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The third or easternmost section was open to the public. This temple was most richly adorned with statues and reliefs. On the east front were represented in twenty-one colossal figures the moment before the contest between Oenomaus and Pelops. The west front exhibited the fight of the Lapithae and Centaurs. The statement of Pausanias that the two pediments were made by Paconius and Alcamenes is now generally supposed to be an error. The Twelve Labours of Heracles were depicted on the metopes of the prodomos and opisthodomos; and of these reliefs much the greater part was found—enough to determine with certainty all the essential features of the composition. It was near this temple, at a point about 38 yds. E.S.E. from the south-east angle, that the explorers found the statue of a flying goddess of victory—the Nike of Paeon i us.
4. The Temple of Hera (Hcraeum), north of the Pclopium, was raised on two steps. It is probably the oldest of extant Greek temples, and may date from about 1000 B.c. It has colonnades of six columns each at east and west, and of sixteen each (counting the corner columns again) at north and south. It was smaller than the temple of Zeus, and, while resembling it in general plan, differed from it by its singular length relatively to its breadth. When Pausanias saw it, one of the two columns of the opisthodomos (at the west end of the cclla) was of wood; and for a long period all the columns of this temple had probably been of the same material. A good deal of patch-work in the restoration of particular parts seems to have been done at various periods. Only the lower part of the cclla wall was of stone, the rest being of unbaked brick; the entablature above the columns was of wood covered with terracotta. *The cella—divided, like that of Zeus, into three partitions by a double row of columns—had four " tongue-walls," or small screens, projecting at right angles from its north wall, and as many from the south wall. Five niches were thus formed on the north side and five on the south. In the third niche from the east, on the north side of the cclla, was found one of the greatest of all the treasures which rewarded the German explorers— the Hermes of Praxiteles (1878).
5. The Temple of the Great Mother of Ike Gods (Metrovrti) was again considerably smaller rhan the Hcraeum. It stood to the east of the latter, and had a different orientation, viz. not west to east but west-north-west to east-south-east. It was raised on three steps, and had a pcripteros of six columns (cast and west) by eleven (north and south), having thus a slightly smaller length relatively to its breadth than either of the other two temples. Here also the cella had prodomos and opisthodomos. The adornment and painting of this temple had once been very rich and varied. It was probably built in the 4th century, and there are indications that in Roman times it underwent a restoration.
B. Votive Edifices.—Under this head are placed buildings erected, either by states or by individuals, as offerings to the Olympian god.
1. The twelve Treasure-houses on the north side of the Alt is, immediately under the Cronion, belong to this class.
The same general character—that of a Doric temple in antis, facing south—is traceable in all the treasure-houses. In the cases of several of these the fragments are sufficient to aid a reconstruction. Two—viz. the and and 3rd counting from the west—had been dismantled at an early date, and their site was traversed by a roadway winding upward towards the Cronion. This roadway seems to have been older at least than A.d. 157, since it caused a deflexion in the watercourse along the base of the Cronion constructed by Herodes Atticus. Pausanias, therefore, would not have seen treasure-houses Nos. 2 and 3. This explains the fact that, though we can trace twelve, he names only ten.
As the temples of ancient Greece partly served the purposes of banks in which precious objects coula be securely deposited, so the form of a small Doric chapel was a natural one for the " treasurehouse " to assume. Each of these treasure-houses was erected by a Greek state, either as a thank-offering for Olympian victories gained by its citizens, or as a general mark of homage to the Olympian Zeus. The treasure-houses were designed to contain the various AvoftSf«ta or dedicated gifts (such as gold and silver plate, &c.), in which the wealth of the sanctuary partly consisted. The temple inventories recently discovered at Delos illustrate the great quantity of such possessions which were apt to accumulate at a shrine of Panhellenic celebrity. Taken in order from the west, the treasure-houses were founded by the following states: I, Sicyon; a, 3. unknown; 4. Syracuse (referred by Pausanias to Carthage); 5, tpidamnus; 6, Byzantium; 7, Sybans; 8, Cyrenc; o,, Sclinus; 10, Metapontum; ii, Mcgara; 12, Gcla. It is interesting to remark how this list represents the Greek colonies, from Libya to Sicily, from the Euxine to the Adriatic. Greece proper, on the other hand, is represented only by Megara and Sicyon. The dates of the foundations cannot be fixed. Tne architectural members of some of the treasure-houses have been found built into the Byzantine wall, or elsewhere on the site, as well as the tcrra-cotta plates that overlaid the stonework in some cases, and the pedimental figures, representing the battle of the gods and giants, from the treasure-house of the Mega nans.
2. The Philippevm stood near the north-west corner of the Altis, ft short space west-south-west of the Hcraeum. It was dedicated by Philip of Macedon, after his victory at Chaeronea (3^8 B.c.). As • thank-offering for the overthrow of Greek freedom, it might
seem strangely placed in the Olympian Altis. But it is, in fact, only another illustration of the manner in which Philip's position and power enabled him to place a decent disguise on the real nature of the change. Without risking any revolt of Hellenic feeling, the new " captain-general " of Greece could erect a monument of his triumph in the very heart of the Panhellenic sanctuary. The building consisted of a circular Ionic colonnade (of eighteen columns), about 15 metres in diameter, raised on three steps and enclosing a small circular cella, probably adorned with fourteen Corinthian half-columns. It contained portraits by Lcochares of Philip, Alexander, and other members of their family, in gold and ivory.
3. The Exedra of Herodes Atticus stood at the north limit of the Altis, close to the north-cast angle of the Hcraeum, and immediately west of the westernmost treasure-house (that of Sicyon). It consisted of a half-dome of brick, 54 ft. in diameter, with south-southwest aspect. Under the half-dome were placed twenty-one marble statues, representing the family of Antoninus Pius, of Marcus Aurelius,' and of the founder, Herodes Atticus. In front of the halfdome on the south, and extending slightly beyond it. was a basin of water for drinking, 71J ft. long. The ends of the basin at northnorth-west and south-south-east were adorned by very small open temples, each with a circular colonnade of eight pillars. A marble bull, in front of the basin, bore an inscription saying that Herodes dedicates the whole to Zeus, in the name of his wife, Annia Regilla. The cxcdra must have been seen by Pausanias, but he docs not mention it.
C. It remains to notice those features of the Altis which were connected with the management of the sanctuary or with the accommodation of its guests.
i. Olympia. besides its religious character, originally possessed also a political character, as the centre of an amphictyony. It was, !n fact, a sacred 1-6X11. We have seen that it had a bpuleuterium for purposes of public debate or conference. So also it was needful that, like a Greek city, it should have a public hearth or prytaneum, where fire should always burn on the altar of the Olympian Hestia, and where the controllers of Olympia should exercise public hospitality. The Prytaneum was at the north-west corner of the Altis, in such a position that its south-cast angle was close to the north-west angle of the Heraeum. It was apparently a square building, of which each side measured 100 Olympian feet, with a south-west aspect. It contained a chapel of Hestia at the front or south-west side, before which a portico was afterwards built. The dining-hall was at the back (north-east), the kitchen on the north-west side. On the same side with the kitchen, and also on the opposite side (south-east), there were some smaller rooms.
a. The Porch of Echo, also called the " Painted Porch," extended to a length of 100 yds. along the east Altis wall. Raised on three steps, and formed by a single Doric colonnade, open towards the Altis, it afforded a place from which Fpectators could conveniently view the passage of processions and the sacrifkrcs at the great attar of Zeus. It was built in the Macedonian period to replace an earlier portico which stood farther back. In front of it was a series of pedestals for votive offerings, including two colossal Ionic columns. These columns, as the inscriptions show, once supported statues of Ptolemy and Berenice.
3. The Agora was the name given to that part of the Altis which had the Porch of Echo on the cast, the Altar of Zeus on the west, the Metroum on the north, and the precinct of the Temple of Zeus on the south-west. In this part stood the altars of Zeus Agoraios and Artemis Agoraia.
4. The Zones were bronze images of Zeus, the cost of making which was defrayed by the fines exacted from competitors who had infringed the rules of the contests at Olympia. These images stood at the northern side of the Agora, in a row, which extended from the north-east angle of the Metroum to the gate of the private entrance from the Altis into the Stadium. Sixteen pedestals were here discovered in situ. A lesson of loyalty was thus impressed on aspirants to renown by the last objects which met their eyes as they passed from the sacred enclosure to the scene of their tnat.
5. Arrangements for Water-supply.—A copious supply of water was required for the service of the altars and temples, for the private dwellings of priests and officials, for the use of the gymnasium,
falaestra, &c., and for the thermae which arose in Roman times, n the Hellenic age the water was derived wholly from theCladcus and from the small lateral tributaries of its valley. A basin, to scry* as a chief reservoir, was built at the north-west corner of the Altis; and a supplementary reservoir was afterwards constructed a little to the north-east of this, on the slope of the Cronion. A new source of supply was for the first time made available by Herodes Atticus^ c. A.d. 157. At a short distance east of Olympia, near the village of Miraka, small streams flow from comparatively high ground through the side-valley* which descend towards the right or northern bank of the Alpheus. From these side-valleys water was now conducted to Olympia, entering the Altis at its north-cast corner by an arche<l canal which passed behind the treasure-houses to the reservoir at the back of the exedra. The large basin of drinkinR-watcr in front of the excdra was fed thence, and served to associate the name of Herodes with a benefit of the highest practical value. Olympia further possessed several fountains, enclosed by rouad or wjuaxe walla. rfyfy in connexion with the buildings outside the Altij. The drainage of the Altis followed two main lines. One. for the west part, passed from the south-west angle of the Heraeum to the south pcftJco outside the south Altis wall. The other, which served for the treasure-houses, passed in front of the Porch of Echo parallel with Lhr line of the east Altis wall.
S« the official D\e A useralnat[en at Olympia (Svols., 1875-1891): La'oux and Monceaux, Kcstauration de [Olympic (1889); Curtius and Arfler. Olymfna die Ergebnisse der Ausrrabunten (1890-1897), I "Topographic und Geschichte," II. Bauacnkmalcr," III. "Bildwerlce in Stein und Thon" (Treu), IV "Bronzen " (Furt• injicr). V. " Inschriften " (Dittcnberecr and Purgold),
(R.C. J..E. Gr.)
OLYHPIA, the capital of ihe slate of Washington, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Thurston county, on the Dcs Chutes river and Budd's Inlet, at the head of Puget Sound, about 50 m. S.S.W of Seattle. Pop. (1800) 4608, (tooo) 3863, of whom 501 were foreign-bom; (1010; U S census) 6996. It is served by the Northern Pacific and the Port Townscnd Southern railways, and bysteamboat lines to other ports on the Sound and along the Pacific coast. Budd's Inlet is spanned here by a wagon bridge and a railway bridge. Among the prominent buildings are the Capitol, which is constructed of native sandstone and stands in a park of considerable bcauly, the county court-house, St Peter's hospital, the governor's mansion and the city hall. The state library is housed in the Capitol At Tutr.water, the oldest settlement (1845) on Puget Sound, about 2 m. S. of Olympia, are the Tumwaler Falls of the Dcs Chutes, which provide good water power. The city's chief industry 's the cutting, sawing and dressing of lumber obtained from the neighbouring forests. Olympia oysters are widely known in the Pacific coast region; they are obtained chiefly from Oyster Bay, Skookum Bay, North Bay and South Bay, all Lear Olympia. Olympia was laid out in 1851, became the capital of Washington in 1853, and was chattered as a city in 1850.
OLYMPIAD, in Greek chronology, a period of four years, used is a method of dating for literary purposes, but never adopted in every-day life. The four years were reckoned from one celebration of the Olympian games to another, the first Olympiad beginning with 776 B.c., the year of Corocbus, the first victor in the games after their suspension for 86 years, the last with A.D. 394, when they were finally abolished dunng the reign of Tbeodosius the Great. The system was first regularly used by the Sicilian historian Timaeus (352-256 B.C.).
OLYMP1AS. daughter of Neoptolemus, king of Epirus. wife of Philip II of Macedon, and mother of Alexander the Great. Her father claimed descent from Pyrrhus, son of Achilles. It is said that Philip fell in love with her in Samothrace, where they were both being initiated into the mysteries (Plutarch, Alexander, 2). The marriage took place in 359 B.C., shortly after Philip's accession, and Alexander was born in 356. The fickleness of Philip and the jealous temper of Olympias led to a growing estrangement, which became complete when Philip married a new wile, Cleopatra, in 337. Alexander, who sided »ith his mother, withdrew, along with her, into Epirus, whence ikty both returned in the following year, after the assassination of Philip, which Olympias is said to have countenanced. During the absence of Alexander, with whom she regularly corresponded ra public as well as domestic affairs, she had great influence, and by her arrogance and ambition caused such trouble to the regent Antipaler that on Alexander's death (323) she found it prudent to withdraw into Epirus. Here she remained until 317, when, allying herself with Polyperchon, by whom her old enemy had been succeeded in 319, she took the field with an Epirote army; the opposing troops at once declared in her favour, and for a short period Olympias was mistress of Macedonia. Cassander, Aniipater's son, hastened from Peloponnesus, and, after an obstinate siege, compelled the surrender of Pydna, where she Lad taken refuge. One of the terms of the capitulation had been that her life should be spared; but in spile of this she was brought to trial for the numerous and cruel executions of which she had been guilty during her short lease of power. Condemned a bearing, she was put to death (316) by the friends
of those whom she had slain, and Cassander is said to have denied her remains the rites of burial.
See Plutarch, Alexander, o, 39, 68; Justin, vii. 6, ix. 7, xiv 5, 6; Arrian, Anab. vii 13; Oiod. Sic. xviii 49-65, xix. 11-51; also the articles Alexander III. The Great and Macedonian Empire.
CLYMPIODORUS, the name of several Greek authors, of whom the following are the most important, (i) An historical writer ($th century A.d.), born at Thebes in Egypt, who was sent on a mission to Attila by the emperor Honorius in 412, and later lived at the court of Theodosius. He was the author of i history ('loropixoi Aoyot) in 21 books of the Western Empire from 407 to 425. The original is lost, but an abstract is given by Photius, according to whom he was an alchemist drourrifc). A MS. treatise on alchemy, reputed to be by him, is preserved in the National Library in Paris, and was printed with a translation by P. E. M. Berthclot in his Collection des alcliimisles greet (1887-1888). (2) A Peripatetic philosopher (sth century A.d.), an elder contemporary of Proclus. He lived at Alexandria and lectured on Aristotle with considerable success. His best-known pupil was Proclus, to whom he wished to betroth his daughter. (3) A Ncoplalomst philosopher, also of Alexandria, who flourished in the 6th century of our era, during the reign of Justinian. He was, therefore, a younger contemporary of Damascius, and seems to have carried on the Platonic tradition after the closing of the Athenian School in 529, at a time when the old pagan philosophy was at its last ebb. His philosophy is in close conformity with that of Damascius, and, apart from great lucidity of expression, shows no striking features. He is, however, important as a critic and a commentator, and preserved much that was valuable in the writings of lamblichus, Damascius and Syrianus. He made a close and intelligent study of the dialogues of Plato, and his notes, formulated and collected by his pupils (aro cxi-'t^s 'OXujtfrtoSwpou roD tnyii\ov <t>tTv>06<pou), are extremely valuable. In one of his commentaries he makes the interesting statement that the Platonic succession had not been interrupted by the numerous confiscations it had suffered.; Zcller points out that this refers to the Alexandrian, not to the Athenian, succession; but internal evidence makes it clear that he docs not draw a hard line of demarcation between the two schools. The works which have been preserved are a life of Plato, an attack on Strato and Scholia on the Phacdo, Alcibladcs /., Pkilebus and Gorgias, (4) An Aristotelian who wrote a commentary on the Meteorologica of Aristotle. He also lived at Alexandria in the 6th century, and from a reference in his work to a comet must have lived after A.d. 564. But Zeller (iii. 2, p. 582, n. i) maintains that he is identical with the commentator on Plato (2, above) in spite of the late date of his death. His work, like that of Simplicius, endeavours to reconcile Plato and Aristotle, and refers to Proclus with reverence. The commentary was printed by the Aldine Press at Venice about 1550.
OLYMPUS, the name of many mountains in Greece and Asia Minor, and of the fabled home of the gods, and also a city name and a personal name.
I. Of the mountains bearing the name the most famous is the lofty ridge on the borders of Tbessaly and Macedonia. The river Peneus, which drains Thessaly, finds its way to the sea through the great gorge of Tempe, which is close below the south-eastern end of Olympus and separates it from Mount Ossa. The highest peak of Olympus is nearly 10,000 ft. high; it is covered with snow for great part of the year. Olympus is a mountain of massive appearance, in many places rising in tremendous precipices broken by vast ravines, above which is the broad summit. The lower parts are densely wooded; the summit is naked rock. Homer calls the mountain d-ydm^os, /itu'pos, iro\u6apds: the epithets facets, vo\votvopoi, frondosus and opacus are used by other poets. The modern name is EXu/uro. a dialectic form of the ancient word.
The peak of Mount Lycaeus in the south-west of Arcadia was called Olympus. East of Olympia, on the north bank ol the Alpheus, was a hill bearing this name; beside Scllasia in Laconia another. The name was civen commoner in Asia Minor: a lofty chain in Mysia (Keshish Dagh), a ridge east of Smyrna (Nif Dagh), other mountains in Lycia, in Galatia, In Cilicia, in Cyprus, &c., were all called Olympus.
II. A lofty peak, rising high above the clouds of the lower atmosphere into the clear ether, seemed to be the chosen scat of the deity. In the Iliad the gods are described as dwelling on the top of the mountain, in the Odyssey Olympus is regarded as a more remote and less definite locality; and in later poets we find similar divergence of ideas, from a definite mountain to a vague conception of heaven. In the elaborate mythology of Greek literature Olympus was the common home of the multitude of gods. Each deity had his special haunts, but all had a residence at the court of Zeus on Olympus; here were held the assemblies and the common feasts of the gods.
III. There was a city in Lycia named Olympus; it was a bishopric in the Byzantine time.
OLYNTHUS, an ancient city of Chalcidice, situated in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallcnc, at some little distance from the sea, and about 60 stadia (7 or 8 m.) from Potidaca. The district had belonged to a Thracian tribe, the Bottiaeans, in whose possession the town of Olynthus remained till 479 B.C.1 In that year the Persian general Artabazus, on his return from escorting Xerxes to the Hellespont, suspecting that a revolt from the Great King was meditated, slew the inhabitants and handed the town over to a fresh population, consisting of Greeks from the neighbouring region of Chalcidice (Herod, viii. 127). Olynthus thus became a Greek polls, but it remained insignificant (in the quota-lists of the Dclian League it appears as paying on the average 2 talents, as compared with 9 paid by Scione, 8 by Mendc, 6 by Torone) until the synoccism (wvoiKUTufa), effected in 432 through the influence of King Perdiccas of Macedon, as the result of which the inhabitants of a number of petty Chalcidian towns in the neighbourhood were added to its popu!ation(Thucyd. i. 58). Henceforward it ranks asihe chief Hellenic city west of the Strymon. It had been enrolled as a member of the Delian League (7.5.) in the early days of the league, but it revolted from Athens at the time of its synoccism, and was never again reduced. It formed a base for Brasidas during his expedition (424). In the 4th century it attained to great importance in the politics of the age as the head of the Chalcidic League (rd Koiv&v rdv XaXxi&w*'). The league may probably be traced back to the period of the peace of Nicias (421), when we find the Chalcidians (ol Ct! Op^ttr/s XaXjoiJJs) taking diplomatic action in common, and enrolled as members of the Argive alliance. There are coins of the league which can Dc dated with certainty as early as 405; one specimen may perhaps go back to 415-420. Unquestionably, then, the league originated before the end of the 5th century, and the motive for its formation is almost certainly to be found in the fear of Athenian attack. After the end of the Peloponnesian War the development of the league was rapid. About 300 we find it concluding an important treaty with Amyntas, king of Macedon (the father of Philip),1 and by 382 it had absorbed most of the Greek cities west of the Strymon, and had even got possession of Pelia, the chief city in Macedonia (Xenophon, Hell. v. 2, 12). In this year Sparta was induced by an embassy from Acanthus and Apollonia, which anticipated conquest by the league, to send an expedition against Olynthus. After three years of indecisive warfare Olynthus consented to dissolve the confederacy (379). It is clear, however, that the dissolution was little more than formal, as the Chalcidians (XaXKiiTj! fab Op^ktts) appear, only a year or two later, among the members of the Athenian naval confederacy of 37S-377.5 Twenty years later, in the reign of Philip, the power of Olynthus is asserted by Demosthenes to have been much greater than before the Spartan expedition.4 The town itself at this period
1 If Olynthus was one of the early colonies of Chalcis (and there is numismatic evidence for this view; sec Head, Hist. Numorum, p. 185) it must have subsequently passed into the hands of the Bottiaeans,
1 For the inscription see Hicks. Manual of Creek Inscriptions, No. 74. • Hicks. No. 81; C.I.A. ii. 17.
4 Demo5thcnes. De falsa ttgationc, §§ 263-266.1
is spoken of as a city of the first rank (ff6Xts /lupiavSpos), and the league included thirty-two cities. When war broke out between Philip and Athens (357), Olynthus was at first in alliance with Philip. Subsequently, in alarm at the growth of his power, it concluded an alliance with Athens; but in spite of all the efforts of the latter slate, and of its great orator Demosthenes, it fell before Philip, who razed it to the ground (348).
The history of the confederacy of Olynlhus illustrates at once the strength and the weakness of that movement towards federation which is one of the most marked features of the later stages of Greek history. The strength of the movement is shown both by the duration and by the extent of the Chalcidic League. It lasted for something like seventy years; it survived defeat and temporary dissolution, and it embraced upwards of thirty cities. Yet, in the end, the centrifugal forces proved stronger than the centripetal; the sentiment of autonomy stronger than the sentiment of union. It is clear that Philip's victory was mainly due to the spirit of dissidcncc within the league itself, just as the victory of Sparta had been (cf. Diod. xvi. 53, 2 with Xcn. HdL v. 2, 24). The mere fact that Philip captured all the thirty-two towns without serious resistance is sufficient evidence of this. It is probable that the strength of the league was more seriously undermined by the policy of Athens than by the action of Sparta. The successes of Athens at the expense of Olynthus, shortly before Philip's accession, must have fatally divided the Greek interest north of the Aegean in the struggle with Macedon.
Authorities.—The chief passages in ancient literature are the Olynthiac Orations of Demosthenes, and Xenophon. Hell. v. 2. See E. A. Freeman, History of Federal Government, ch. iv.; A. H. J. Grccnidge, Handbook of Creek Constitutional History (1896), p. 228; B. V. Head, Historia Numorum, pp. 184-186; G. Gilbert, Critchische Staatsalterthtimer, vol. ii. pp. 197-198. The view taken by all these authorities as to the date of the formation of the Confederacy of Olynthus differs widely from that put forward above. Freeman
and Grccnidge suppose the league to have originated in 382, Head in 392, Hicks (Manual of Creek Inscriptions, No. 74) before 390. The decisive test is the numismatic one. There arc coins of the league
in the British Museum which arc earlier than 400, and one in the possession of Professor Oman, of Oxford, which he and Mr Head are disposed to think may be as early as 415-420. (£. M. \V.)
OMAGH, a market' town and the county town of county Tyrone, Ireland, on the river Strule, 129$ m. N.W. by N. from Dublin by the Londonderry line of the Great Northern railway, here joined by a branch from Enniskillcn. Pop. (1001) 4789. The greater part of the town is picturesquely situated on a steep slope above the river. The milling and linen industries are carried on, and monthly fairs are held. The Protestant church has a lofty and handsome spire, and the Roman Catholic church stands well on the summit of a hill. A castle, of which there are scanty remains, was of sufficient importance to stand sieges in 1509 and 1641, being rebuilt after its total destruction in the first case. The town is governed by an urban district council.
OMAGUAS, Uuanas or Caubevas (Mat-heads), a tribe of South American Indians of the Amazon valley. Fabulous stories about the wealth of the Omaguas led to several early expeditions into their country, the most famous of which were those of George of Spires in 1536, of Philip von Huttcn in 1541 and of Pedro de Ursua in 1560. In 1645 Jesuits began work. In 1687 Father Fritz, "apostle of the Omaguas," established some forty mission villages. The Omaguas are still numerous and powerful around the head waters of the Japura and Uaup£s.
OMAHA, the county-seat of Douglas county and the largest city in Nebraska, U.S.A., situated on the W. bank of the Missouri river, about 20 m. above the mouth of the Platte. Pop. (i&So) 30,518, (1800) 66,536,* (1000) 102,555, of whom 23,552 (comprising 5522 Germans, 3968 Swedes, 2430 Danes, 2170 Bohemians, 2164 Irish, 1526 English, 1141 English Canadians.
•These are the figures given in Census Bulletin 71, Estimates cf Population, 1904, 1905, IQ(>6 (1907), and are the arithmetical mcc-i between the figures for 1880 and those for 1900. those of the cen?-,;s of 1890 being 140.452; these are substituted by the Bureau of the Census, as the 1890 census was in error. In 1910. according to the U.S. census, the population was 124.096.
09; Russians, &c.) were foreign-bora and 3443 were negroes, (ttpt> estimate) 124,167. Originally, with Council Bluffs, Iowa, toecaslcrn terminus ol the first Pacific railway, Omaha now has mit.'ftsovcr nine great railway systems: the Chicago, Burlington & 0'ji.ncy, the Union Pacific, the Chicago, Rock Island Si Pacific, the Chicago Great-Western, the Chicago & North-Westcrn, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Illinois Central, the Missouri Picic and the Wabash. Bridges over the Missouri river connect Omaha with Council Bluffs. The original town site occapied an elongated and elevated river terrace, now given over whclty to business; behind this are hills and Mil., over which the residential districts have extended.
Among the more important buildings are the Federal Building. Court House, a city-hall, two high schools, one of »hkh is one of the finest in the country, a convention hall, the Auditorium and the Public Library. Omaha is the see of Roman Catholic and Protestant Episcopal bishoprics. Among the educational institutions are a state school for the deaf (1867); the medical department and orthopaedic branch of the University i-l Nebraska (whose other departments are at Lincoln); a Presbyterian Theological Seminary (1891); and Creighton University (Roman Catholic, under Jesuit control). This university, which was founded in honour of Edward Creighton E'i 1874) (whose brother, Count John A. Creighton, d. 1007, . -vt Urge sums in his lifetime and about Si ,250,000 by his will), by Kis wife Mary Lucretia Creighton (d. 1876), was incorporated b 1379; it includes the Creighton Academy, Creighton College (iS'5), to which a Scientific Department was added in 1883, the John A. Creighton Medical College (1802), the Creighton University College ol Law (1004), the Creighton University Dental CoUcge (1005) and the Creighton College of Pharmacy (1905). In 1909-10,10 it had 120 instructors and 800 students. St Joseph's Hospital (Roman Catholic) was built as a memorial to John A. Creighlon. The principal newspapers are the Omaha Bit, the World-Herald and the Noes. The Omaha Bet was established in 1871 by Edward Rosewater (1841-1906), who nude it one of the most influential Republican journals in the West. The World-Herald (Democratic), founded in 1865 by George L. Miller, was edited by William Jennings Bryan from iS-M to 1896.
Omaha is the headquarters of the United States military *kpartment of the Missouri, and there are military posts at Fort Omaha (signal corps and station for experiments with war balloons), immediately north, and Fort Crook (infantry), 10 m. S. o; the city. A carnival, the " Festival of Ak-Sar-Ben," is held in Omaha every autumn. Among the manufacturing establishounti of Omaha arc breweries (product value in 1905, Si,141,424) £zd distilleries, silver and lead smelting and refining works, rai!*ay shops, flour and grist-mills and dairies. The productvilue of its manufactures in 1900 ($43,168,876) constituted 30% of the tola! output of the state, not including the greater product (48-7% o( the total) of South Omaha (q.t), where the industrial bicresss of Omaha are largely concentrated. The " factory" product of Omaha in 1905 was valued at 854,003,704, an increase ol 41-3 % over thai ($38,074,244) for 1000 The net debt of lie cily on the 1st of May 1909 was $5,770,000, its assessed vziue in 1009 (aboui J of cash value) was $26,749,148, and its lo'-il tax-rate was 85 73 per Siooo.
In 1804 Mc-riwether Lewis and William Clark camped on the Ormh.3 pbteau. In 1825 a licensed Indian post was established Sere. In 1846 the Mormons settled at "Winter Quarters "— after 1854 called Florence (pop. in 1900, 668), and in the immedii:« environs (6 m. N.) of the present Omaha—and by 1847 had lj;!t up camps of some 12,000 inhabitants on the Nebraska and lo'A-a sides of the Missouri. Compelled to remove from the Indian reservation within which Winter Quarters lay, they founded "Kincsvillc" on the Iowa side (which also was called Winter CS-jirurs by the Mormons, and after 1853 was known as Council BiuEb), gradually emigrating to Utah in the years following. Hitter Quarters (Florence) was deserted in 1848, but many Marmnnb were still in Nebraska and Iowa, and their local infieeace was strong for nearly a decade afterwards. Not all had
left Nebraska in 1853. Speculative land " squatters " intruded upon the Indian lands in that year, and a rush of settlers followed the opening of Nebraska Territory under the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854. Omaha (named from the Omaha Indians) was platted in 1854, and was first chartered as a city in 1857. It was the provisional territorial capital in 1854-1855, and the regular capital in 1855-1867. Its charter status has often been modified. Since 1887 it has been *.he only city of the state governed under the general charter for metropolitan cities. Prairie freighting and Missouri river navigation were of importance before the construction of the Union Pacific railway, and the activity of the city in securing the freighting interest gave her an initial start over the other cities of the state. Council Bluffs was the legal, but Omaha the practical, eastern terminus of that great undertaking, work on which began at Omaha in December 1863. The city was already connected as early as 1863 by telegraph with Chicago, St Louis, and since 1861 with San Francisco. Lines of the present great Rock Island, Burlington and NorthWestern railway systems all entered the city in the years 18671868. Meat-packing began as early as 1871, but its first great advance followed the removal of the Union stock yards south of the city in 1884. South Omaha (<;.v.) was rapidly built up around them. A Trans-Mississippi Exposition illustrating the progress and resources of the states west of the Mississippi was held at Omaha in 1898. It represented an investment of $2,000,000, and in spite of financial depression and wartime, 90% of their subscriptions were returned in dividends to the stockholders.
OMAHAS, a tribe of North American Indians of Siouan stock. They were found on St Peter's river, Minnesota, where they lived an agricultural life. Owing to a severe epidemic of smallpox they abandoned their village, and wandered westward to the Niobrara river in Nebraska. After a succession of treaties and removals they are now located on a reservation in eastern Nebraska, and number some 1200.
OMAUUS D'HALLOY. JEAN BAPTISTS JUUEN D'(17831875), Belgian geologist, was born on the i6th of February 1783 at Liege, and educated firstly in that city and afterwards in Paris. While a youth he became interested in geology, and being of independent means he was able to devote his energies to geological reseatches. As early as 1808 he communicated to the Journal da mines a paper entitled Essai svr la geologic du Nord de la France. He became mairc of Skeuvre in 1807, governor of the province of Namur in 1815, and from 1848 occupied a place in the Belgian senate. He was an active member of the Belgian Academy of Sciences from 1816, and served three times as president. He was likewise president of the Geological Society of France in 1852. In Belgium and the Rhine provinces he was one of the geological pioneers in determining the stratigraphy of the Carboniferous and other rocks. He studied also in detail the Tertiary deposits of the Paris Basin, and ascertained the extent of the Cretaceous and some of the older strata, which he for the first time clearly depicted on a map (1817). He was distinguished as an ethnologist, and when nearly ninety years of age he was chosen president of the Congress of Pre-historic Archaeology (Brussels, 1872). He died on the i sth of January 1875. His chief works were: Memoires pour scrvir a la description gfologiqut dcs Pays-Bos, de la France el de lquc* conlrees loisincs (1828); Elements de geologic (1831, 3rd ed. 1839); Abrtgt dc geologic (1853, ?th cd. 1862); Dcs races humaines, ou Clements d'ethnographie (sth ed., 1869).
Obituary by J. Gossclct, Bull. soc. giol. de France, scr. 3, vol. vi. (1878).'
OMAN, a kingdom occupying the south-eastern coast districts of Arabia, its southern limits being a little to the west of the meridian of 55° E. long., and the boundary on the north the southern borders of El Hasa. Oman and Hasa between them occupy the eastern coast districts of Arabia to the head of the Persian Gulf. The Oman-Hasa boundary has been usually drawn north of the promontory of El Katr. This is, however, incorrect. In 1870 Katr was under Wahliabi rule, but in the year 1871 Turkish assistance was requested to aid the settlement of a family quarrel between certain Wahhabi chiefs, •and the Turks thus obtained a footing in Katr, which they have retained ever since. Turkish occupation (now firmly established throughout El Hasa) includes Katif (the ancient Gerrha), and El Bidia on the coast of Katr. But the pearl fisheries of Katr are still under the protection of the chiefs of Bahrein, who are themselves under British suzerainty. In 1895 the chief of Katr (Sheikh Jasim ben Thani), instigated by the Turks, attacked Sheikh Isa of Bahrein, but his fleet of dhows was destroyed by a British gunboat, and Bahrein (like Zanzibar) has since been detached from Oman and placed directly under British protection.
Oman is a mountainous district dominated by a range called Jebel ALhdar (or the Green Mountain), which is 10,000 ft in altitude, and is flanked by minor ranges running approximately parallel to the coast, and shutting off the harbours from the interior. They enclose long lateral valleys, some of which are fertile and highly cultivated, and traversed by narrow precipitous gorges at intervals, which form the only means of access to the interior from the sea. Beyond the mountains which flank the cultivated valleys of Semail and Tyin, to the west, there stretches the great Ruba el Khali, or Dahna, the central desert of southern Arabia, which reaches across the continent to the borders of Yemen, isolating the province on the landward side just as the rugged mountain barriers shut it off from the sea. The wadis (or valleys) of Oman (like the wadis of Arabia generally) are merely torrential channels, dry for the greater part ol the year. Water is obtained from wells and springs in sufficient quantity to supply an extensive system of irrigation.
The only good harbour on the coast is that of Muscat, the capital of the kingdom, which, however, is not directly connected with the interior by any mountain route. The little port of Matrah, immediately contiguous to Muscat, offers the only opportunity for penetrating into the interior by the wadi Kahza, a rough pass which is held for the sultan or imam of Muscat by the Rehbayin chief. In 1883, owing to the treachery of this chief, Muscat was besieged by a rebel army, and disaster was only averted by the guns of H.M.S. " Philomel." About 50 m. south of Muscat the port of Kuryat is again connected with the inland valleys by the wadi Hail, leading to the gorges of the wadi Thaika or "Devil's Gap." Both routes give access to the wadi Tyin, which, enclosed between the mountain of El Bcideh and Hallowi (from aooo to 3000. ft. high), is the garden of Oman. Fifty miles to the north-west of Muscat this interior region may again be reached by the transverse valley of Semail, leading into the wadi Munsab, and from thence to Tyin. This is generally reckoned the easiest line for travellers. But all routes arc difficult, winding between .granite and Limestone rocks, and abounding in narrow denies and rugged torrent beds. Vegetation is, however, tolerably abundant—tamarisks, oleanders, kafas, euphorbias, the milk bush, rhamnus and acacias being the most common and most characteristic forms of vegetable life, and pools of water are frequent. The rich oasis of Tyin contains many villages embosomed in palm groves and surrounded with orchards and fields.
In addition to cereals and vegetables, the cultivation of fruit is abundant throughout the valley. After the date, vines, peaches, apricots, oranges, mangoes, melons and mulberries find special favour with the Rehbayin, who exhibit all the skill and perseverance of the Arab agriculturist of Yemen, and cultivate everything that the soil is capable of producing.
The sultan, a descendant of those Yemenite imams who consolidated Arab power in Zanzibar and on the East African coast, and raised Oman to its position as the most powerful state in Arabia during the first half of the iQth century, resides at Muscat, where his palace directly faces the harbour, not far from the British residency. The little port of Gwadar, on the Makran coast of the Arabian Sea, a station of the Persian Gulf telegraph system, is still a dependency of Oman.
See Colonel Miles, Geographical Journal, vol. vii. (1896); Commander Stiffc. Geographical Journal (1899). (T. H II.')
OMAR (c. 581-644), in full 'OMAR IBN Al-khattab, the second of the Mahommedan caliph* (see Caliphate, A, §§ i and 2).
Originally opposed to Mahomet, he became later one of the ablest advisers both of him and of the first caliph, Abu Bekr. His own reign (634-644) saw Islam's transformation from a religious sect to an imperial power. The chief events were the defeat of the Persians at Kadisiya (637) and the conquest of Syria and Palestine. The conquest of Egypt followed (see Egypt and Auk Ibn EL-Ass) and the final rout of the Persians at NchSwend (641) brought Iran under Arab rule. Omar was assassinated by a Persian slave in 644, and though he lingered several days after the attack, he appointed no successor, but only a body of six Muhajirun who should select a new caliph. Omar was a wise and far-sighted ruler and rendered great service to Islam. He is said to have built the so-called "Mosque of Omar" (" the Dome of the Rock ") in Jerusalem, which contains the rock regarded by Mahommedans as the scene of Mahomet's ascent to heaven, and by the Jews as that of the proposed sacrifice of Isaac.
'OMAR KHAYYAM (in full, Ghiyathuddin Abuuath 'omar Bin Ibrahim Al-khayysu!], the great Persian mathematician, astronomer, freethinker and epigrammatist, who derived the epithet Khayyam, (the tenlmaker) most likely from his father's trade, was born in or near NishSpur, where he is said to have died in A.h. 517 (a.d. 1123). At an early age he entered into a close friendship both with Nizanvul mulk and his schoolfellow Hassan ibn §abbah, who founded afterwards the terrible sect of the Assassins. When Nizam-ul-mulk was raised to the rank of vizier by the Scljuk sultan Alp-Arslan (a.d. 1063-1073) lie bestowed upon Hassan ibn Sabbah the dignity of a chamberlain, whilst offering a similar court office to 'Omar Khayyam. But the latter contented himself with an annual stipend which would enable him to devote all his time to his favourite studies of mathematics and astronomy. His standard work on algebra, written in Arabic, and other treatises of a similar character raised him at once to the foremost rank among the mathematicians of that age, and induced Sultan Malik-Shah to summon him in A.h. 467 (a.d. 1074) to institute astronomical observations on a larger scale, and to aid him in his great enterprise of a thorough reform of the calendar. The results of 'Omar's research were—a revised edition ol the Zij or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Ta'rikh-i-Malikshahl or Jala!!, that is, the so-called Jalalian or Scljuk era, which commences in A.h. 471 (a.d. 1079, isth March).
'Omar's great scientific fame, however, is nearly eclipsed by his still greater poetical renown, which he owes to his rubi'ls or quatrains, a collection of about 500 epigrams. The peculiar form of the rttba'i—viz. four lines, the first, second and fourth of which have the same rhyme, while the third usually (but not always) remains rhymeless—was first successfully introduced into Persian literature as the exclusive vehicle for subtle thoughts on the various topics of Sufic mysticism by the sheikh Abu Sa'id bin Abulkhair,' but 'Omar differs in its treatment considerably from Abu Sa'id. Although some of his quatrains are purely mystic and pantheistic, most of them bear quite another stamp; they are the breviary of a radical freethinker, who protests in the most forcible manner both against the narrowness, bigotry and uncompromising austerity of the orthodox uleml and the eccentricity, hypocrisy and wild ravings of advanced Solis. whom he successfully combats with their own weapons, using the whole mystic terminology simply to ridicule mysticism itself. There is in this respect a great resemblance between him and Hifiz, but 'Omar is decidedly superior He has o(ten been called the Voltaire of the East, and cried down as materialist and atheist. As far as purity of diction, fine wit, crushing satire against a debased and ignorant clergy, and a general sympathy with suffering humanity are concerned, 'Omar certainly reminds us ot the great Frenchman, but there the comparison ceases. Voltaire never wrote anything equal to Omar's fascinating rhapsodies m praise of wine, love and all earthly joys, and his passionate denunciations ol a malevolent and inexorable
1 Died Jan 1049. Comp. Elhe"fi edition ol his rubals in Sifrvtt£5bfrichledtrbayr Xfca<frfme(l875),pp I45seq.,and (l873)pp. and E. G. Browne's Literary Hist. <>t Persia, ii. 261.