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successive seasons, to'the great damage of the plantations. A species of coccus, C. oleae, attaches itself to the shoots, and certain Icpidoptcrous caterpillars feed on the leaves, while the " olive-fly" attacks the fruit. In France the olivettes suffer occasionally from frost; in the early part of the iSth century many trees were cut to the ground by a winter of exceptional severity. Gales and long-continued rains during the gathering season also cause mischief.

_ The unripe fruit of the olive is largely used in modern as in ancient times as an article of dessert, to enhance the flavour of wine, and to renew the sensitiveness of the palate for other viands. For this purpose the fruit is picked while green, soaked for a few hours in an alkaline ley, washed well in clean water and then placed in bottles or jars filled with brine; the Romans added amurca to the salt to increase the bitter flavour of the olives, and at the present day spices are sometimes used.

The leaves and bark of the tree are employed in the south, as a tonic medicine, in intermittent fever. A resinous matter called "olive gum," or Lucca gum, formed by the exuding juice in hot seasons, was anciently in medical esteem, and in modern Italy is used as a perfume.

In England the olive is not hardy, though in the southern counties it will stand ordinary winters with only the protection of a wall, and will bear fruit in such situations; but the leaves are generally shed in the autumn, and the olives rarely ripen.

The genus Olea includes several other species of some economic importance. O. paniculate is a larger tree, attaining a height of 50 or 60 ft. in the forests of Queensland, and yielding a nard and tough timber. The yet harder wood of O. laurifolia, an inhabitant of Natal, is the black ironwood of the South African colonist.

At what remote period of human progress the wild olive passed under the care of the husbandman and became the fruitful garden olive it is impossible to conjecture. The frequent reference in the Bible to the plant and its produce, its implied abundance in the land of Canaan, the important place it has always held in the economy of the inhabitants of Syria, lead us to consider that country the birthplace of the cultivated olive. An improved variety, possessed at first by some small Semitic sept, it was probably slowly distributed to adjacent tribes; and, yielding profusely, with little labour, that oily matter so essential to healthy life in the dry hot climates of the East, the gift of the fruitful tree became in that primitive age a symbol of peace and goodwill among the warlike barbarians. At a later period, with the development of maritime enterprise, the oil was conveyed, as an article of trade, to the neighbouring Pelasgic and Ionian nations, and the plant, doubtless, soon followed.

In the Homeric world, as depicted in the Iliad, olive oil is known only as a luxury of the wealthy—an exotic product, prized chiefly for its value in the heroic toilet; the warriors anoint themselves with it after the bath, and the body of Fatroclus is similarly sprinkled; but no mention of the culture of the plant is made, nor does it find any place on the Achillean shield, on which a vineyard is represented. But, although no reference to the cultivation of the olive occurs in the Iliad, the presence of the tree in the garden of Alcinous and other familiar allusions show it to have been known when the Odyssey was written. Whenever the introduction may have taken place, all tradition points to the limestone hills of Attica as the seat of its first cultivation on the Hellenic peninsula. When Poseidon and Athena contended for the future city, an olive sprang from the barren rock at the bidding of the goddess, the patron of (hose arts that were to bring undying influence to the rising state. That this myth has some relation to the first planting of the olive in Greece seems certain from the remarkable story told by Herodotus of the Epidaurians, who, on their crops failing, applied for counsel to the Delphic oracle, and were enjoined to erect statues to Damia and Auxesia (symbols of fertility) carved from the wood of the true garden olive, then possessed only by the Athenians, who granted their request for a tree on condition of their making an annual sacrifice to Athena, its patron; they thus obeyed the command of the Pythian, and their lands became again fertile. The sacred tree of the goddess long stood on the Acropolis, and, though destroyed in the Persian invasion, sprouted again from the root—some suckers of which were said to have produced those olive trees of the Academy in an after age no less revered. By the time of Solon the olive bad

so spread that he found it necessary to enact laws to regulate the cultivation of the tree in Attica, from which country it was probably distributed gradually to all the Athenian allies and tributary states. To the Ionian coast, where it abounded in the time of Thales, it may have been in an earlier age brought by Phoenician vessels; some of the Sporadcs may have received it from the same source; the olives of Rhodes and Crete had perhaps a similar origin. Samos, if we may judge from the epithet of Aeschylus U\aio4>vro$), must have had the fruitful plant long before the Persian wars.

It is not unlikely that the valued tree was taken to Magna Graecia by the first Achaean colonists, and the assertion of Pliny (quoted from Fenestella), that no olives existed in Italy; in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, must be received with the caution due to many statements of that industrious compiler. In Latin Italy the cultivation seems to have spread slowly, for it was not until the consulship of Pompey that the production of oil became sufficient to permit of its exportation. In Pliny's time it was already grown abundantly in the two Gallic provinces and in Spain; indeed, in the earlier days of Strabo the Ligurians supplied the Alpine barbarians with oil, in exchange for the wild produce of their mountains; the plant may have been introduced into those districts by Greek settlers in a previous age. Africa was indebted for the olive mainly to Semitic agencies. In Egypt the culture never seems to have made much progress; the oil found in Theban tombs was probably imported from Syria. Along the southern shore of the great inland sea the tree was carried by the Phoenicians, at a remote period, to their numerous colonies in Africa— though the abundant olives of Cyrcne, to which allusion is made by Thcophrastus, and the glaucous foliage of whose descendants still clothes the rocks of the deserted Cyrcnaica, may have been the offspring of Greek plants brought by the first settlers. The tree was most likely introduced into southern Spain, and perhaps into Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, by Phoenician merchants; and, if it be true that old olive trees were found in the Canaries on their rediscovery by medieval navigators, the venerable trees probably owed their origin to the same enterprising pioneers of the ancient world. De Candolle says that the means by which the olive was distributed to the two opposite shores of the Mediterranean are indicated by the names given to the plant by their respective inhabitants— the Greek l\aia passing into the Latin olca and olivo, that in its turn becoming the uliw of the modern Italian, the oliro of the Spaniard, and the olive, olivicr, of the French, while in Africa and southern Spain the olive retains appellatives derived from the Semitic zaii or *<:/; but the complete subjugation of Barbary by the Saracens sufficiently accounts for the prevalence of Semitic forms in that region; and aceyluna (Arab. uMn), the Andalusian name of the fruit, locally given to the tree itself, is but a vestige of the Moorish conquest.

Yielding a grateful substitute for the butter and animal fats consumed by the races of the north, the olive, among the southern nations of antiquity, became an emblem not only of peace but of national wealth and domestic plenty; the branches borne in the Panathenaea, the wild olive spray of the Olympic victor, the olive crown of the Roman conqueror at ovation, and those of the equitcs at their imperial review alike typified gifts of peace that, in a barbarous age, could be secured by victory alone. Among the Greeks the oil was valued as an important article of diet, as well as for its external use. The Roman people employed it largely in food and cookery—the wealthy as an indispensable adjunct to the toilet; and in the luxurious days of the later empire it became a favourite axiom that long and pleasant life depended on two fluids, " wine within and oil without." Pliny vaguely describes fifteen varieties of olive cultivated in his day, that called the " Licinian " being held in most esteem, and the oil obtained from it at Vcnafrum in Campania the finest known to Roman connoisseurs; the produce of Istria and Bactica was regarded as second only to that of the Italian peninsula. The gourmet of the empire valued the unripe fruit, steeped in brine, as a provocative to the palate, no less than his modern representative; ud pickled olives, retaining their characteristic flavour, have been found among the buried stores of Pompeii. The bitter joke or refuse deposited during expression of the oil (called em&cc), and the astringent leaves of the tree have many virtues attributed to them by ancient authors. The oil of the bitter wild dive was employed by the Roman physicians hi medicine, but does not appear ever to have been used as food or in the culinary art.

In modern times the olive has been spread widely over the vorld; and, though the Mediterranean lands that were its ancient home still yield the chief supply of the oil, the tree is now cultivated successfully in many regions unknown to its early distributors. Soon after the discovery of the American continent it was conveyed thither by the Spanish settlers. In Chile it flourishes as luxuriantly as in its native land, the trunk sometines becoming of large girth, while oil of fair quality is yielded by the fruit. To Peru it was carried at a later date, but has not there been equally successful. Introduced into Mexico by the Jesuit missionaries of the I7th century, it was planted by similar agency in Upper California, where it has prospered latterly under the more careful management of the Anglo-Saxon conqueror. Its cultivation has also been attempted in the south-eastern states, especially in S. Carolina, Florida and Mississippi. In the eastern hemisphere the olive has been established in many inland districts vhich would have been anciently considered ill-adapted for its culture. To Armenia and Persia it was known at a comparatively early period of history, and many olive-yards now exist in Upper Egypt. The tree has been introduced into Chinese agriculture, and has become an important addition to the resources of the Australian planter. In Queensland the olive has found a climate specially suited to its wants; in South Australia, near Adelaide, it also grows vigorously; and there are probably few coast districts of the vast island-continent where the tree would not Sourish. It has- Like wise been successfully introduced into some parts of Cape Colony.

OLIVEIRA MARTINS, JOAQUIM PEDRO DB (1845-1804), Portuguese writer, was bom in Lisbon and received his early education at the Lyceb Nacional and the Academia das Bellas Artes. At the age of fourteen his father's death compelled him to seek a living as clerk in a commercial house, but he gradually improved his position until in 1870 he was appointed manager of the mine of St Eufcmia near Cordova. In Spain he wrote 0. Socialismo, and developed that sympathy for the industrial classes of which he gave proof throughout his life. Returning to Portugal in 1874, he became administrator of the railway from Oporto to Povoa, residing in Oporto. He had married when only nineteen, and for many years devoted his leisure hours to the study of economics, geography and history. In 1878 his memoir A Circulaf&o fiduciaria brought him the gold medal and membership of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon. Two years liter be was elected president of the Sociely of Commercial Geography of Oporto, and in 1884 he became director of the Industrial and Commercial Museum in that city. In 1885 he entered public lite, and in the following year represented Vianna do Castello hi parliament, and in 1887 Oporto. Removing to Lisbon in 1888, he continued the journalistic work which be had commenced when living in the north, by editing the Reporter, and in 1889 he was named administrator of the Tobacco Regie. He represented Portugal at international conferences" in Berlin nl Madrid in 1890, and was chosen to speak at the celebration of the fourth centenary of Columbus held in Madrid in i8gi, which gained him membership of the Spanish Royal Academy of History. He became minister of finance on the 17th of January jSqz, and Later vice-president of the Junta do Credito Publico. His health, however, began to break down as a result of a life spent in unremitting toil, and he died on the 34th of August

Hb youthful struggles and privations had taught him a serious riew of life, which, with his acute sensibility, gave him a reserved Ztosdct, but Oliveira Martins was one of the most generous and noble of men. Like Anthero de Quental, he was impregnated with modern German philosophy, and his perception of the low

moral standard prevailing in public life made him a pessimist who despaired of his country's future, but his sense of proportion, and the necessity which impelled him to work, saved him from, the fate which befell his friend, and he died a believing Catholic. At once a gifted psychologist, a profound sociologist, a stern moralist, and an ardent patriot, Oliveira Martins deserved his European reputation. His Bibliothcca dai idencias sociaes, a veritable encyclopaedia, comprises literary criticism, socialism, economics, anthropology, histories of Iberian civilization, of the Roman Republic, Portugal and Brazil. Towards the end of his life he specialized in the i $th century and produced two notable volumes, Ov jithos de D. Joao /. and A vida de Nun'Alvcres, leaving unfinished O principe perfeito, a study on King John II., which was edited by his friend Henrique de Barros Gomes.

As the literary leader of a national revival, Oliveira Martins occupied an almost unique position in Portugal during the last third of the ipth century. If he judged and condemned the parliamentary regime and destroyed many illusions in his sensational Contemporary Portugal, and if in his philosophic History of Portugal he showed, in a scries of impressionist pictures, the slow decline of his country commencing in the golden age of the discoveries and conquests, be at the same time directed the gaze of his countrymen to the days of their real greatness under the House of Aviz, and incited them to work for a better future by describing the faith and patriotism which had animated the foremost men of the race in the middle ages. He had neither time nor opportunity for original research, but his powerful imagination and picturesque style enabled him to evoke the past and make it present to his readers.

The chief characteristics of the man—psychological imagination combined with realism and a gentle irony—make his strength as a historian and his charm as a writer. When some critics objected that his Historio de Portugal ought rather to be named "Ideas on Portuguese History," he replied that a synthetic and dramatic picture of one of those collective beings called nations gives the mind a clearer, truer and more lasting impression than a summary narrative of successive events. But just because he possessed the talents and temperament of a poet, Oliveira Martins was fated to make frequent mistakes as well as to discover important truths. He must be read with care because he is emotional, and cannot let facts speak for themselves, but interrupts the narrative with expressions of praise or blame. Some of his books resemble a series of visions, while, despite his immense erudition, he docs not always supply notes or refer to authorities. He can draw admirable portraits, rich with colour and life; in his Historic, de Portugal and Conlcmporaneo Portugal those of King Pedro I. and Hcrculano are among the best known. He describes to perfection such striking events as the Lisbon earthquake, and excels in the appreciation of an epoch. In these respects Castelar considered him superior to Macaulay, and declared that few men in Europe possessed the universal aptitude and the fullness of knowledge displayed by Oliveira Martins.

The works of Oliveira Martins include Eltmentas de anlhropohgia, As Rafas humanas e a civilisa^ao primitita, Systcma dot mythos rfligiosos. Quadra das institui^ois primitives, O Regime das riquexas. Politico, e economic national. Taboos de chrouologia e gfograpltia histories, O HeUenismo e a cmilisac,3o christa. Historic! da Republica Romana, Historia da cioilisa$ao ibcrica, Historia de Portugual, Brazil e as colonias portuguezas, Portugal nos Marts, Portugal em Africa, Portugal contemporanto, Cam&s as Lusiadas e a renascence em Portugal—a brilliant commentary on the physiognomy of the poet and his poem. Os Filhos de D. JoSo /., the preface to which gives his views on the writing of history—A Vida de Nun" Ahares\ and A, Inglaterra de Hoje—the result of a visit to England.

See Moniz Barrcto, Olivfira Marlins, estudo de psychologia (Paris, 1887), a remarkable study: F. Dini/ D'Ayalla. Os Ideaes de Olkeira Marlins (Lisbon, 1897), which contains an admirable statement of his ideas, philosophical and otherwise; Anthero de Quental, Oliveira Marlins (Lisbon, 1894) and Diccionario bibliographico pprlugitcz, xii. 125. (E. Pr.)

OLIVENITE, a mineral consisting of basic copper arsenate with tic formula Cu>(OH)AsOi. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, and is sometimes found in small brilliant crystals of simple prismatic habit terminated by domal faces. More usually, however, it occurs as globular aggregates of acicular crystals, these fibrous forms often having a velvety lustre: sometimes it is lamellar in structure, or soft and earthy. A characteristic feature, and one to which the name alludes (German, Olitxnen, of A. G. Werner, 1789), is the olive-green colour, which varies in shade from blackish-green in the crystals to almost white in the finely fibrous variety known as "woodcopper." The hardness is 3, and the sp. gr. 4-3. The mineral was formerly found in some abundance, associated with limonite and quartz, in the upper workings in the copper mines of the St Day district in Cornwall; alsoncarRedruth,and in the Tintic district in Utah. It is a mineral of secondary origin, having been formed by the alteration of copper ores and mispickcL

The arsenic of olivcnite is sometimes partly replaced byasmall amount of phosphorus, and in the species libethcnite we have the corresponding basic copper phosphate Cu2(OH)PC>4. This is found as small dark green crystals resembling olivcnite at Libethen in Hungary, and in small amount also in Cornwall. Other members of this isomorphous group of minerals arc adamitc, Znj(OH)As04, and dcscloizitc (?.!>.). (L. J. S.)

OLIVER, ISAAC (r. 1566-1617), English miniature painter, was probably bom in London, as in 1571 a certain Peter Olivier of Rouen was residing in London with his wife and had been there for three years with one " chylde" named "Isokc." It would seem likely, therefore, that he was not at that time more than six years old. It has been suggested by Mr Lionel Cust, from the Huguenot records, that he is identical with one Isaac Oliver of Rouen, married at the Dutch church in Austin Friars in 1602. His death occurred in 1617, and he was,buried in the church of St Anne, Blackfriars. He was probably a pupil of Nicholas Milliard, and connected through his wife, whose name is unknown, with the artists Ghceracrts and De Critz. He was an exceedingly expert miniature painter, and splendid examples of his work can be seen at Montagu House, Windsor Castle, Shcrborne Castle and in the collections of Mr J. Ficrpont Morgan and the late Baroness Burdclt-Coutts. Some, of his pen drawings are in the British Museum. (G. C. W.)

OLIVER, PETER (1594-1648), English miniature painter, was the eldest son of Isaac Oliver, probably by his first wife; and to him Isaac Oliver left hb> finished and unfinished drawings, with the hope that he would live to exercise the art of his father. The younger sons of the artist appear to have been under age at the lime of his death, and were probably therefore sons by a later wife than the mother of Peter Oliver. He resided at Islcworth, and was buried beside his father at St Anne's, Blackfriars. He was even more eminent in miniature painting than his father, and is specially remarkable for a series of copies in water-colour he made after celebrated pictures by old masters. Most of these were done by the desire of the king, and seven of them still remain at Windsor Castle. A great many of Oliver's works were purchased by Charles II. from his widow; several of his drawings arc in existence, and a leaf from his pocket-book in the collection of the carl of Derby. His most .important work is the group of the three grandsons of the ist Viscount Montacute with their servant, now belonging to the marquess of Exeter; and there are fine miniatures by him at Wclbeck Abbey, Montagu House, Sherbome Castle, Minlcy Manor, Belvoir Castle and in the private collection of the queen of Holland. (G. C. W.)

OLIVES, MOUNT OF, or Mount Olivet ('Open 'EXoiuvos or ruv 'EXaujv; mod. Jebel-et-Tur), the ridge facing the Temple Mount at Jerusalem on the east, and separated from it by Ihe Kidron. A basis of hard cretaceous limestone is topped with softer deposits of the same, quaternary deposits forming the summit. There are four distinct elevations in the ridge: traditionally the southernmost, which is separated by a cleft from the others, is called the" Hill of Offence," and said to be the scene of Solomon's idolatry. The summit to the north of this is often (wrongly) spoken of as Olivet proper. Still worse is the error of

calling the next hill but one to the north " Scopus." The top of the ridge affords a comprehensive view. There are four Old Testament references: 2 Sam. xv. 3osqq., Neh. viii. 15, Ezek. xi. 23, Zech. xiv. 4. In the New Testament the place is mentioned in connexion with the last days of the life of Jesus. He crossed it on his kingly entry into Jerusalem, and upon it he delivered hisgreateschatologicaladdrcss(Markxiii.3). That the Ascension took place from the summit of the Mount of Olives is not necessarily implied in Acts i. 12; the words "over against Bethany" (Luke xxiv. 50) perhaps mean one of the secluded ravines on the eastern slope, beside one of which that village stands. But since Constantine erected the " Basilica of the Ascension " on the spot marked bya certain sacred cave (Euscb. Vila Const, iii. 41), the site of this event has been placed here and marked by a succession of churches. The present building is quite modern, and is in the hands of the Moslems. Close to the Chapel of the Ascension is the vault of St Pelagia, and a little way down the hill is the labyrinth of early Christian rock-hewn sepulchral chambers now called the "Tombs of the Prophets." During the middle ages Olivet was also shown as the mount of the Transfiguration. A chapel, bearing the name of the Caliph Omar, and said to occupy the place where he encamped when Jerusalem surrendered to the Moslems, formerly stood beside the Church of the Ascension. There arc a considerable number of monastery and churches of various religious orders and sects on the hill, from whose beauty their uniform and unredeemed ugliness detracts sadly. On Easter day 1907 was laid the foundation of a hospice for pilgrims, under the patronage of the German empress.

OLIVETANS, one of the lesser monastic orders following the Benedictine Rule, founded by St Bernard Tolomei, a Sicncse nobleman. At the age of forty, when the leading man in Siena, he retired along with two companions to live a hermit's life at Accona, a desert place fifteen miles to the south of Siena, 1313. Soon others joined them, and in 1324 John XXII. approved of the formation of r.n order. The Benedictine Rule was taken as the basis of the life; but austerities were introduced beyond what St Benedict prescribed, and the government was framed on the mendicant, not the monastic, model, the superiors being appointed only for a short term of years. The habit is white. Partly from the olive trees that abound there, and partly out of devotion to the Passion, Accona was christened Monte Olivcto, whence the order received its name. By the end of the nth century there were upwards of a hundred monasteries, chiefly in Italy; and in the i8th there still were eighty, one of the most famous being San Miniato at Florence. The monastery of Monte Olivcto Maggiorc is an extensive building of considerable artistic interest, enhanced by frescoes of Signorelli and Sodoma; it is now a national monument occupied by two or three monks as custodians, though it could accommodate three hundred. The Olivctans have a house in Rome and a few others, including one founded in Austria in 1899. There are about 125 monks in all, 54 being priests. In America are some convents of Oliveuui nuns.

See Hclyot, nisi, da ordrcs rllipaa (1718), vi. c. 34; Max Hcimbucher, Orden u. Kongrcralioncn (1907), i. ( 30; Wetzer u. Welte, Kirckrnlexicon (cd. 2); J. A. Symonas. Sketches and Studies in Italy (1898), " Monte Glivcto ": B. M. Martchaux, Vie de bienktureta Bernard Tolomci (1888). (E. C. B.)

OLIVIER, JUSTE DANIEL (1807-1876), Swiss poet, was born near Nyon in the canton of Vaud; he was brought up as a peasant, but studied at the college of Nyon, and later at the academy of Lausanne. Though originally intended for the ministry, his poetic genius (foreshadowed by the prizes he obtained in 1825 and 1828 for poems on Marcos Botzaris and Julia Alpinula respectively) inclined him towards literary studies. He was named professor of literature at Ncuchatel (1830), but before taking up the duties of his post made a visit to Paris, where he completed his education and became associated with Ste Bcuve, especially from 1837 onwards. He professed history at Lausanne from 1833 to 1846, when he lost his chair in consequence of the religious troubles. He then went to Paris, Retire remained till 1870, earning his bread by various means,

ta being nearly forgotten in his native land, to which he

Mained tenderly attached From 1845 till 1860 (when the

ftlfumr was merged in the BMiollicquc unixrsellc) Olivier

»4 hii «i[e wrote in the Revue saisst the Paris letter, which

kaUxsn started by Ste Bcuve in 1843, when Olivier became

ihcojwtof the periodical. After the war of 1870 he settled

i»'.ninS'»itrer!a.ncl. spending his summers at his beloved Gryon,

ml did at Gene-fa, on the 7lh of January 1876. Besides some

novels, a semi-poetical work on the Canton of Vaud (2 vols.,

1837-1841), and a. volume of historical essays entitled £ludc±

fkutoirt rationale (18.42), he published several volumes of

pctras, Deux \'o-ix (1835), Chansons loinlaincs (1847) and its

coniinuitio'A Chansons du soir (1867), and Stnliers de montagne

(Gryon, 187 sV His younger brother, Urbain (1810-1888), was

*ui known, from 1856 onwards as the author of numerous

popular la\es of rural life in the Canton of Vaud, especially of the

region near Nyon.

Life by Rambert (1877), rcpublished in his &rmins ic la Stiiise *p«ande (i6ft<>'). and also prefixed to his edition of O'ivicr's OLuvres c»cui« (U»usa.nne, 1879). (W. A. B. C.)

OUVWE, a rock-forming mineral composed of magnesium and lerrous orthosilicatc, the formula being (Mg, Fc};Si04. Tbe name oUvine, proposed by A. G. Werner in 1790, alludes to the olive-green colour commonly shown by the mineral. The transparent varieties, or "precious olivine" used in jewelry, are known as chrysolite (q.v.) and peridot (q.v.). The term o/j'vine is often applied incorrectly by jewellers to various green stones.

Olivine crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, but distinctly developed crystals are comparatively rare, the mineral more often occurring as compact or granular masses or as grains and blebs embedded in the igneous rocks of which it forms a constituent part. There are indistinct cleavages parallel to the macxopirucoid (M in the fig.) and the brachypinacoid. The hardness is 6J; arid the sp. gr 3-27-3'37, but reaching 3^57 in the highly ferruginous variety known as hyalosidcrite. The amount of ferrous oxide varies from 5 (about 9 % in the gem varieties to 30 % in hyalosidcritc. The depth of the green, or yellowish-brown colour, also varies with the amount of iron. The lustre is vitreous. The indices of refraction ( 1-66 and 1-70) and the double refraction arc higher than in many other rock-forming minerals; and

these characters, together with the indistinct cleavage, enable the mineral to be readily distinguished in thin rock-sections under the microscope. The mineral is decomposed by hot hydrochloric acid with separation of gelatinous silica. Olivine often contains small amounts of nickel and titanium dioxide; the Utter replaces silica, and in the variety known as titanoEvine reaches 5%.

Olivine is a common constituent of many basic and ultrabasic locks, such as basalt, diabase, gabbro and peridolite: the d unite, of Dun Mountain near Nelson in New Zealand, is an almost pure olivine-rock. In basalts it is often present as small porphyntic crystals or as large granular aggregates. It also occurs as an accessory constituent of some granular dolomitic limestones and crystalline schists. With enstatitc it forms the b-.uk of the material of meteoric stones; and in another type of meteorites large blebs of glassy oUvine fill spaces in a cellular raasj of metallic iron.

OUvine is especially liable to alteration into serpentine (hydrated magnesium silicate); the alteration proceeds from the outside of the crystals and grains or along irregular cracks in their interior, and gives rise to the separation of iron oxides and an irregular E«-»-ork of fibrous serpentine, which in rock-sections presents « very characteristic appearance. Large greenish-yellow crystals from Snarum in Buskerud, Norway, at one time thought to be crystals of serpentine, really consist of serpentine pscudoafter olivine. Many of the Urge rock-masses of

[graphic]

serpentine have been derived by the scrpcntinization of olivini rocks. Olivine also sometimes alters, especially in crystallir schists, to a fibrous, colourless amphibole, to which the nan: pilitc has been given. By ordinary weathering processes alters to limonite and silica.

Closely related to olivine are several other species, which ai included together in the olivine group: they have the ortliosilicat formula R iSiO«, where R* represents calcium, magnesium, iroi manganese aad rarely zinc; they ?ll crystallize in the orthorhomb system, and are isomorphous with olivine. The following may t mentioned:—

Montiecllite, CaMgSiO<, a rare mineral occurring as yctlowis! grey crystals and grains in granular limestone at Monte Sommi Vesuvius.

Forstcritc, MgiSipi, as colourless or yellowish grains embeddc in many crystalline limestones.

Fayalite, FejSiO*. or iron olivine is dark brown or black irr colou It occurs as nodules in a volcanic rock at Fayal in the Azores, and i granite at thcMourne Mountains in Ireland; and as small crystals! cavities in rhyolitc at the Yellowstone Park, U.S.A. It is a commc constituent of crystalline iron slags.

Tephroite, MitiSjOi, a grey (rttpii, ash-coloured), cleavab mineral occurring with other manganifcrous minerals in Sweden an New Jersey. . (L, J. S.)

OLLIVIER, OUVIER fMILE (1825- ), French slatcsmai was born at Marseilles on the and of July 1825. His fathe Demosthenes Ollivier (1790-1884), was a vehement opponci of the July monarchy, and was returned by Marseilles to tl Constituent Assembly in 1848. His opposition to Louis Napolec led to his banishment after thecoupd'tialof December 1851, an he only returned to France in 1860. On the establishment i the short-lived Second Republic his father's influence wit Lcdru-Rollin secured for £milc OUivicr the position of con missary-gencral of the department of Bouches-du-RhAn Ollivicr was then twenty-three and had just been called to tl Parisian bar. Less radical in his political opinions than h father, his repression of a socialist outbreak at Marseilles con mended him to General Cavaignac, who continued him in h functions by making him prefect of the department. He w; shortly afterwards removed to the comparatively unimportai prefecture of Chaumont (Haute-Marnc), a semi-disgrace whic he ascribed to his father's enemies. He therefore resigned froi the civil service to take up practice at the bar, where his brilliai abilities assured his success.

He rc-cntercd political life in 1857 as deputy for the 31 circumscription of the Seine. His candidature had been su| ported by the Sitcle, and he joined the constitutional oppositioi With Alfred Darimon, Jules Favrc, J. L. H£non and Erne Picard he formed the group known as Les Cinq, which wruri from Napoleon III. some concessions in the direction of coi stitutional government. The imperial decree of the 24lh < November, permitting the insertion of parliamentary rcpor in the Monikur, and an address from the Corps Lcgislatif i reply to the speech from the throne, were welcomed by him as first instalment of reform. This, acquiescence marked a conside able change of attitude, for only a year previously a violent attac on the imperial government, in the course of a defence of Etienr Vacherot, brought to trial for thi; publication of La Dimocrali had resulted in his suspension from the bar for three month He gradually separated from his old associates, who groupc themselves around Jules Favre, and during the session of iS6€ 1867 Ollivier formed a third party, which definitely supported th principle of a Liberal Empire. On the last day of December 1861 Count A. F. J. Walcwski, acting in continuance of negotiatioi already begun by the due de Momy, offered Ollivier the ministr of education with the function of representing the general polk of the government in the Chamber. The imperial decree of th igth of January 1867, together with the promise inserted i the Monittur of a relaxation of the stringency of the press law and of concessions in respect of the right of public meeting, failc to satisfy Ollivier's demands, and he refused office. On the c\ of the general election of 1869 he published a manifesto, Le J jamitr, in justification of his policy. The slnatus-consulle of tl 8th of September 1869 gave the two chambers the ordinar parliamentary rights, and was followed by the dismissal of Rouhcr and the formation in the last week of 1869 of a responsible ministry of which M. Ollivier was really premier, although that office was not nominally recognized by the constitution. The new cabinet, known as the ministry of the 2nd of January, had a hard task before it, complicated a week after its formation by the shooting of Victor Noir by Prince Pierre Bonaparte. Ollivier immediately summoned the high court of justice for the judgment of Prince Bonaparte and Prince Joachim Murat. The riots following on the murder were suppressed without bloodshed; circulars were sent round to the prefects forbidding them in future to put pressure on the electors in favour of official candidates; Baron Haussmann was dismissed from the prefecture of the Seine; the violence of the press campaign against the emperor, to whom he had promised a happy old age, was broken by the prosecution of Henri Rochefort; and on the 2oth of April a sanatus-consulte was issued which accomplished the transformation of the Empire, into a constitutional monarchy Neither concessions nor firmness sufficed to appease the " Irreconcilables " of the opposition, who since the relaxation of the press laws were able to influence the electorate. On i'»• 8th of May, however, the amended constitution was submitted, on Rouhcr's advice, to a plebiscite, which resulted jn a vote of nearly seven to one in favour of the government. The most distinguished members of the Left in his cabinet—L. J. Buffet, Napoleon Daru and Talhouct Roy—resigned in April on the question of the plebiscite. Ollivier himself held the ministry of foreign affairs for a few weeks, until Daru was replaced by the due de Gramont, destined to be OUivier's evil genius. The other-vacancies were filled by J. P. Mege and C. L 1'lichou, both of them of Conservative tendencies.

The revival of the candidature of Prince Leopold of HohenlolJern-Sigmaringen for the throne of Spain early in 1870 disconcerted OUivier's plans. The French government, following Gramont's advice, instructed Bcncdetti to demand from the king of Prussia a formal disavowal of the Hohcnzollcrn candidature. Ollivicr allowed himself to be gained by the war party. The story of Bcnedetti's reception at Ems and of Bismarck's manipulation of the Ems telegram is told elsewhere (see Bisuakck). It is unlikely that Ollivier could have prevented the eventual outbreak of war, but he might perhaps have postponed it at that time, if he had taken time to hear Bcnedetti's account of the incident. He was outmanoeuvred by Bismarck, and on the i sth of July he made a hasty declaration in the Chamber that the Prussian government had issued to the powers a note announcing the rebuff received by Bencdetti. He obtained a war vote of 500,000,000 francs, and used the fatal words that he accepted the responsibility of the war " with a light heart," saying that the war had been forced on France. On the oth of August, with the news of the first disaster, the Ollivier cabinet was driven from office, and its chief sought refuge from the general rage in Italy. He returned to France in 1873, but although he carried on an active campaign in the Bonapartist Estafelte his political power was gone, and even in his own party he came into collision in 1880 with M. Paul de Cassagnac. During his retirement he employed himself in writing a history of L'Empire liberal, the first volume of which appeared in 1803. The work really dealt with the remote and immediate causes of the war, and was the author's apology for his blunder. The I3th volume showed that the immediate blame could not justly be' placed entirely on his shoulders. His other works include Democratic et libertl (1867), Le MMslere du 2 Janvier, mcs discours (1873), Principes el ccnduile (1873), L'Eglise el I'Etat an concile du Vatican (2 vols., 1879), Solutions politiqua et sociales (1893), Notmau Manuel du droit eccllsiastique franfais (1883). He had many connexions with the literary and artistic world, being one of the early Parisian champions of Wagner. Elected to the Academy in 1870, he did not take his seat, his reception being indefinitely postponed. His first wife, Blandinc Liszt, was the daughter of the Abb6 Liszt by Mme d'AgouIt (Daniel Stern). She died in 1862, and Ollivier married in 1869 Mile Clavier.

Ollivicr's own view of his political life is given in his L'Empirt libfrat, which must always be an important "document" for the history of his time; but the book must be treated with no less caution than respect.

OLMSTED, DENISOH (1791-1839), American man of science, was born at East Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A., on the i8th of June 1701, and in 1813 graduated at Yale, where he acted as college tutor from 1813 to 1817. In the latter year he was appointed to the chair of chemistry, mineralogy and geology in the university of North Carolina. This chair he exchanged for that of mathematics and physics at Yale in 1823; in 1836, when this professorship was divided, he retained that of astronomy and natural philosophy. He died at New Haven, Connecticut, on the i3th of May 1839.

His first publication (1824-1825) was the Report of his geological survey of the state of North Carolina. It was followed by various text-books on natural philosophy and astronomy, but he is chiefly known to the scientific world for his observations on hail (1830). on meteors and on the aurora borealia (see Smithsonian Contributions. vol. viii.).

OLMSTED, FREDERICK LAW (1822-1903), American landscape architect, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 27th of April 1822. From his earliest years he was a wanderer. While still a lad he shipped before the mast as a sailor; then he took a course in the Yale Scientific School; worked for several farmers; and, finally, began farming for himself on Staten Island, where he met Calvcrt Vaux, with whom later he formed a business partnership. All this time .he wrote for the agricultural papers. In 1830 he" made a walking tour through England, his observations being published in Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England (1832). A horseback trip through the Southern States was recorded in A Journey in the Seaboard Slave Siata (1836), A Journey through Texas (1857) and A Journey in the Back Country (1860). These three volumes, reprinted in England in two as Journeys and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom (1861), gave a picture of the conditions surrounding American slavery that had great'influence on British opinion, and they were much quoted in the controversies at the time of the Civil War. During the war he was the untiring secretary of the U.S. Sanitary Commission. He happened to be in New York City when Central Park was projected, and, in conjunction with Vaux, proposed the plan which, in competition with more than thirty others, won first prize. Olmsted was made superintendent to carry out the plan. This was practically the first attempt in the United States to apply art to the improvement or embellishment of nature in'a public park; it attracted great attention, and the -work was so satisfactorily done that he was engaged thereafter in most of the important works of a similar nature in America—Prospect Park, Brooklyn; Fairmount Park, Philadelphia; South Park, Chicago; Riverside and Morningside Parks, New York; Mount Royal Park, Montreal; the grounds surrounding the Capitol at Washington, and at Leland Stanford University at Palo Alto (California); and many others. He took the bare stretch of lake front at Chicago and developed it into the beautiful World's Fair grounds, placing all the buildings and contributing much to the architectural beauty and the success of the exposition. He was greatly interested in the Niagara reservation, made the plans for the park there, and also did much, to influence the state of New York to provide the Niagara Park. He was the first commissioner of the National Park of the Yosemite and the Mariposa Grove, directing the survey and taking charge of the property for the state of California. He had also held directing appointments under the cities of NewYork, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Wilmington and San Francisco, the Joint, Committee on Buildings and Grounds of Congress, the Niagara Falls Reservation Commission, the trustees of Harvard, Yale, Amhcrst and other colleges and public institutions. Subsequently to 1886 he was largely occupied in laying out an extensive system of parks and parkways for the city of Boston and the town of Brooklinc, and on a scheme of landscape improvement of Boston harbour. Olmsted received honorary degrees from Harvard, Amherst and Yale in 1864, 1867 and. iS<jj. He died on the 28th of August 1903.

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