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Mantis O'donnell (d. 1564), son of Hugh Dubh O'Donnell, •as left by his father to rule Tyrconnel, though still a mere youth, when Hugh Dubh went on a pilgrimage to Rome about 1511. Hugh Dubh had been chief of the O'Donoells during one of the bitterest and most protracted of the feuds between his clan and the O'Neills, which in 1491 led to a war lasting more than ten years. On his return from Rome in broken health after two years' absence, his son Manus, who had proved himself a capable leader in defending his country against the O'Neills, retained the chief authority. A family quarrel ensued, and when Hugh Dubh appealed for aid against his son to the Maguires, Manus made an alliance with the O'Neills, by whose assistance he established his hold over Tyrconncl. But in 1522 the two great northern clans were again at war. Conn Bacach O'Neill, ist carl of Tyrone, determined to bring the O'Donnclls under thorough subjection. Supported by several septs of Munsterand Connaught, tnd assisted also by English contingents and by the MacDonnclls of Antrim, O'Neill took the castle of Ballyshannon. and after devastating a large part of Tyrconnel be encamped at Knockavoe, near Strabane. Here he was surprised at night by Hugh Dubh and Manus O'Donnel), and routed with the loss of 900 men and an immense quantity of booty. Although this was one of the bloodiest fights that ever look place between the O'Neills and the O'Donnells, it did not bring the war to an end; and in 1531 O'Donnell applied to the English government for protection,givingassurancesof allegiance to Henry VIII. In 1337 Lord Thomas Fitzgerald and his five uncles were executed for rebellion in Munsler, and the English government made every effort to lay hands also on Gerald, the youthful heir to the earldom of Kildare, a boy of twelve years of sge who was in the secret custody of his aunt Lady Eleanor McCarthy. This lady, in order to secure a powerful protector for the boy, accepted an offer of marriage by Manus O'Donncll, who on the death of Hugh Dubh in July 1537 was inaugurated TheO'Donncll. ConnO'NeiU was a relative of Gerald Fitzgerald, and this event accordingly led to the formation of the Geraldine League, a federal ion which combined the O'Neills, the O'Donnells, the O'Briens of Thomond, and other powerful clans; the primary object of which was to restore Gerald to the earldom of Kildare, but which afterwards aimed at the complete overthrow of English rule in Ireland. In August 1539 Manus O'Donnell and Conn O'Neill were defeated with heavy loss by the lord deputy at Lake Bellahoe, in Monaghan, which crippled their power for many years. In the west Manus made unceasing efforts to assert the supremacy of the O'Donnells in north Connaught, where he compelled O'Conor Sligo to acknowledge his overlordship in 1539. In 1542 he went to England and presented himself, together with Conn O'Neill and other Irish chiefs, before Henry VIII., who promised to make him earl of Tyrconnel, though he refused O'Donnell's request to be made earl of Sligo. In his later years Manus was troubled by quarrels between his sons Calvagh and Hugh MacManus; in 1555 he was made prisoner by Calvagh, who deposed him from all authority in Tyrconnel. and he died in 1564. Manus O'Donnell, though a 6erce warrior, was hospitable and generous to the poor and the Churrh. He is described by the Four Masters as " a learned man, skilled in many arts, gifted with a profound intellect, and the knowledge of every science." At his castle of Portnatrynod r**r Strabane he supervised if he did not actually dictate the writing of the Lift of Saint ColumbkUlc'm Irish, which is preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Manus was several times married. Hisfirst wife. JoanO'Reilly,was themothcrof Calvagh, I3<11 wo daughters, both of whom married O'Neills; the younger, Margaret, was wife of the famous rebel Shane O'Neill. His second wife, Hugh's mother, by whom he was ancestor of the earls of Tyrconnel (see below), was Judith, sister of Conn Bacach O'Neal, t st earl of Tyrone, and aunt of Shane O'Neill.
Calvacr O'donnell (d. 1566), eldest son of Manus O'Donnell, in the course of his above-mentioned ouarrel with his father tod his half-brother Hugh, sought aid in Scotland from the MacDonnelts, who assisted him in deposing Manus and securing the lordship of Tyrconnel for himself. ^ Hugh then appealed
to Shane O'Neill, who invaded Tyrconnel at the head of a large army in 1557, desiring to make himself supreme throughout Ulster, and encamped on the shore of Lough Swilly. Calvagh, acting apparently on the advice of his father, who was his prisoner and who remembered the successful night attack on Conn O'Neill at Knockavoe in 1522, surprised the O'Neills in their camp at night and routed them with the loss of all their spoils. Calvagh was then recognized by the English government as lord of Tyrconnel; but in 1561 he and his wife were captured by Shane O'Neill in the monastery of Kildonnell. His wife, Catherine Maclean, who had previously been the wife of the earl of Argyll, was kept by Shane O'Neill as his mistress and bore him several children, though grossly ill-treated by her savage captor; Calvagh himself was subjected to atrocious torture during the three years that he remained O'Neill's prisoner. He was released in 1564 on conditions which he had no intention of fulfilling; and crossing to England he threw himself on the mercy of Queen Elizabeth. In 1566 Sir Henry Sidney by the queen's orders marched to Tyrconncl and restored Calvagh to his rights. Calvagh, however, died in the same year, and as his son Conn was a prisoner in the hands of Shane O'Neill, his half-brother Hugh MacManus was inaugurated The O'Donnell in his place. Hugh, who in the family feud with Calvagh had allied himself with O'Neill, now turned round and combined with the English to crush the hereditary enemy of his family; and in 1567 he utterly routed Shane at Letterkcnny with the loss of 1300 men, compelling him to seek refuge with the MacDonnells of Antrim, by whom he was treacherously put todcath. In 1592 Hugh abdicated in favour of his son Hugh Roe O'Donncll (see below); but there was a member of the elder branch of the family who resented the passing of the chieftainship to the descendants of Manus O'Donnell's second marriage. This was Niall Garvc, second son of Calvagh's son Conn. His elder brother was Hugh of Ramelton, whose son John, an officer in the Spanish army, was father of Hugh Baldearg O'Donncll (d. 1704), known in Spain as Count O'Donnell, who commanded an Irish regiment as brigadier in the Spanish service. This officer came to Ireland in 1690 and raised an army in Ulster for the service of James II., afterwards deserting to the side of William III., from whom he accepted a pension.
Niall Carve O'donnell (1560-1626), who was incensed at the elevation of his cousin Hugh Roc to the chieftainship in 1592, was further alienated when the latter deprived him of his castle of Lifford, and a bitter feud between the two O'Donnells was the result. Niall Garvc made terms with the English government, to whom he rendered valuable service both against the O'Neills and against his cousin. But in 1601 he quarrelled with the lord deputy, who, though willing to establish Niall Garve in the lordship of Tyrconncl, would not permit him to enforce his supremacy over Cahir O'Dogherty in Inishowen. After the departure of Hugh Roe from Ireland in 1602, Niall Garvc and Hugh Roe's brother Rory went to London, where the privy council erideavoured to arrange the family quarrel, but failed to satisfy Niall. Charged with complicity in Cahir O'Dogherty's rebellion in 1608, Niall Garve was sent to the Tower of London, where he remained till his death in 1626. He married his cousin Nuala, sister of Hugh Roc and Rory O'Donnell. When Rory fled with the carl of Tyrone to Rome in 1607, Nuala, who had deserted her husband when he joined the English against her brother, accompanied him, taking with her her daughter Graitla. She was the subject of an Irish poem, of which an English version was writ ten by James Mangan from a prose translation by Eugene O'Curry.
Hugh Roe O'donnell (1572-1602), eldest son of Hugh MacManus O'Donnell. and grandson of Manus O'Donncll by his second marriage with Judith O'Neill, was the most celebrated member of his clan. His mother was Ineen Dubh, daughter of James MacDonnell of Kintyre; his sister was the second wife of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd earl of Tyrone. These family connexions with the Hebridean Scots and with the O'Neills made the lord deputy. Sir John Pcrrot, afraid of a powerful combination against the English government, and induced him to establish garrisons in Tyrconnel and to demand hostages from Hugh MacManus O'Donnell, which the latter refused to hand over. In 1587 Perrot conceived a plan for kidnapping Hugh Roe (Hugh the Red), now a youth of fifteen, who had already given proof of exceptional manliness and sagacity. A merchant vessel laden with Spanish wines was sent to Lough Sr. illy, and anchoring off Rathmullan, where the boy was residing in the castle of MacSweeny his foster parent, Hugh Roc with some youthful companions was enticed on board, when the ship immediately set sail and conveyed the party to Dublin. The boys were kept in prison for more than three years In 1591 young O'Donnell made two attempts to escape, the second of which proved successful; and after enduring terrible privations from exposure in the mountains he made his way to Tyrconnel, where in the following year his father handed the chieftainship over to him. Red Hugh lost no time in leading an expedition against Turlough Luineach O'Neill, then at war with his kinsman Hugh, carl of Tyrone, with whom O'Donnell was in alliance. At the same time he sent assurances of loyalty to the lord deputy, whom he met in person at Dundalk in the summer of 1502. But being determined to vindicate the traditional claims of his family in north Connaught, he aided Hugh Maguire against the English, though on the advice of Tyrone he abstained for a time from committing himself too far. When, however, in 1594 Enniskillen castle was taken and the women and children flung into the river from its walls by order of Sir Richard Bingham, the English governor of Connaught, O'Donnell sent urgent messages to Tyrone for help, and while he himself hurried to Deny to withstand an invasion of Scots from the isles, Maguire defeated the English with heavy loss at Bellanabriska (The Ford of the Biscuits). In 1595 Red Hugh again invaded Connaught, putting to the sword every soul above fifteen years of age unable to speak Irish; he captured Longford and soon afterwards gained possession of Sligo, which placed north Connaught at his mercy. In 1596 he agreed in conjunction with Tyrone to a cessation of hostilities with the English, and consented to meet commissioners from the government near Dundalk. The terms he demanded were, however, refused; and his determination to continue the struggle was strengthened by the prospect of help from Philip II. of Spain, with whom he and Tyrone had been in correspondence. In the beginning of 1597 he made another inroad into Connaught, where O'Conor Sligo had been set up by the English as a counterpoise to O'Donnell. He devastated the country and returned to Tyrconnel with rich spoils; in the following year he shared in Tyrone's victory over the English at the Yellow Ford on the Blackwatcr; and in 1599 he defeated an attempt by the English under Sir Conyers Clifford, governor of Connaught, to succour O'Conor Sligo in Collooney castle, which O'Donnell captured, forcing Sligo to submission. The government now sent Sir Henry Docwra to Derry, and O'Donnell entrusted to his cousin Niall Carve the task of opposing him. Niall Garve, however, went over to the English, making himself master of O'Donnell's fortresses of Liflord and Donegal. While Hugh Roe was attempting to retake the latter place in 1601, he heard that a Spanish force had landed in Munster. He marched rapidly to the south, and was joined by Tyrone at Bandon; but a nightattack on the English besieging the Spaniards in Kinsalc having utterly failed, O'Donnell, who attributed the disaster to the incapacity of the Spanish commander, took ship to Spain on the 6th of January 1602 to lay his complaint before Philip III. He was favourably received by the Spanish king, but he died at Simancas on the loth of September in the same year.
Rory O'donnell, ist carl of Tyrconncl (1575-1608), second son of Hugh MacManus O'Donnell, and younger brother of Hugh Roe, accompanied the latter in the above-mentioned cxpediiion to Kinsalc; and when his brother sailed for Spain he transferred his authority as chief to Rory, who led the O'Donnell contingent back to the north. In 1602 Rory gave in his allegiance to Lord Moumjoy, the lord deputy; and in the following summer he went to London with the carl of Tyrone,
where he was received with favour by James I., who created him earl of Tyrconncl. In 1605 he was invested with authority as lieutenant of the king in Donegal. But the arrangement between Rory and Niall Garve insisted upon by the government was flispleasing to both O'Donnells, and Rory, like Hugh Roe before him, entered into negotiations with Spain. His country bad been reduced to a desert by famine and war, and his own reckless extravagance had plunged him deeply in debt. These circumstances as much as the fear that his designs were known to the government may have persuaded him to leave Ireland. In September 1607 " the flight of the earls " (see O'NEILL) took place, Tyrconnel and Tyrone reaching Rome in April 1608, where Tyrconnel died on the 28th of July. His wife, the beautiful daughter of the carl of Kildare, was left behind in the haste of Tvrconncl's flight, and lived to marry Nicholas Barnewcll, Lord Kingsland. By Tyrconnel she had a son Hugh; and among other children a daughter Mary Stuart O'Donnell, who, born after her father's flight from Ireland, was so named by James I. after his mother. This lady, after many romantic adventures disguised in male attire, married a man called O'Gallaghcr and died in poverty on the continent.
Rory O'Donnell was attainted by the Irish parliament in 1614, but his son Hugh, who lived at the Spanish Court, assumed the title of earl; and the last titular carl of Tyrconnel was this Hugh's son Hugh Albert, who died without heirs in 1642, and who by his will appointed Hugh Balldearg O'Donnell (see above) his heir, thus restoring the chieftainship to the elder branch of the family. To a still elder branch belonged Daniel O'Donnell (1666-1735), a general of the famous Irish brigade in the French service, whose father, Turlough, was a son of Hugh Dubh O'Donnell, elder brother of Manus, son of an earlier Hugh Dubh mentioned above. Daniel served in the French army in the wars of the period, fighting against Marlborough at Oudenarde and Malplaquet at the head of an O'Donnell regiment. He died in 1735.
The famous Cathach, or Battle-Book of the O'Donnells. was in the possession of General Daniel O'Donnell. from whom it passed to more modern representatives of the family, who presented it to the Royal Irish Academy, where it is preserved. This relic, of which a curious legend is told (see P. W. Joyce, A Social History of Am tent Ireland, voH i. p. 501), is a Psalter said to have belonged to Saint Columbia, a kinsman of the O'Donnells, which was earned by them in battle as a charm or talisman to secure victory. Two other circumstances connecting the Q'Donnells with ancient Irish literature may be mentioned. The family of O'Clery. to which three of the celebrated "Four Masters" belonged, were hereditary Ollaves (doctors of history, music, law, &c.) attached to the family of O'Donnell; while the " Book of the Dun Cow " (Lctnr-na-h Vidhrc), one of the most ancient Irish MSS., was in the possession of the O'Donnells in the ].}th century; and the estimation in which it was held at that time is proved by the fact that it was given to the O'Conors of Connaught as ransom for an important prisoner, and was forcibly recovered some years later.
See O'NEILL, and the authorities there cited. (R. J. M.)
O'DONNELL, HENRY JOSEPH (1769-1834), count of La Bisbal, Spanish soldier, was descended from the O'Donnells who left Ireland after the battle of the Boync.1 Born in Spain, he early entered the Spanish army, and in 1810 became general, receiving a command in Catalonia, where in that year he earned his title and the rank of field-marshal. He afterwards held posts of great responsibility under Ferdinand VII., whom he served on the whole with constancy; the events of 1823 compelled his flight into France, where he was interned at Limoges, and where he died in 1834. His second son Leopold O'DONNELL (1800-1867), duke of Tetuan, Spanish general and statesman, was born at Santa Cruz, Teneriffe, on the 12th of January 1809. He fought in the army of Queen Christina, where he attained the rank of general of division; and in 1840 he accompanied the queen into exile. He failed in an attempt to effect a rising in her favour at Pamplona in 1841, but took a more successful part in the movement which led to the overthrow and exile of
1 A branch of the family settled" in Austria, and General Karl O'Donnell,count of Tyrconnc)(l7i5-l 771), held important commands during the Seven Years' War. The name of a descendant figures in the history of the Italian and Hungarian campaigns of 1846 and 1849. Espartero in 1843. From 1844 to 1848 be served the new (ovenioent in Cuba; after his return he entered the senate. Ib 1854 he became war minister under Espartcro, and in 1856 he plotted successfully against his chief, becoming head of the cabinet from the July revolution until October. This rank he again reached in July 1858; and in December 1859 he took command of the expedition to Morocco, and received the title of duke after the surrender of Tetuan. Quitting office in 1863, he again resumed it in June 1865, but was compelled to resign in favour of Narvaez in 1866. He died at Bayonne on the 5th of November 1867.
Then a a Lift of Leopold O'DonncIl in La Corona at laurel, by Manuel Ibo Alfaro (Madrid, 1860).
O'DONOVAN, EDMUND (1844-1883), British war-correipondent, was born at Dublin on the i.jth of September 1844, the son of John O'Donovan (1800-1861), a well-known Irish archaeologist and topographer. In 1866 he began to contribute to the Irish Tina and other Dublin papers. After the battle of Sedan he joined the Foreign Legion of the French army, and was wounded and taken prisoner by the Germans. In 1873 the Carlist rising attracted him to Spain, and he wrote many newspaper letters on the campaign. In 1876 he represented the London Daily Nms during the rising of Bosnia and Herzegovina, against the Turks, and in 1879, for the same paper, made his adventurous and famous journey to Merv. On his arrival at Merv, the Turcomans, suspecting him to be a Russian spy, detained him. It was only after several months' captivity that O'Donovan managed to get a message to his principals through to Persia, whence it was telegraphed to England. These adventures he described in Tl'.c j/erv Oasis (1882). In 1883 O'Donovan accompanied the ill-fated expedition of Hicks Pasha to the Egyptian Sudan, and perished with it.
ODONOVAN, WILLIAM RUDOLF (1844- ), American sculptor, was born in Preston county, Virginia, on the 28th of March 1844. He had no technical art training, but after the Civil War, in which he served in the Confederate army, be opened a studio in New York City and became a well-known sculptor, especially of memorial pieces. Among these are statues of George Washington (in Caracas), Lincoln and Grant (Prospect Park, Brooklyn), the captors of Major Andr£ (Tarrytown, N.Y.). and Archbishop Hughes (Fordham University, Fordham, N.Y.), and a memorial tablet to Bayard Taylor (Cornell University). In 1878 he become an associate of the National Academy of Design.
ODONTORNITHES, the term proposed by O. C. Marsh (Am. Jour*. Sci. ser 3, v. (1873) pp. 161-162) for birds possessed of teeth (Gr. iooia, tooth, opra, oprifot, bird), notably the genera Hesperornis and Ichlhyornis from the Cretaceous deposits cf Kansas. In 1875 (op. cil. x. pp. 403-408) he divided the '" subclass" into Odontotcac, with the teeth standing in grooves, and Odontotormae, with the teeth in separate alveoles or sockets. In his magnificent work, Odontornilhes: A monograph on the atiiici toothed birds of North America, New Haven, Connecticut, iSSo, he logically added the Saururac, represented by Arckaeepteryi, as a third order. As it usually happens with the selection of a single anatomical character, the resulting classification was unnatural. In the present case the Odontorcithes are a heterogeneous assembly, and the fact of their possessing teeth proves nothing but that birds, possibly all of them, still had these organs during the Cretaceous epoch. This, by itself, is a very interesting point, showing that birds, as a <•!»««, are t he descendants of well-toothed reptiles, to the complete exclusion of the Chclonia with which various authors persistently try to connect them. No fossil birds of later than Cretaceous age are known to have teeth, and concerning recent birds they possess not even embryonic vestiges.
E. Geoffroy St Hilaire stated in 1811 (Ann. Gin. Sci. Phys. mi. pp. 373-380) that he had found a considerable number of tooth-germs in the upper and lower jaws of the parrot P&l&eonis torquatus. E. Blanchard (" Observations sur le systecDe dentaire chez les oiseaux," Comples rendtis 50, 1860, pp. 540-542) felt justified in recognizing flakes of dentine. However,
M. Braun (Arbeit Zool. lnst.t WUrzburg, v. 1879) and especially P. Fraisse (Phys. Ued. Cm., Wurzburg, 1880) have shown that the structures in question arc of the same kind as the well-known serrated "teeth" of the bill of anserine birds. In fact the papillae observed in the embryonic birds are the soft cutaneous extensions into the surrounding horny sheath of the bill, comparable to the well-known nutritive papillae in a horse's hoof. They arc easily exposed in the well-macerated under jaw of a parrot, after removal of the homy sheath. Occasionally calcification occurs in or around these papillae, as it does regularly in the " egg-tooth " of the embryos of all birds.
The best known of the Odontornilhes are Hesperornis regalis, standing about 3 ft. high, and the somewhat taller II. crassipes. Both show the general configuration of a diver, but it is only by analogy that Hesperornis can be looked upon as ancestral to the Colymbiformes. There are about fourteen teeth in a groove of the maxilla and about twenty-one in the mandible; the vertebrae are typically hetcrocoelous; of the wing-bones only the very slender and long humcrus is known; clavicles slightly reduced; coracoids short and broad, movably connected with the scapula; sternum very long, broad and quite flat, without the trace of a keel. Hind limbs very strong and of the Colymbine type, but the outer or fourth capitulum of the metatarsus is the strongest and longest, an unique arrangement in an otherwise typically steganopodous foot. The pelvis shows much resemblance to that of the divers, but there is still an incisura ischiadica instead of a foramen. The tail is composed of about twelve vertebrae, without a pygostyle. Enaliornis of the Cambridge Greensand of England, and Baptornis of the mid-Cretaceous of North America, are probably allied, but imperfectly known. The vertebrae are biconcave, with hetcrocoelous indications in the cervicals; the metatarsal bones appear still somewhat imperfectly anchylosed. The absence of a keel misled Marsh who suspected relationship of Hesperornis with the Ratitae, and L. Dollo went so far as to call it a carnivorous, aquatic ostrich (Bull. Sci. Depart, du Nord, ser. 2, iv. 1881, p. 300), and this mistaken notion of the "swimming ostrich" was popularized by various authors. B. Vettcr (Festschr. Ces. Isis., Dresden, 1885) rightly pointed out that Hesperornis was a descendant of Carinatae, but adapted to aquatic life, implying reduction of the keel. Lastly, M. Filrbringer (Untersucliungen, Amsterdam, 1888, pp. 1543, is°5> 1580) relegated it, together with Enaliornis and the Colymbo-Podicipedcs, to his suborder Podicipitiformes. The present writer does nol feel justified in going so far. On account of their variqus, decidedly primitive characters, he prefers to look upon the Odontolcae as a separate group, one of the three divisions of the Ncornithes, as birds which form an early offshoot from the later Colymbo-Pelargomorphous stock; in adaptation to a marine, swimming life they have lost the power of flight, as is shown by the absence of the keel and by the great reduction of the wing-skeleton, just as in another direction, away from the later Alecloromorphous stock the Ratitae have specialized as runners. It is only in so far as the loss of flight is correlated with the absence of the keel that the Odontolcae and the Ratitae bear analogy to each other.
There remain the Odontotormae, notably Ichlhyornis victor, I. dispar, Apalornis and Graculavus of the middle and upper Cretaceous of Kansas. The teeth stand in separate alveoles; the two halves of the mandible are, as in Htsperornis, without a symphysis. The vertebrae are amphicoelous, but at least the third cervical has somewhat saddle-shaped articular facets. Tail composed of five free vertebrae, followed by a rather small pygostyle. Shoulder girdle and sternum well developed and of the typical carinate type. Pelvis still with incisura ischiadica. Marsh based the restoration of Ichlhyornis, which was obviously a well-flying aquatic bird, upon the skeleton of a tern, a relationship which cannot be supported. The teeth, vertebrae, pelvis and the small brain are all so many low characters that the Odontotormae may well form a separate, and very low, order of the typical Carinatae, of course near the Colymbomorphous Legion. (H. F. G.^
ODORIC (c. 1286-1331), styled "of Pordcnonc," one of the chief travellers of the later middle ages, and a Bcatus of the Roman Church, was born at Villa Nuova, a hamlet near the town of Fordcnone in Friuli, in or about 1286. According to the ecclesiastical biographers, in early years he took the vows of the Franciscan order and joined their convent at Udinc, the capital of Friuli.
Friar Odoric was despatched to the East, where a remarkable extension of missionary action was then taking place, about 1316-1318, and did not return till the end of 1329 or beginning of J -;,->; but, as regards intermediate dates, all that we can deduce from his narrative or other evidence is that he was in western India soon after 1331 (pretty certainly in 1322) and that he spent three years in China between the opening of 1323 and the close of 1328. His route to the East lay by Trcbizond and Erzerum to Tabriz and Sultanieh, in all of which places the order had houses. From Sultanieh he proceeded by Kashan and Yizd, and turning thence followed a somewhat devious route by Pcrscpolis and the Shiraz and Bagdad regions, to the Persian Gulf. At Hormuz he embarked for India, landing at Thana, near Bombay. At this city four brethren of his order, three of them Italians and the fourth a Georgian, had shortly before met death at the hands of the Mahommedan governor. The bones of the martyred friars had been collected by Friar Jordanus of SeVcrac, a Dominican, who carried them to Supera—the Suppara of the ancient geographers, near the modern Basscin, about 26 m. north of Bombay—and buried them there Odoric tells that he disinterred these relics and carried them with him on his further travels. In the course of these he visited Malabar, touching at Pandarani (20 m. north of Calicut), at Cranganorc, and at Kulam or Quilon, proceeding thence, apparently, to Ceylon and to the shrine of St Thomas at Maylapur near Madras. From India he sailed in a junk to Sumatra, visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island, and thence to Java, to the coast (it would seem) of Borneo, to Champa (South Cochin-China), and to Canton, at that time known to western Asiatics as Chin-Kalanot Great China (Mahachin). From Canton he travelled overland to the great ports of Fukien, at one of which, Zayton or Amoy harbour, he found two houses of his order; in one of these he deposited the bones of the brethren who had suffered in India. From Fuchow he struck across the mountains into Cheh-kiang and visited Hangchow, then renowned, under the name of Camay, Kharuai. or Quinsai (i.e. Kiagsa or royal residence), as the greatest city in the world, of whose splendours Odcric, like Marco Polo, Marignolli, or Ibn Batuta, gives notable details. Passing northward by Nanking and crossing the Yangtszc-kiang, Odoric embarked on the Great Canal and travelled to Cambalcc (otherwise Cambalclh, Cambaluc, &c.) or Peking, where he remained for three years, attached, no doubt, to one of the churches founded by Archbishop John of Monte Corvino, at this time in extreme old age. Returning overland across Asia, through the Land of Prcstcr John and through Casan, the adventurous traveller seems to have entered Tibet, and even perhaps to have visited Lhasa. After this we trace the friar in northern Persia, in Millestorte, once famous as the Land of the Assassins in the Elburz highlands. No further indications of his homeward route (to Venice) are given, though it is almost certain that he passed through Tabriz. The vague and fragmentary character of the narrative, in this section, forcibly contrasts with the clear and careful tracing of the outward way. During a part at least of these long journeys the companion of Odoric was Friar James, an Irishman, as appears from a record in the public books of Udinc, showing that shortly after Odoric's death a present of two marks was made to this Irish friar, Socio teali Fralrii Odorici, amore Dei a Odorici. Shortly after his return Odoric betook himself to the Minorite house attached to St Anthony's at Padua, and it was there that in May 1330 he related the story of his travels, which was taken down in homely Latin by Friar William of Solagna. Travelling towards the papal court at Avignon, Odoric fell ill at Pisa, and turning back to Udinc, the capital of his native province, died in the convent there on the I4th of January 1331. The fame of
his vast journeys appears to have made a much greater impression on the laity of his native territory than on his Franciscan brethren. The latter were about to bury him without delay or ceremony, but the gaslald or chief magistrate of the city interfered and appointed a public funeral; rumours of his wondrous travels and of posthumous miracles were diffused, and excitement spread like wildfire over Friuli and Carniola; the ceremony had to be deferred more than once, and at last took place in presence of the patriarch of Aquilcia and all the local dignitaries. Popular acclamation made him an object of devotion, the municipality erected a noble shrine for his body, and his fame as saint and traveller had spread far and wide before the middle of the century, but it was not till four centuries later (1755) that the papal authority formally sanctioned his beatification. A bust of Odoric was set up at Pordenone in 1881.
The numerous copies of Odoric's narrative (both of the original text and of the versions in French, Italian, &c.) that have come down to our time, chiefly from the I4th century, show how speedily and widely it acquired popularity. It does not deserve the charge of mendacity brought against it by some, though the adulation of others is nearly as injudicious. Odoric's credit was not benefited by the liberties which Sir John Mandcville took with it. The substance of that knight's alleged travels in India and Cathay is stolen from Odoric, though amplified with fables from other sources and from his own invention, and garnished with his own unusually clear astronomical notions. We may indicate a few passages which stamp Odoric as a genuine and original traveller. He is the first European, after Marco Polo, who distinctly mentions the name of Sumatra. The cannibalism and community of wives which he attributes to certain races of that island do certainly belong to it, or to islands closely adjoining. His description of sago in the archipelago is not free from errors, but they are the errors of an eye-witness. In China his mention of Canton by the name of Ctnscolam or Censcalam (Chin-Kalan), and his descriptions of the custom of fishing with tame cormorants, of the habit of letting the finger-nails grow extravagantly, and of the compression of women's feet, are peculiar to him among the travellers of that age; Marco Polo omits them all.
Seventy-three MSS. of Odoric's narrative are known to exist in Latin, French and Italian: of these the chief is in Paris, National Library, MSS. Lat. 2584. fols. 118 r.-I27 v., of about 1350. The narrative was first printed at Pesaro m 1513, in what Aposlolo^Zeno calls lingua incutta e rozza. Ramusio's collection first contains it in the 2nd vol. of the 2nd edition (1574) (Italian version), in which are given two versions, diftcring curiously from one another, but without any prefatory matter or explanation. (Sec also edition of 1583, vol. it. fols. 345 r.-256 r.) Another (Latin) version is given in the Afta Sanctorum (Bollandist) under the i-tth of January. The curious discussion before the papal court respecting the beatification of Odoric forms a kind of blue-book issued ex typoprapltia rev. camtrae apostolicae (Rome, 1755). Professor Fricdnch Kunstmann of Munich devoted one of his valuable papers to Odoric's narrative (Hislor.-polit. Blatter von Phillips and Corrcs, vol. xxxviii. pp. 507537). The best editions of Odoric are by G. Vcnni, EU>gio storico alle testa del Beato Odorifo (Venice, 1761); H. Yule in Cathay and the Way Thither, vol. i. pp. 1-162, vol. ii. appendix, pp. 1-42 (London, 1866), Hakluyt Society; and H. Cordier, Lfs Voyages . .'. du . . . frere Odoric . . . (Paris, 1891) (edition of Old French version of c. 1350). The edition by T. Domenichclli (Prato, 1881) may also be mentioned; likewise those texts of Odoric embedded in the Slorio Ufiiversalf deUt Missione Franctscane, iii. 739-781, and in Hakluvt'» Principal Navigations (1509), ii. 39-67. See also John of Viktring (Joannes Victoricnsis) in Fontes rervm Cermanicarum, ed. J. F. Sochmcr; vol. i. ed. by J . G. Cotta (Stuttgart, 1843), p. 391: Wadding, Annalts Afinorum, A.D. 1331, vol. vii. pp. 123-126; Bartholomew Albizzi, Opus conformtialum . . . B. Francisci . . .. bk. i. par. ii. conf. 8 (fcl. 124 of Milan, edition of 1513); John of Winterthur in Eccard, Corpus historicum mcdii acvi, vol. i. cola. 1894-1897, especially 1894; C. R. Bcazlcy, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii. 250-287, 548-549, 554. 565-566. 6"'6'^ »c-. c ^ B ,
ODTLIC FORCE, a term once in vogue to explain the phenomenon of hypnotism (?.».). In 1845 considerable attention was drawn to the announcement by Baron von Reichenbach of a so-called new " imponderable " or " influence " developed by certain crystals, magnets, the human body, associated with heat, chemical action, or electricity, and existing throughout the universe, to which he gave the name of odyl. Persons sensitive to odyl saw luminous phenomena near the poles of magnets, or even around the hands or heads of certain persons Id whose bodies the force was supposed to be concentrated. In Britain an impetus was given to this view of the subject by the translation iniSsoof Rcichenbzch's Researches on Magnetism, &c., in relation to Vital Force, by Dr Gregory, professor of chemistry in the university of Edinburgh. These Researches show many of the phenomena to be of the same nature as those described previously by F. A. Mesmer, and even long before Mesmer's time by Swedenborg.
ODYSSEUS (in Latin Ulixcs, incorrectly written Ulysses), in Greek legend, son of Laertes and Anticleia, king of Ithaca, a famous hero and typical representative of the Greek race. In Homer he is one of the best and bravest of the heroes, and the favourite of Athena, whereas in later legend he is cowardly and deceitful. Soon after his marriage to Penelope he was summoned to the Trojan war. Unwilling to go, he feigned madness, ploughing a field sown with salt with an ox and an ass yoked together; but Palamedcs discovered his deceit by placing his infant child Telcmachus in front of the plough; Odysseus afterwards revenged himself by compassing the death of Palamedes. During the war, he distinguished himself as the wisest adviser of the Greeks, and finally, the capture of Troy, which the bravery of Achilles could not accomplish, was attained by Odysseus' stratagem of the wooden horse. After the death of Achilles the Greeks adjudged his armour to Odysseus as the man who had done most to end the war successfully. When Troy was captured he set sail for Ithaca, but was carried by unfavourable winds to the coast of Africa. After encountering many adventures in all parts of the unknown seas, among the lotuseaters and the Cyclopes, in the isles of Aeolus and Circe and the perils of Scylla and Charybdis, among the Lacstrygones, and even in the world of the dead, having lost all his ships and companions, be barely escaped with his life to the island of Calypso, where he was detained eight years, an unwilling lover of the beautiful nymph. Then at the command of Zeus he was sent homewards, but was again wrecked on the island of Phacacia, whence he was conveyed to Ithaca in one of the wondrous Phacacian ships. Here he found that a host of suitors, taking advantage of the youth of his son Tclemachus, were wasting his property and Irying to force Penelope to marry one of them. The stratagems and disguises by which with the help of a fpw faithful friends be slew the suitors are described at length in the Odyssey. The only allusion to his death is contained in the prophecy of Tciresias, who promised him a happy old age and a peaceful death from the sea According to a later legend, Telcgonus, the son of Odysseus by Circe, was sent by her in search of his father. Cast ashore on Ithaca by a storm, he plundered the island to get provisions, and was attacked by Odysseus, whom he slew. The prophecy was thus fulfilled. Tclegonus, accompanied by Penelope and Telemachus, returned to his home with the body erf his father, whcse identity he had discovered.
According to E. Meyer (Hermes, xxx. p. 267), Odysseus is an old Arcadian nature god identical with Poseidon, who dies at the approach of winter (retires to the western sea or is carried •way to the underworld) to revive in spring (but sec E. Rohdc, £&i*. Mus. \. p. 6ji) A more suitable identification would be Hermes. Mannhardt and others regird Odysseus as a solar or summer divinity, who withdraws to the underworld during the winter, and returns in spring to free his wife from the suitors (the powers of winter) A. Gercke (Neue Jaltrbiiclicr fiir das L':ss:sfkf Atfrrtum, xv. p. 351) takes him to be an agricultural divinity akin lo the sun god, whose wife is the moon-goddess Penelope, from whom he is separated and reunited to her on the day of the new moon. His cult early disappeared; in Arcadia his place was taken by Poseidon. But although the personality of Odysseus may have had its origin in some primitive religious myth, chief interest attaches to him as the typical representative of the old sailor-race whose adventurous voyages educated and moulded the Hellenic race. The period when the character of Odysseus took shape among the Ionian bards
was when the Ionian ships were beginning to penetrate to the farthest shores of the Black Sea and to the western side of Italy, but when Egypt had not yet been freely opened to foreign intercourse. The adventures of Odysseus were a favourite subject in ancient art, in which he may usually be recognized by his conical sailor's cap.
Sec article by J. Schmidt in Roscher'f Lexikon der Mytholotie (where the different forms of the name and its etymology are fully discussed); O. Gruppe, Griechische Idythologie, ii. pp. 624, 705-718; J. E. Harrison, Myths of the Odyssey in Art and Literature (1881), with appendix on authorities. W. Mannhardt, Wold- und Feldkulte (1905), ii. p. 106: O. Seeck. Gesch. des Unlerganp der antiken Welt, it. p. 576; G. Fougcres, Mantinle et I'Arcadte orientate (1898), according to whom Odysseus is an Arcadian chthonian divinity and Penelope a goddess of flocks and herds, akin to the Arcadian Artemis; S. Eitrem, Die gbltlichen Zvrillinge bet den Griechen (1902), who identifies Odysseus with one of the Dioscuri ('OXwry« = DoXi4t6«ifi); V. BcVard, Les Phcniciens et I'Odyssce (1902-1903), who regards the Odyssey as " the integration in a Greek »&rrof (home-coming) of a Semitic pcriplus," in the form of a poem written 900-850 B.c. by an Ionic poet at the court of one of the Nclcid kings of Miletus. For an estimate of this work, the interest of which is mainly geographical, seo Classical Review (April 1904) and Quarterly Review (April 1905). It consists of two large volumes, with 240 illustrations and maps.
OEBEN, JEAN FRANCOIS, French iSth-century cabinetmaker, is believed to have been of German or Flemish origin; the date of his birth is unknown, but he was dead before 1767. In 1752, twenty years after Boulle's death, we find him occupying an apartment in the Louvre sublet to him by Charles Joseph Boulic, whose pupil he may have been. He has sometimes been confused with Simon Ocben, presumably a relative, who signed a fine bureau in the Jones collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum. J. F. Ocbcn is also represented in that collection by a pair of inlaid corner-cupboards. These with a bureau and a chiffonier in the Garde Mcuble in which bouquets of flowers are delicately inlaid in choice woods arc his best-known and most admirable achievements. He appears to have worked extensively for the marquise de Pompadour by whose influence he was granted lodgings at the Gobelins and the title of "£beniste du Roi" in 1754. There he remained until 1760, when he obtained an apartment and workshops at the Arsenal. His work in marquetry is of very great distinction, but he would probably never have enjoyed so great a reputation had it not been for his connexion with the famous Bureau du Roi, made for Louis XV., which appears lo have owed its inception to him, notwithstanding that it was not completed until some considerable time after his death and is signed by J. H. Riesener (q.v.) only. Documentary evidence under the hand of the king shows that it was ordered from Ocbcn in 1760, the year in which he moved to the Arsenal. The known work of Oeben possesses genuine grace and beauty; as craftsmanship it is of the first rank, and it is remarkable that, despite his Teutonic or Flemish origin, it is typically French in character.
OECOLAMPADIUS, JOHN (1482-1531), German Reformer, whose real name was Hussgcn or Heussgen,1 was born at Wcinsbcrg, a small town in the north of the modern kingdom of Wiirttcmberg, but then belonging to the Palatinate. He went lo school at Weinsbcrg and Hcilbronn, and then, intending to study law, he went lo Bologna, bul soon returned to Heidelberg and betook himself to theology. He became a zealous studenl of the new learning and passed from the study of Greek to that of Hebrew, taking his bachelor's degree in 1503. He became cathedral preacher at Basel in 1515, serving under Christopher von Uttcnhcim, the evangelical bishop of Basel. From the beginning the sermons of Occolampadius centred in the Atonement, and his first reformatory zeal showed itself in a prolcst (De risu paschali, 1518) againsl the introduction of humorous stories into Easter sermons. In 1520 he published his Greek Grammar. The same year he was asked to become preacher in the high church in Augsburg. Germany was then ablaze wilh the questions raised by Luther's theses, and his introduction into this new world, when at first he championed Luther's position especially in his anonymous Canonid indodi (1510), seems to have compelled Oecolampadius to severe sclf-examina
1 Changed to Hausschcin and then into the Greek equivalent.