporting her three children by her own literary activity. She had now become a popular writer, and worked with amazing industry to sustain her position.* Unfortunately, her home life was full of sorrow and disappointment. In January 1864 her only daughter died in Rome, and was buried in her father's grave. Her brother, who had emigrated to Canada, was shortly afterwards involved in financial ruin, and Mrs Oliphant offered a home to him and his children, and added their support to her already heavy responsibilities. In 1866 she settled at Windsor to be near her sons who were being educated at Eton. This was her home for the rest of her life, and for more than thirty years she pursued a varied literary career with courage scarcely broken by a series of- the gravest troubles. The ambitions she cherished for her sons were unfulfilled. Cyril Francis, the elder, died in 1890, leaving a Life of Alfred de M.•.,.-:, incorporated in his mother's Foreign Classics for English Readers. The younger, Frank, collaborated with her in the Victorian Age of Englis.lt Literature and won a position at the British Museum, but was rejected by the doctors. He died in 1894. With the last of her children lost to her, she had but little further interest in life. Her health steadily declined, and she died at Wimbledon, or. the 25th of June 1897.
In the course of her long struggle with circumstances, Mrs Oliphant produced more than 120 separate works, including novels, books of travel and description, histories and volumes of literary criticism. Among the best known of her works of fiction are Adam Graeme (1852), Magdalen Hepburn (1854), Lillicslcaf (1855), The Laird of Norlaw (1858) and a series of stories with the collective title of The Chronicles of Carlingford, which, originally appearing in Blackwood's Magazine (1862-1865), did much to widen her reputation. This series included Salem Chapel (1863), The Rector; and the Doctor's Family (1863), The Perpetual Curate (1864) and Mia Marjoribants (1866). Other successful novels were Madonna Mary (1867), Squire Arden (1871), Hethafjiill not when lie may (1880), Hester (i&S}),Kirsleen < 1890), The Marriage of Elinor (189 2) and The Ways of Life (1897). Her tendency to mysticism found expression in The Beleaguered City (1880) and A Little Pilgrim in the Unseen (1882). Her biographiesof Edward Irving (1862) and LaurenceOliphant (1892), together with her life of Sheridan in the " English Men of Letters" (1883), have vivacity and a sympathetic touch. She also wrote historical and critical works of considerable variety, including Historical Sketches of Ike Reign of George II. (1869), The Makers of Florence (1876), A Literary History of England from 1790 to 182; (1882), The Makers of Venice (1887), Royal Edinburgh (1890), Jerusalem (1891) and The Makers cf Modern Rotne(i&t)s), while at the time of her death she was still occupied upon A nnals of a Publishing House, a record of the progress and achievement of the firm of Blackwood, with which she had been so long and honourably connected.
Her Autobiography and Letters, which present a touching picture of her domestic anxieties, appeared in 1899.
OLIPHANT, Olifani (Ger. Hclfanf), the large signal horn of the middle ages, made, as its name indicates, from the tusk of an elephant. The oliphant was the instrument of knights and men of high degree, and was usually ornamented with scenes of hunting or war carved either lengthways or round the horn in sections divided by bands of gold and studded with gems. The knights used their oliphants in the hunting field and in battle, and the loss of this precious horn was considered as shameful as the loss of sword or banner.
OLIVA, FERNAN PEREZ DE (1492?-: 530), Spanish man of letters, was born at Cordoya about 1492. After studying at Salamanca, Alcala, Paris and Rome, he was appointed rector at Salamanca, where he died in 1530. His Dialogo de la dignidad del hoinbre (1543), an unfinished work completed by Francisco Cervantes de Salazar. was written chiefly to prove the suitability of Spanish as a vehicle for philosophic discussion. He also published translations of the Amfliilriw (1525), the Elcctra (1528) and the Hecuba (i^S).
OLIVARES. CASPAR DE GUZMAN, count of Olivarcs and duke of San Lucar (1587-1645), Spanish royal favourite and
minister, was born in Rome, where his father was Spanish ambassador, on the 6th of January 1587. His compound title is explained by the fact that he inherited the title of count of Olivares, but was created duke of San Lucar by the favour of Philip IV. He begged the king to allow him to preserve bis inherited title in combination with the new honour—according to a practice of which there are a few other examples in Spanish history. Therefore he was commonly spoken of as el condeduque. During the life of Philip III. he was appointed to a post in the household of the heir apparent, Philip, by the interest of his maternal uncle Don Baltasar de Zuftiga, who was the head of the prince's establishment. Olivares made it his business to acquire the most complete influence over the young prince. When Philip IV. ascended the throne in 1621, at the age of sixteen, he showed his confidence in Olivarcs by ordering that all papers requiring the royal signature should first be sent to the count-duke. Olivares could now boast to his uncle Don Baltasar de Zufiiga that he was "all." He became what is known in Spain as a •.•uliJn — something more than a prime minister, the favourite and alter ego of the king. For twenty-two years he directed the policy of Spain. It was a period of constant war, and finally of disaster abroad and of rebellion at home. The Spaniards, who were too thoroughly monarchical to blame the king, held his favourite responsible for the misfortunes of the country. The count-duke became, and for long remained, in the opinion of his countrymen, the accepted model of a grasping and incapable favourite. Of late, largely under the inspiration of Don Antonio Canovas, there has been a certain reaction in his favour It would certainly be most unjust to blame Olivares alone for the decadence of Spain, which was due to internal causes of long standing. The gross errors of his policy—the renewal of the war with Holland in 1621, the persistence of Spain in taking part in the Thirty Years' War, the lesser wars undertaken in northern Italy, and the entire neglect of all effort to promote the unification of the different states forming the peninsular kingdom—were shared by him with the king, the Church and the commercial classes. When he had fallen from power he wrote an apology, in which he maintained that he had always wished to sec more attention paid to internal government, and above all to the complete unification of Portugal with Spain. But if this was not an afterthought, he must, on his own showing, stand accused of having carried out during long years a policy which he knew to be disastrous to his country, rather than risk the loss of the king's favour and of his place. Olivares did not share the king's taste for art and literature, but he formed a vast collection of state papers, ancient and contemporary, which he endeavoured to protect from destruction by entailing them as an heirloom. He also formed a splendid aviary which, under the name of the " hencoop," was a favourite subject of ridicule with his enemies. Towards the end of his period of favour he caused great offence by legitimizing a supposed bastard son of very doubtful paternity and worthless personal character, and by arranging a rich marriage for him. The fall of Olivares was immediately due to the revolts of Portugal and Catalonia in 1640. The king parted with him reluctantly, and only under the pressure of a strong court intrigue headed by Queen Isabella. It was noted with anxiety by his enemies that he was succeeded in the king's confidence by his nephew the count of Haro. There remains, however, a letter from the king, in which Philip tells his old favourite, with frivolous ferocity, that it might be necessary to sacrifice his life in order to avert unpopularity from the royal house. Olivares was driven from office in 1643. He retired by the king's order to Toro. Here he lydcavoured to satisfy hiss passion for activity, partly by sharing in the municipal government of the town and the regulation of its commons, woods and pastures, and partly by the composition of the apology he published under the title of El Nicandro, which was perhaps written by an agent, but was undeniably inspired by the fallen minister The Nicandro was denounced to the Inquisition, and it is not impossible that Olivares mkht have ended in the prisons of the Holy Office, or on the scaffold, if he had not died on th* 22nd of July 1645.
See the Estudios dft reinado de Felipt IV. of Don Antonio Canovas (Madrid, 1889): and Don F. Sijvela's introduction, much less favourable to Olivares, to his edition of the Carttu de Sor Maria dt rey Felipe 2 V. (Madrid. iSSs-iSSb).
OLIVE (Olca curopaea), the plant that yields the olive oil of commerce, belonging to a section of the natural order Oleaceae, of which it has been taken as the type. The genus Olea includes about thirty species, very widfly scattered, chiefly over the Old World, from the basin of the Mediterranean to South Africa and New Zealand. The wild olive is a small tree or bush of rather straggling growth, with thorny branches and opposite oblong pointed leaves, dark greyish-green above and, in the young state, hoary beneath with whitish scales, the small white flowers, with four-cleft calyx and corolla, two stamens zed bifid stigma, are borne on the last year's wood, in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves; the drupaceous fruit is small in the wild plant, and the fleshy pericarp, which gives the cultivated olive its economic value, is hard and comparatively thin. In the cultivated forms the tree acquires a more compact habit, the branches lose their spinous character, while the young shoots become more or less angular; the leaves are always
hoary on the under-side, and are generally lanceolate in shape, though varying much in breadth and size in the different kinds. The fruit is subject to still greater changes of form and
rf^-J ^SZl ^r*-^. ^"^-^^^ c°l°uri usually oval or fJTtflfyft) ^^^Jltew ^^^"^ nearly globular, in some IMllw -^p*^ 8orts it h cgg.shaped| in
others much elongated, while the dark hue that it commonly assumes when ripe is exchanged in many varieties for violet, green or almost white. At present the wild olive is found in most of the countries around the Mediterranean, extending its range on the west to Portugal, and eastward to the vicinity of the Caspian, while, locally, It ocmrs even in Afghanistan. An undoubted native of Syria ac<i the maritime parts of Asia Minor, its abundance in Greece and the islands of the Archipelago, and the frequent allusions to it by the earliest poets, seem to indicate that it was there also indigenous; but in localities remote from the Levant it may have escaped from cultivation, reverting more or less to its primitive type. It shows a marked preference for calcareous soils and a partiality for the sea-breeze, flourishing with especial luxuriance on the limestone slopes and crags that often form the shores of the Greek, peninsula tod adjacent islands.
The varieties of oli/e known to the modem cultivator are qtreosery numerous—according to some authorities equalling or exceeding in number those of the vine. In France and Italy at least thirty kinds have been enumerated, but comparatively few axe grown to any large extent. None of these can be safely Identified with ancient descriptions, though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved sorts that arc most esteemed may be descendants of the famed "Licinian" (see below). Italy retains its old pre-eminence in olive cultivation; and, t&ongh its ancient Gallic province now excels it in the production of the finer oils, its fast-improving culture may restore the old prestige. The broad-leaved olive trees of Spain bear a larger Cndt, but the pericarp is of more bitter flavour and the oil of ranker quality. The olive tree, even when free increase is
nature), reduced: B, opened flower; C, wtical section of pistil. B and C en
unchecked by pruning, is of very slow growth; but, where allowed for ages its natural development, the trunk sometimes attains a considerable diameter. De Candolle records one exceeding 23 ft. in girth, the age being supposed to amount to seven centuries. Some old Italian olives have been credited with an antiquity reaching back to the first years of the empire, or even to the days of republican Rome; but the age of such ancient trees is always doubtful during growth, and their identity with old descriptions still more difficult to establish. The tree in cultivation rarely exceeds 30 ft. in height, and in France and Italy is generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. The wood, of a yellow or light greenishbrown hue, is often finely veined with a darker tint, and, being very hard and close grained, is valued by the cabinetmaker and ornamental turner.
The olive is propagated m various ways, but cuttings or layers are generally preferred, the tree roots in favourable soil almost as easily as the willow, and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. Branches of various thickness are cut into lengths of several feet each, and, planted rather deeply in manured ground, soon vegetate; shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches, when, covered with a few inches of soil, they rapidly throw up suckerlike shoots. In Greece and the islands grafting the cultivated tree on the wild form is a common practice. In Italy embryonic buds, which form small swellings on the stems, are carefully excised and planted beneath the surface, where they grow readily, these " uovoli" eoon forming a vigorous shoot. Occasionally the larger boughs are inarched, and young trees thus soon obtained. The olive is also sometimes raised from seed, the oily pericarp being first softened by slight rotting, or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution, td facilitate germination. The olives in the East often receive little attention from the husbandman, the branches being allowed to grow freely and without curtailment by the pruning-knife; water, however, must be supplied in long droughts to ensure a crop; with this neglectful culture the trees Bear abundantly only at intervals of three or four years; thus, although wild growth is favourable to the picturesque aspect of the plantation, it is not to be recommended on economic grounds. Where the olive is carefully cultivated, as in Languedoc and Provence, it is planted in rows at regular intervals, the distance between the trees varying in different "olivettes," according to the variety grown. Careful pruning is practised, the object being to preserve the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year, while keeping the head of the tree low, so as to allow the easy gathering of the fruit; a dome or rounded form is generally the aim of the pruner. The spaces between the trees are occasionally manured with rotten dung or other nitrogenous matter; in France woollen rags are in high esteem for this purpose. Various annual crops arc sometimes raised between the rows, and in Calabria wheat even is grown in this way; but the trees are better without any intermediate cropping. Latterly a dwarf variety, very prolific and with green fruit, has come into favour in certain localities, especially in America, where it is said to have produced a crop two or three seasons after planting. The ordinary kinds do not become profitable to the grower until from five to seven years after the cuttings are placed in the olive-ground. Apart from occasional damage by weather or organic foes, the olive crop is somewhat precarious even with the most careful cultivation, and the large untended trees so often seen in Spain and Italy do not yield that certain income to the peasant proprietor that some authors have attributed to them; the crop from these old trees is often enormous, but they seldom bear well two years in succession, and in many instances a luxuriant harvest can only be reckoned upon every sixth or seventh season. The fruit when ripe is, by the careful grower, picked by hand and deposited in cloths or baskets for conveyance to the mill; but in many parts of Spain and Greece, and generally in Asia, the olives are beaten down by poles or by shaking the boughs, or even allowed to drop naturally, often Iying_ on the ground until the convenience of the owner admits of their removal; much of the inferior oil owes its bad quality to the carelessness of the proprietor of the trees. In southern Europe the olive harvest is in the winter months, continuing for several weeks; but the time varies in each country, and also with the season and the kinds cultivated. The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs much in the various sorts; the pericarp usually yields from 60 to 70%. The ancient agriculturists believed that the olive would not succeed if planted more than a few leagues from the sea (Theophrastus gives 300 stadia as the limit), but modern experience does not confirm the idea, and, though showing a preference for ihe coast, it has long been grown far inland. A calcareous soil, however dry or poor, seems best adapted to its healthy development, though the tree will grow in any light soil, and even on clay if well drained; but, as remarked by Pliny, the plant is more liable to disease on rich soils, and the oil is inferior to the produce of the poorer and more rocky ground the species naturally affects. The olive suffers greatly in some years from the attacks of various enemies. A fungoid growth has at times infested the trees for several