صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني
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Ix H state of nature, man accustoms himself to a plunge in the nearest pool or sea, and no doubt with great advantage to Inn health. Almost all animals are aubject to the natural washing of the rains of heaven; and to a eertain extent the savage has this compulsory means of cleansing his skin. But in our civilized state uf society it is rarely that we get even damped by rain, and even a good andftiealthy perspiration is to Rome people a not very common mode of getting rid of tlic •uperfluous scarf-skin. It becomes, therefore, doubly necessary that we should in some way supply this want *{ tho system, nnd the best means of doing this must now be examined into.

Tho ikin is not only «n Investment of the body, mechanically parking up its organs, and protecting them frominjury by its smooth and yielding surface, and by its constantly supplied layer of do*d scarf-skin ; but it is also the seat of an excretory apparatus of no mean importance. This consists of two sets of small glands, one of which is destined to free the blood of a large part of Its fluid in the shape of perspiration, while the other secretes nu oily matter, which is intended to soften and lubricate the skin. The former of these are extremely minute, and quite beyond the scope of the unassisted eye; but the latter may. in many parts of tho body, bo readily seen to open upon the surface, and are very frequently full of their peculiar secretion. Both of those sets of glands end in small tubes, and in order to the tine discharge of their secretions, they must be kept uncloggcd. There are said to be more than three thousand perspiratory tabes opening in a square Inch of tho palm of the hand, and tho average for tho whole body is little beneath that number, so that a man of ordinary statare has seven millions of small tubes opening upon the surface of his body, besides those destined to secrete • 'Iiy matter. From those tubes a constant distillation •,f fluid is taking place, which is insensiblo in small quantities, but very palpablo under unusual degrees of exertion, or osternal heat. Its object is to regulate tho temperature of tho body, because In becoming converted into vapor, calorie is rendered dormant, and thus withdraws a large amount from the surface. But in addition to these there are tho sebaceous follicles already allnded to, which are distributed more or less closely over the whole surface uf tho body, being less abundant where the perspiratory o;n*nings aro most numerous, and rice rsersl. They are altogether absent in tho palms of the hands and the solos of tho feet, and abound in tho face ruid scalp, as well as over the shoulders. Where there «re hairs the sebaceous follicles and hair-tubes coalesce and emerge together, so that each hair oils itself as it grows, by passing through the course of the follicle, and this oil naturally spreads along tho course of the hair. The purpose of these follicles is clearly to keep tho skin soft and free from cracks, to which it would be otherwiset liable when exposed to tho sun and air, and hence they are very much more abundant in those races of mankind which have been long accustomed to a tropical sun. It is also supposed by many physiologists that this secretion is intended to assist in cleansing the blood; and, I believe, with truth, for it cannot be denied that when the skin is comparatively closed by disease and

neglect of ablution, the health suffers in a certain degree. By mismanagement tho skin may be made either to give way too readily, and thus prodnco exhaustion; or, on tho other hand, to refuse to do its natural office, and so cause fever. To promote tho proper cleansing of these tubes, and, while allowing of the due amount of secretion, to avoid excessive, perspiration, is the office of bathing, the subject of the present article.

Bathing, as a promoter of health, may be either carried out in the open air, or in tho house, or it may be confined to a mere ablution of the body. Many people may be met with whose skins have never known the sensation of water, excepting the parts visible to the eye. Hundreds and thousands have never had a bath, and a still greater number only as an exceptional case, when ordered as a part of some plan of medical treatment. Vet it Is well known that health depends upon a frequent ablution of the whole body; and, though a bath is the most convenient and complete method of carrying out the process, yet, by means of a sponge or any similar object, it may be effected sufficiently to clennse the pores. Whether by means of one or the other, this should be done at least two or three times a week, followed by strong friction by means of a coarse towel. In this way the follicles of tho whole body are kept clean at their mouths, and by the towels aro emptied of any thick matter contained in their extremities, while at tho same time the vessels are braced, and are prevented from giving out more than a healthy amount of fluid. This effect is produced by tho sponging with cold water; and, in addition, there is the reactionary glow resulting from its contact, and which appears to be a natural process established to keep up an average temperature of the body, hut kept in abeyance when by the aid of artificial means it is no longer required. Those who use cold water regularly, either with the sponge or as a bath, are certainly able to bear exposure to the weather much better than without its aid ; and this good etf-ct is no doubt dependent upon the regular edi of the heat-generating organs, whichever and wl

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moment they are called upon ; and, almost immediately after the cold water is applied, a red blush appears on the skin, with a development of heat greater than before. Whenever this occurs it may be conclnded that bathing or, cold ablution is beneficial; and, on tho contrary, when it is absent It is not prndent or safe to continue the practice without some experienced person to advise upon the case. Many people who naturally are disinclined to this reaction become gradually accustomed to the cold, so as at last to develop heat as well as their more robust neighbors ; but some skins and constitutions can never be made to bear cold with advantage, and aro even braced by the use of hot water. This I have known many times; and, in spite of a long and cantiously carried out plan of cold-bathing, they havo at last been obliged to give up the attempt, and have recourse to the opposite extreme of hot-baths, or else let their skins remain in a state of impurity. But these are the exceptions to the rule, and cannot bo considered as affecting tho mass of mankind, though still the fact should be known, lest individuals might be induced to persevere too long in tho attempt, from a belief that ,77/ ought to be able to bear tho shock produced by the contact with cold water. It maybe said that such individuals are In a state of disease; but if so. all in this country must be inclnded in the same category, for certainly I have known some who were in all other respects free from any ailment whatever, and yet could never bear the contact of cold water, nor could they ever be made to develop heat rapidly after it, as in the ordinary reaction of bathing. In these individuals hot water ut a temperature of 103 or I OS degrees in positively bracing, and in some cases 1 have known it almost as groat a panacea as the cold-w.itor cure Ho much vaunted in the present day,

In the use of the cold bath, whether marine or of fresh water, tho whole body should, as a rule, be immersed, where '.he object is to preserve the general health. For curtain remedial purposes it may bedesirable to use local cold ; but as n general means of cleansing the skin, and m the same time of bracing it, the better plan is to plunge the whole body beneath the surface for a moment, and as rapidly as possiblo afterwards emerge from tho hath. It is seldom that a continuance longer than for a tew seconds in the water is of service, though in warm weather it is very pleasant, and in many cases does no harm; but that it docs no good is equally clear, and, therefore, however pleasant a long-continued bach may bo in hot weather, yet it is to he by no means recommended. With regard to domestic bathing in cold water, tho sponging-hath is that which is chiefly to ho nnedt as there are few peoplo who can bear immersion in cold water in the house without too great a call upon the powers of the system. Cold sponging produces quite as great a bracing effect, without ab.-tracting too much heat; and it also cleanses the skin quite as well as, or oven better than, immersion. When regularly practised, and followed by the use of the rough towel, no soap is needed to cleanso the pores; but if only occasionally employed, this detergent is very useful. Those who take any kind of cold bath should not be slow and languid in their operations, but sponge themselves with briskness, and without delay rub themselves dry. In rhis way tho mere activity of the process aids in generating heat and producing reaction, and avoids the tendency to chill, which is sometimes cansed by a neglect of this precaution.

Where hut baths are taken on the principles previously allnded to, the temperature must be raised high enough to produce reaction, and they ahould not generally ho taken just before getting into a warm bed, which will almost always cause excessive perspiration. Those who really benefit from a hot bath find that they feel cold after one In which the temperature is too low; but, if rai>ed to 10.5 degrees, or even higher still, the skin is stimulated till it is in as great a glow as could be produced in others by a cold affusion; and when this is the ease, exposure to cold afterwards is borne with nearly as great impunity as in thoso who use tho cold bath instead, especially if after tho hot bath the body is at oncrt fearlessly exposed to a cold atmosphere or to cold water Itself. Such is the Russian plan, except that in their baths steam is used instead of hot water: but the effect is tho same, and tho skin is stimulated exactly by the same, action of high heat, though in the shape of steam instead of water. It appears in their plan to render them nearly as insensible to tho effects of cold as our cold bathi ng does us ; and there can be no doubt that there is little difference in the amount of heat-generating power produced by the two modes, however different the principles upou which they act.

MISCELLANEOUS COOKING. To Bon, Salmon.—Salmon is dressed in various ways, but chiefly boi led in large pieces of a few pounds weight. The middle piece is considered, if not the richest, yet tho most sightly; then that adjoining tho jowl; the tail

part, though nearly as good, being usually kept for cutlets. It requires great attention, and the boiling must be checked more than once. A piece of four to five pounds will take nearly an hour; but if double that weight, will not require more than twenty minutes beyond that time, and if crimped, still less will be sufficient; let it, however, boil quickly in the hardest water, ou a strainer placed in a large fish-kettle, and be thoroughly done, for nothing is more unwholesome and disagreeable than fish that is under-cooked. Skim it well, or tho color will be bad. The moment it is ready lift up the strainer and rest it across the kettle, that tike fish may drain; cover it with a thick cloth.

To Broil Salmon.—Cut slices an inch thick; put them into buttered paper and place (Win on the gridiron; or the paper may be omitted, and tho slices broiled upon the gridiron, rubbing the slices with a bit of frosh butter wrapped in ganze; sprinkle freely with salt. They will bo done in a few minutes, and should be served as hot as possible.

To Far Trout.—Scale, gut, and clean them; take out the gills, egg and crumb them; then fry in lard or oil until of a light brown. Serve with anchovy sance and sliced lemon.

Boiled Turbet Fill tho body with oysters, and let It boil by steam without any water. When sufficiently done, take it up ; strain the gravy that will be found In the pan; thicken it with a little flour and butter, add the liquor of the oysters intended for sance, al^o stowed, and warm the oysiors up in it; whiten it with a little boiled cream, and pour it over the turkey.

Goose.—Scald four or six sage-leaves, according as they are fre>h or dry, the fresh ones being the strongest; chop them fine; take one large or two small onions, chop them, and then pour boiling water over them to make them eat mild; mix the sage and onion with rather more than an equal quantity of fine bread-crumbs; season well with pepper and salt; put this inside the body of the goose; roast before a quick fire an hour or more, according to the size of the bird. Geese are sometimes stuffed with potatoes, the whole body being filled with them, either whole or mashed ; but it absorbs no much of the gravy as to injure the richness of the bird. Apple-sauco and gravy are sent up with geese in separate tureens.

To Boast Figeons.—Scald some parsley, chop it with the livers, mix them with a piece of fresh butter, seasnu with pepper and salt; put a portion inside ench pigeon; cover the brea*t with a slice of bacon fat; roast them; serve with parsley and butter in the dish.

SwERTBiiEAns Stewew.—After blanching, stuff thorn with a forcemeat of fowl, fat and lean bacon, an anchovy, nutmeg, lemon-peel, parsley, and a very little Cayenne and thyme: when well mixed, add the yolks of two eggs, and fill the sweethreads. Fasten them together with splinter-skewers, and lay them in a pan, with slices of veal over and bacon under them ; season with pepper and salt, mace, cloves, herbs, and sliced onion; cover close ovor tho fire ten minntes, then add a quait of broth, and stew gently one hour; take out the sweetbreads, strain and skim the broth, and boil it to half a pint; warm tho sweethreads in it, and serve with lemon round.

Veal Ci'tlets.—Cutlets are cut either from the fillet or the neck, but rhops are taken from the loin. Snm« persons have deprecated tho practice of beating meat, but it la essentially necessary in veal cutlets, which

otherwise, especially if merely fried, are very indigestible. They should be cut about one-quarter, or, at the most, one-half an inch in thickness, and well beaten; they will then, when fried, taste like sweetbread, bo quite ad tender, and nearly as rich. Egg them over, dip ;n bread-crumbs and savory herbs, fry, and serve with mushroom sauco and fried bacon.

Or: Prepare us above, and fry them; lay them in a dish, and keep them hot; dredge a little flour, and put a hit of butter into the pan; brown it, then pour a little t'Oiling water into it, and boil quickly; season with pepper, salt, and catsup, and pour it over them.

To Stkw Lamb.—Put it into a stewpan, with a little cil. parsley, chives, and mushrooms, or half a dozen Mack truffles, either whole or sliced, together with some trenches of bacon. Let it stew gently in any kind of broth, and when thoroughly done take it out, strain the ^rary, and serve the joint along with trutlles or mushrooms only. To be well done it will require four hours iii stewing.

Breast Op Lamb.—Cut off the thin ends, half boil, then strew with crumbs of bread, pepper, and salt, and servo iu a dish of stewed mushrooms.

Lko Of Mcttok Braised.—Take a very small leg of mutton, cut off the knuckle, and trim it nicely; half roast it; then put it Into a stewpan, with the trimmings, the knuckle-bone broken, a few slices of fat bacon, or two ounces of butter, an onion stuck with cloves, and a bundle of sweet herbs. Shake the stewpan over the tire until there is gravy enough from the meat and the trimmings to stew the mutton, and take care to turn it in the braise. When very tender, take it up, remove the fat from the gravy, strain it, and l-nil it quickly until It is reduced to a glaze; pour it over the inuttuu, and serve it up ou ajpurVe of vegetables.


To Make A Plain Pcddinm.—Weigh three-quarters of a pound of odd scraps of bread, whether crust or crumb, cut them small, and pour on them a pint and a half of b-Mliug water, to soak them well. Let it stand till the water is cool; then press it out, and mash the bread smooth with the back of a spoon. Add to it a teaspoonful of beaten ginger, some moist sugar, aud three-quarters of a pound of enrrants. Mix all well together, aud lay it in a pan well buttered. Flatten it down with a upoon, and lay some pieces of butter on the top. Bake It in a moderato oven, and servo it hot. When cold, it will turn out of tho pan, aud eat like good plain cheesecake*.

To Make A Tea-cakk.—Rub into a quart of dried flour of the finest kind a quarter of a pound of butter; then beat up two eggs with two teaspoonfuls of sifted sugar and two table*pomifuls of wa-hed brewers' or unwashed distillers* yeast; pour this liquid mixture into the centre of the flour, and add a pint of warm milk as you mix It; beat it up with the hand until it comes off without sticking; set it to riso before the fire, having covered it with a cloth; after it has remained there an hour, make H up into good-sized cakes an inch thick; set them in tin plates to rise before the fire during ten minutes, then bake- them in a slow oven. These cakes may be split and buttered hot from the oven, or split, toasted, aud buttered ufter they are cold.

B<*oTcn Short Bread.—Put two pounds of butter in •ome warm place over night, where it will gradually

become soft without at the same time meltiug. Take two quarterns of tlour, and mix with it half a pound of loafsugar in powder, and lemon-peel and blanched sweet almonds (iu quantities according to taste), cut very tine. Add all these to the butter, and knead the whole till it appears like dough; then add a tablespoonful or two of yeast; again knead it, aud roll out into cakes of the proper sizo aud thickness. Ornament the edges with candied lemon and comfits, having previously pricked the edges with a fork.

A Patsa Rich Pudding.— Wash a quarter of a pound of whole rice, dry it in a cloth, and beat it to a powder. Sot it upou the tire with a piut and a half of new milk till it thickens, but do not let it boil; pour it out and let it stand to cool. Add to it some cinnamon, nutmeg, and mace, pounded, BUgar to the taste, half a pound of suet, shred very small, and eight eggs, well beaten, with somo salt. Put to it either half a pound of currants, clean washed aud dried by the fire, or some candied lemon, citron, or orange-peel. Bako it half an hour with a puff crust under it.

Baked Custard.—Boil and sweeten with fine sugar a pint of milk, another of cream, with a stick of cinnamon and a hit of lemon-peel, fill the cups, and bake for ten minutes.

To Make Apple Fritters.—Tako ono pint of milk, threo eggs, salt just to taste, and as much flour as will make a batter. Beat the yolks aud whites separately, add the yolks to the milk, stir in the whites with as much flour as will make a batter, have ready some tender apples, peel them, cut them iu slices round the apple, take the core carefully out of tho centre of each slice, and to every spoonful of batter lay iu a slice of tho apple, which must be cut very thin. Fry them in hot lard to a light brown on both sides.

To Make A Rich Seed Cake.—Take a pound and a quarter of flour, well dried, a pound of butter, a pound of loaf-sugar, boat and sifted, eight eggs, and two ounces of caraway seeds, one grnted nutmeg, aDd its weight iu cinnamon. Beat the butter Into a cream, put in the sugar, beat the whites of the eggs and the yolks separately, then mix them with the butter and sugar. Beat in tho flour, spices, and seed a little before sending it away. Bake it two hours iu a quick oven.

To Makb Ritbk8.—Beat up seven egg,-*, mix them with half a piut of warm new milk iu which a quarter of a pound of butter has been melted, add a quarter of a pint of yeast and threo ounces of sugar; put them gradually Into as much flour as will make a light paste nearly as thin as batter ; let it rise before the flio half au hour, add more flour to make it a littlo stiffer, work it well, and divide it into small loaves or cakes, about five or six inches wide, and flatten them. When baked and cold, put them In the oven to brown a little. These cakes, when first baked, are very good buttered for tea; if they aru made with caraway seeds, they eat very nice cold.


One of tho loveliest accomplishments-of a lady is to understand how to make the invalid in her family comfortable. Food prepared by the kiud hand of a wife, mother, sister, friend, has a nweeter relish than tho mere ingredients can give, and a restorative power which money cannot purchase. These receipts will enable the watchful attendant to vary the food as choice or symptoms may render expedient. Jollies aud meat broths,

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