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The white cambric muslin dross enriched with embroidery being again restored to favor, we arv happy to supply such a pattern as may be considered generally useful. The one we are now giving is intended to be worked as a flounce, and carried round the bottom of the skirt, but in addition to this graduated lengths are to be laid on the front breadth. Eaoh end being finished with B bow of colored ribbon, of course this part of the trimming of the dress is optional, but it is arranged in this way when it is intended to be worn with a mantle or pelisse open up the front. The oval holes which go round the scallop are cut out and sewn over, and then have to line of point dc BruaeU worked in the inside. The rest of the pattern is composed of holes and cut-out leaves. 332
Lord! Thou didst love Jerusalem—
Once she was all thy own;
Her power thy glory's throne,
"The city of Judah" (2 Chron. nv. 28), "the perfection of beauty, the joy of the whole earth" (Lam. ii. 15), "great among the nations and princess among the provinces" (Lam. i. 1), has sometimes been called Salem, Jebus, Solima, and Capitolina. The Turks have called it Curumobarech and Leucost; and the Arabs speak of it as El-Kuds, which means "holiness." The ancient Greek and Latin writers called it Ilierosolym*. %
Those who would learn somewhat of its earliest history, and other interesting particulars, should consult the works of Josephus, Maundrell, Pococke, Drs. Clarke and Richardson, Chateaubriand, Ali Bey, and others; and as few of my readers will be disposed to doubt the antiquity of the site of Jerusalem, I will merely survey the arguments in favor of its age, and recount some of the most important epochs in its history.
"The city of David" has undergone many changes. It is said to have been built by Melchisedek, who is mentioned in Genesis (chap. xiv. 18) as King of Salem; but modern commentators have rejected this opinion, on account of the statement of Jerome, who says that he saw the ruins of Melchisedek's palace, Vol. Lxiv.—28
near to Scythopolis (Bethshean). There cannot be any doubt that Jerusalem existed B. 0. 1451, because it is stated (Josh. x. 1) that Adoni-zedek was King of Jerusalem. We find that, B. C. 1444, "Jesus," which is "Jerusalem," was given, with thirteen other cities and their villages, to the children of Benjamin (Josh. xviii. 28) as their inheritance; in 1425 the children of Judah fought against Jerusalem, took it, and set the city on fire (Judges i. 8); in 1048 David took Zion from the Jebusites, and dwelt in the fort, and called Jerusalem the city of David (2 Sam. v. 6—9); in 1042 David brought the Ark from Kiijathjearim upon a new cart to Jerusalem, with sacrifices and dancing (2 Sam. vi. 3—14). In 1004 Solomon blessed the people, and consecrated the temple with a solemn prayer, from the brazen scaffold (2 Chron. vi. 7—42). In 971 "Shishak, King of Egypt, eame up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king's house; he took all; he carried away, also, the shields of gold which Solomon had made" (2 Chron. xii. 9). In 82G Jehoash "came to Jerusalem, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, from the gate of Ephraim unto the corner gate, four hundred cubits; and he took all the gold and silver, and all the vessels that were found in the house of the Lard, and all the treasures of the king's house, and hostages, and returned to Samaria" (2 Kings xiv. 13, 14). In 742 the city was besieged by Rezin, King of Syria, and Pekah, son of Remaliah, King of Israel, but they could not take it (2 Kings xvi. 5). In 710 Sennacherib invaded Judah, and took all the fenced cities, but retired when Hezekiah had given him three hundred talents of silver (£106,077 IN.), and thirty talents of gold (£12,273 7*. Gd.)
(2 Kings xviii. 14). In 610 Pharaoh-neohoh, King of Egypt, went against Jerusalem, slew Josiah, imprisoned Jehoahaz, and made Jehoiakim king in his stead; besides doing this, he put the land to a tribute of a hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold (2 Kings xxiii. 29—31). In 599 Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, besieged Jerusalem, and carried away all the princes, riches, and workmen to Babylon, and destroyed all the vessels of gold which Solomon had made in the temple (2 Kings xxiv. 10— 16). In 588 Nebuchadnezzar and all his host besieged Jerusalem, and built forts against it round about," and took the city, burnt it, and broke down the walls, besides carrying away a great number of the inhabitants into captivity (Jeremiah xxxix. 1—10). In 536 Cyrns, King of Persia, ordered the temple to be rebuilt (Ezra i. 2, 3). In 445 Nehemiah, having secretly viewed the walls of Jerusalem, which were broken down, and incited the Jews to build them up again, is mocked and threatened by Sauballat, the Horonite (Nehemiah iv. I, 2). In 324 Ptolemy, King of Egypt, captured it; in 168 it was plundered by Apollonins; restored by the Maccabees in 163 B. C.; and in 03 taken by Pompey.
In the year of our Lord 'N the city was besieged, taken, and destroyed by Titus; rebuilt in 131 by the Roman Emperor Adrian, who afterwards destroyed many parts of the city, and erected temples to the heathen deities. In 135 the Jews were finally dispersed, after having failed in a revolt against the Romans, and the city became a Roman colony. In 326 Constantine and Helena built many churches throughout Judea, especially in Jerusalem, and did much to restore the city, besides allowing the Jews to enter it once a year. In 613 the city was taken by Chosrau, King of the Persians, who slow 90,000. The city was retaken from the Persians in 627 by the Greeks, under Heraclins. In 636 KhalifOmar took the city after a siege of four months, and the Mosque of Omar was commenced. In 868 the city was taken by Ahmed of Egypt from the Khalifs of Baghdad. In 1073 the Turkemans gained possession of the city, and the persecution of the Christian pilgrims was permitted. In 1098 the Egyptian khalifs again obtained possession of the city. In 1099 the Crusaders, under Godfrey de Bouillon, took the city, and elected their leader king. In 1188 Salahed-deen took it from the Crusaders. In 1229 it was given up to the Christians. In 1239 the Emir David of Kerek obtained possession of the city, which was restored to the Latin princes by Salah
Ismaeel, Emir of Damascus, in 1242. In 1244 the Kharismian hordes stormed it; in 1291 it came into possession of the Sultans of Egypt. In 1517 Selim, the Turkish Sultan, reduced Egypt and Syria, including Jerusalem; and his son Soliman built the present walls in the year 1542; and in 1832, when Syria became subject to Mohammed Ali, Jerusalem fell into his hands, In 1834 an insurrection took place, and the city was held by the insurgents for a short time; but Ibrahim Pasha soon quelled the riot, and restored order within its ancient walls.
Such is the history of this city, which has undergone many vicissitndes, and, having been the bone of contention for ages, is now almost "A vanlsh'd Dame; Its tribes earth's warning, scoff, and shame."
Our first visit was to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and never shall I forget the scene that presented itself on our approach. The whole area (a) was crammed with groups of beings from nearly every clime, and certainly clothed with almost every costume. Some selling beads, crucifixes, amulets, cups, bowls, etc., made from the bitumen of the Dead Sea, the olivewood from the Garden of Gethsemane, or other relios; amongst which I noticed a host of saints, remarkable for the stiffness of can'ing and desperate contortions of their frames, and many Scriptural events, only to be made out by the inscriptions underneath; for, in truth, they were so badly executed that the carvers almost appeared to deserve the same fate; while others were importunately offering their services as guides, and asserting that they knew every part of the city, from the spot where the cock crew when Peter denied his Master to the rock from which our Saviour ascended into heaven.
We had been prepared for many extraordinary scenes by the perusal of the account furnished us by travellers; but the one we witnessed baffles all description. The pen of a Warburton, or the eloquent diction of an Eotheu conld alone do it justice.
Gentle reader, cast aside the notions you have generally entertained of the topography of Jerusalem. It is not The Jerusalem of Scripture. The position of many interesting localities appears altered, but it is only the advances of modern ages that have altered the appearance of the Holy City.
The Holy Sepulchre is within the walls, and occupies the best part of the town; it is not without. Calvary of the present day is not the Calvary of the past, and the relics you view smack somewhat of the present age; therefore may not be quite so interesting to travellers.
DrACrtvtion of grouiul plan :—
A. Open court before the church.
B. Entrance hall ur vestibule.
D. The Holy Sepulchre.
E. Chapel of the Apparition, belonging to the Latins.
F. Choir of the Great Church, belonging to WW II
G. Chapel of the Finding of the Cross.
H. Lower part of Calvary.
3 A ruined Tower In the ancient Belfry.
Chair of the Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem.
Altar of the Syrians, Georgians, and Nestorians.
Altar of the Prison of Christ.
2S. Altar of St. Helena.
29. Cavity where tho Crosses were found.
30. Chapol of Division.
31. Steps leading up to Calvary. 3*2. Chapel of the Crucifixion.
33. Place of the Three Crosses.
34. Kent In the Rock. ,
35. Chapel of the Nailing to the Cross.
39. Spot where the Bisciples contemplated the CrociUxion.
40. Sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea.
42 Entry to the Apartments of the Franciscans.
44. Suirs leading to the upper Galleries. 45." " "" "Rooms.
4'i. Former entrance to the Church, now St.' 47. Entrance to the Chapel of our Lady of Grief.
From the earliest ages, all Christian pilgrims have turned their thoughts towards the sepulchre of our Saviour, and happy the man who was enabled to visit the "Holy Shrine," and worship at other sacred spots. In the present day thousands flock to bow down in the Sepulchre of our Lord, and many perish in the attempt.
It does not come within the province of the writer of these pages to comment upon the many wonderful things related to him, nor to descant upon the reality of the spots I out; therefore it is proposed only to take a cursory glance at the places as they were visited.
Passing through the motley groups in the crowd, our party went under the pointed Saracenic archway of the edifice, and entered its precincts ; in doing so we could not help observing the beautiful frieze, in low relief, representing the triumphant entry of our Saviour into Jerusalem, which was placed over the doorway.
We had scarcely entered the building by the gateway (1), and passed the stone seat (2) on which the Turkish toll-gatherers seat themselves and smoke away the dreary hours they remain there when we saw before us the "stone of unction" (5), on which, it is said, the body of our Lord was washed and anointed for the sepulchre (a). Around this precious relic is a low rail, and at either end are three large candlesticks and tapers, the gifts of Christian princes. Here the pilgrims kneel, prostrate themselves on their faces, kiss the "stone of anointing, " and offer up their prayers. Space compels us to defer the description of the interior of the Holy Sepulchre for a short time, when we shall continue our Rambles within its walls, and afterwards visit the outside of the "City of Solemnities."
No sooner does the weary pilgrim enter Jerusalem than, regardless of everything else, he hastens to behold the spot where the Saviour of mankind was laid. It is a natural feeling,
but is not judicious. To behold the sepulchre to advantage, the pilgrim should visit the environs and each sacred spot first—the hills, the remnant walls, the convents, and the various historical sites—reserving his visit to the Holy Sepulchre until
"The twilight star from Hermon's peak
Then the feelings so long pent up will find vent; the soothing power of religion will subdue the passions that have racked the now repentant pilgrims; and when he leaves the precincts of that edifice, the remembrance of his visit will be more indelible. But, as Sir Walter Raleigh said—
"Give me my scallop-shell of quiet,
My bottle of salvation J
To redeem this sepulchre from infidel hands was, it will be remembered, the paramount object sought by the Crusades. It is presumed to contain not only the sepulchre, but the scene of the Crucifixion. The irregular form shows how the building has been extended in places, in order to inclose various spots connected with Christ's death and burial.
A WOMAN'S BOOK.
"A Woman's book is never worth reading," said Mr. Lindley, putting down his ruby glass, with its silver stem, on the table. "Women are very good at making pies, but very poor at making books." And having delivered himself of this speech, Mr. Lindley stared intently at his niece. "Do you hear that, Amy?"
She answered quietly, "Yes, sir." 'Mr. Milford smiled, and said, "But you do not agree with it."
"Of course she does not," said her uncle. "Amy is entirely given up to the pleasures of the pen; she breathes, lives, moves and has her being in ink. She dreams all night of lovepassages and touching scenes, and awakes in the morning to write them out; the louder I cry cut bono, the faster she writes. No, no;
defend me from a woman's book, even though that book be Amy's."
Amy smiled; her uncle's raillery had not disturbed the serenity of her temper in the slightest degree.
"That is not your prayer," said Mr. Milford, turning to her.
"Yes, to some extent it is. I think there are some women, many women, who write gracefully and touchingly; but I must confess that I have seldom read a woman's book that I care to read twice."
Mr. Milford smiled incredulously. How strangely it sounded to hear a woman speak thus, and a woman, too, who wrote!
"'Jane Eyre,'" she continued, "is a noble book, full of faults, yet noble withal, vigorous, bold, original; the fire of genius burns with a vivid glow in its startling pages. 'Adam Bede'