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THE MANAGEMENT OF THE HAIR, EYES, TEETH, AND EXTREMITIES.
MANAGEMENT OF THE ETE8.
Wbex these organs are strong and naturally well formed, they may be left pretty nearly to themselves; hut when the sight is naturally in any way defective, souie little management in required. It should be known that the conditions called short-sight and long-sight are not absolute disease, but are dependent upon mere alterations of form in the front of the eye, which are almost always born with theindividual possesslugthem. When, therefore, they exist, some little management is required in order to relieve the deficiency of sight, which in some cases is very annoying.
The eye being an optical machine Intended to throw an image upon the fine expansion of nervous tissue at Its back, it follows that it must be made of a definite shape, and with its parts at certain known angles, in order to fulfil Its office. In order, however, to understand the nature of its action, the ordinary laws regulating the transmission of light must be understood.
These laws are as follows:—
I. Light travels lu straight lines so long as the medium tlirough which It passed is of uniform density.
II. Wheu the rays of light pass from a rarer medium into a denser one, they are refracted toward* a line drawn perpendicularly to the surface they are entering.
III. When the rays of light pass from a denser medium into a rarer one, tbey are refracted from the perpendicular.
IV When rays proceeding from the several points of a luminous object, at a distance, fall upon a double convex lens, they are brought to a focus upon the other bole of it in such a manner that an Inverted picture of the object is formed upon a screen placed in the proper position to receive it.
V. The further the object is removed from the lens the nearer will the picture be brought to it, and the smaller will it be.
VI. If the screen be not held precisely in the focus of the lens, but a little nearer or further off, the picture will be indistinct; for the rays which form it will either not have met, or they will have crossed each other.
The eye itself, as exhibited in man, Is a most wonderful optical instrument, intended to form an exact image of surrounding objects upon the retina. For this purpose the rays of light, as they diverge from the several points of any object, and fall upou tho front of the eye (ooruea), are refracted by its cuuvox surface whilst 7>as3ing through it into the eye, and are made to converge slightly. They are brought more closoly together by the crystalline lens, which they reach after passing Through the pupil; snd the refracting influence of this ■ l-ii-c h)dy, together with that of the vitreous humor, occupying the space behind it, Is such as to cause the my* issuing from each point to unite at a focus on the r^iina. In this manner a complete inveited image is f >rmed. which represents a vortical section of the eye, it '.id the general course of the rays in its interior. The retina is so thin as to be nearly transparent, and is spread over a layer of black pigment intended to absorb t!.e rays of light and thus prevent a confusion of the image by a reflection of Its points from one side to an
other of the receding surface Such is the simple account of the eye as an optical instrnment, beyond which it may be considered as consisting of certain purts intended to keep the machine In order, and also to correct its otherwise irremediable defects; but which nerd not be attends to by those who merely want to understand its management in health.
The variations in formation already alluded to arc chiefly two; in tho first of which the cornea is too convex, and the refractivo power is thereby made so great that tho imago of an object at a inoderato distance is formed in front of the retina instead of upon it. When this is the case, in order to produce a distinct image, the object must bo brought nearer to the eye, the effect being to throw the picture upon the proper place. Such an eye is said to be myojtic or short-sighted, and it ran only be rendered efficient at average distances by the use of a concave lens in front of the cornea, tho curvature of which is of such a form as to neutralize the superfluous convexity of the cornea. On the other baud, if this part is too flat, and the refractive power of the humors is thereby rendered too low, the rays from an object, also at a moderato distauce, will not meet upon the retina, but would form an imago behind it, if it were not for tho impediment afforded by tho black pigment. The picture is consequently indistinct, and can ouly bo made clear by increasing the distance between tho eye and the object, or, as in the case of tho short-sighted person, by placing a glass lens in front of the eye, but with an opposite formation, its surfaces being required to be convex. Such a condition is very common In old persons, who are scientifically said to bo prettt/t/iqnc, or, in common language, loug-sighted. Sometimes the short-sighted person can see nothing distinctly unless it touches hie nose; and, on the other hand, many old persons cannot see at all distinctly, even at the greatest practicable distance, without the aid of glasses; but this extreme state of flatness is not common, except as a consequence of an operation for the removal of cataract, which is almost always followed by a great demand for the optician's assistance.
The accommodating power of the eye Is a very remarkable property, and one which should never be lost Bight of by those who have the management of young persons who are afflicted with Bhort sight. We have not been able to ascertain with any certainty the exact nature of the contrivance by which this is effected, but that it exists is shown from the known powers of the eye, and from the nature of its mechanical structure. As previously stated, the picture of a near object can only be distinct when formed at a greater distance behind the lens than the picture of a distant object. Consequently, when an eye can sec both a near and a distant object equally clearly without moving its situation as regards them, aud in a very short period of time, It follows that the instrument itself must have been altered in some or:e or more of its diameters or surfaces. It is considered highly probablo that In the human eye the lens is brought backwards and forwards according to the distance of the object; but this is merely a theory, propounded as the most likely of the many which have been advanced, and not as being capable at present of distinct proof. It is upon the existence of the power of accommodation that any improvement in the short or long sight can be expected; but with a knowledge of the possibility of its beini,' called into play, no one should give glasses to a y>mn£ person until tbey bad tried how far his sight might bo improved by its education. All
ahort-sighted persons, however marked their defect, may by perseveranco in using their eyes at the utmost limit of their powers call tho accommodating power into play, and in process of time it will most materially aid them. It is In this way that the mariner is enabled to discern ships or other objects at a vast distance beyond that at which they are visiblo to an ordinary person; and, in the game way, a microscopist educates his eye until it accustoms itself to see minuto objects which defy tho scan of the unaccustomed organ of vision. When the defect is so great that thero is uo hope of ever dispensing with the use of a lens, it is of little consequence to educate the eye; but in moro moderate cases there is littlo difficulty, if tho possessor of tho defective organ will aid in the task. Tho only thing uecessary is to place a mechanical guard between the eye and the object to be seen, such as a book, slate, or copy-book, so that, in the first place, tho nearer approach of ono to the other is provented ; and in tho second, tho progress from day to day or from week to week may be measured. This progress is always slow, but it is also sure, and up to a certain point it goes on with great steadiness; so that If in the course of a week tho distauco at which a book can bo read is increased half an Inch, in another week it will most probably be read at an inch beyond tho original position. But, as before remarked, up to a certain extent only will this go, as at last comes a dead stand, and beyond that all the powers and patience in the world will not often coax tho recusant organ. But still a vory slight improvement may sometimes oven nfter this be made, and tho attempt should bo maintained for some time, especially as tho practice must be continuod for the sake of what has hecu already gained.
In the selection of glasses thero is a great deal of quackery and nonsense. There Is hut one rule as to the concavity or convexity, and that Is to use only such as aro pleasant to the eye, and in all cases to err rather on tho side of weakness than power. It is well known that the eye cannot long bo kept at one pitch, if tho conditian is that, so common in old age, of increasing flatness of the cornea. Hero the progress has been mado from a healthy condition to a defective one, and the same cause goes on to increase the defect, whether glasses are worn or not. It is quite true that the accommodating power allnded to in the previous paragraph will make some little difference if drawn upon ; but over and ahovo this slight drawback the use of passes certainly does not hasten the alteration of the eye. All those, therefore, who aro in want of such assistance may safely indulge themselves with such a glass as is comfortable to them; and if it affords them clear vision without fatiguing the eye, they may rest satisfied that they are deriving all the benefit of which the optician's art is capable. If the glass after a time becomes insufficient, as it generally doos, they should increase the power, and this will do them far less harm thau the straining of tho eye at a confused mass of letters, rendered barely visible by their previously insufficient glass. Short-sighted people are troubled in a different way, and ono at the same time that requires still more attention. As they become older, their eyes become flatter from the same canse which affects the long-sighted person, and the consequence Is that their glasses become insufficient from, being too strong, so that they require them less concave than bofsre. This Is particularly the case with those- who only wear their glasses occasionally, for if worn constantly, tho eye becomes accommodated to their use, and the necessity for change Is not so obvious; but so far from
being objected to, it should be hailed with pleasure as the harbinger of a more perfect state of vision, to which each succeeding change in the power of the glass will bring the wearer more and more near.
Glasses for rectifying short sight may be either concavo on both sides, or plano-concave, or concavo-convex, the last of which is particularly applicable to that worn in the eye, as by its shape it allows the eyelashes full play, and is very much more comfortable than the flat glass. For long sight, also, the glass may be convex on both sides or plano-convex; but the former la that most generally employed. Glasses are always numbered, but the different makers employ different ganges, and therefore they are only useful in comparing those belonging to any one maker.
Cheap Pea-soup.—To one gallon of water put a pint and a half of spilt peas (if the water be hard, add half a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda). Wash a head of celery, cut up small, and put it Into the pot. Let this simmer without boiling till the peas are completely blended with tho water. Cut a few onions into thin slices, and put them into a frying-pan, with two ounees of beef or mutton drippings; dredge or sprinkle a tablespoonful of flour over them, add a tcacupful of the pea-liquor, and fry till tho whole is nicely brown. Then pour all into tho boiler; seasou with pepper and salt to taste, stir well, and let the whole boil for about five minutes, when it will be ready for use. A little common mint, dried and powdered, may be sprinkled over it, if agreeable.
A Delicate Omelette.— Break eight eggs in a stewpan, to which add a teaspoonful of very finely chopped eschalots, one of chopped parsley, half ditto of salt, a pinch of pepper, and threo good tablespooufuls of cream; beat them well together, then put two ounces of batter in an omelette pan, stand it over a sharp fire, and as soon as the butter is hot pour in the eggs, stir them round quickly with a spoon until delicately set, then shake the pan round, leave it a moment to color the omelette, bold the pan in a slanting position, just tap it upon the stove to bring the omelette to a proper shape, and roll tho flap over the spoon ; turn it upon your dish, and serve as soon as done. Take care not to do it too much.
Knuckle Op Veal, Boiled.—As this is a very small joint it is best to have a couple. Let them he sawn into two or three pieces and put Into a stewpan. with abont two pounds of streaked bacon or pickled pork, some onions, turulp, and carrot. Let all be well covered with water. Skim well, and as soon as it bolls add a little salt and white pepper, and let It simmer gently for two hours. A toacupful of rice may be added, and a little chopped parsley. When done, lay the bacon or pork in the middle of the dish, place the pieces of knuckle round it, and the carrot and turnip round tbem. Serve up with melted butter and parsley, or a portion of the liquor. If tho liquor be not used at the time, It will form a foundation for some excellent soup.
To Bon, Rice As A VEgEtAele —Wash several times In cold water, otherwise in cooking the rice grains will stick together. Let water boil very fast, say two quarts for a quarter of a pound of rice, and throw in the latter, still keeping the water rapidly boiling; let it contlnae to do so for a littlo more than a quarter of an hour, or till a grain will rub away between the finger and thumb; then throw the rice Into a colander to let the water drain thoroughly away; then pat it back into the saucepan, throw in a teacup of cold water, keep it covered for a few minutes; then turn it out, and every grain will separate, one from the other.
To Fry Bugs.—To fry eggs nicely requires some little attention, as they are apt to become hard, black, and uupalatable. There should be plenty of butter or oil, and care taken not to let them be overdone. If ham or bacon is fried with them, it must be done first, and the eggs afterwards.
Vermicelli Soup.—To make, vermicelli soup, take as much good stock as you require for your tureen; strain and set it on the fire, and when it boils put in the vermicelli. Let it simmer for half an hour by a slow fire, that the vermicelli may not break. The soup ought not to be wry thick. Half a pound of vermicelli Is sufficient for eight or ten persons.
Mullagatawny Soup.—Cut up a knuckle of veal, and put It into a stewpan with a piece of butter, half a pound of lean ham, a carrot, a turnip, three onions, six apples; add half a pint of water. Sot the stewpan on the fire, moving the meat round occasionally. Let it remain until the bottom of the stewpan is covered with a strong glaze; thon add three tablespoonfuls of curry powder or of carry paste, and half a pound of flour ; stir well in, and fill the stewpan with a gallon of water. Add a spoonful of salt and half a spoonful of sugar. When it boils, place it on the corner of the fire, and let It simmer two hours and a half, skimming off all fat as it rises.
To Make Jelly Stocb For All J Ellies.—Take an ounce and a half of isinglass, or two ounces of gelatine, three ounces of loaf-sugar ; wet the isinglass first with boiling water, then boil in a quart of water till the latter is reduced to a pint. Now run it through a fine sieve or jelly-bag of flannel.
To Stew Onions.—Peel them, flour, and fry them in a little butter, a light brown; then put them into weak gravy, season, and stew slowly two hours. Dish them up-side down, with the sauce over them. In peeling, bo careful not to cut the top or bottom too closely, else the onion will not keep whole.
A Savory Dish.—Take two pickled herrings, put them into a stono jar; fill it up with potatoes and a little water, and let it bake In an oven till the potatoes are done enough.
Dried Parsley.—To have parsley for winter use, dry It lu a slow oven, rub it to a powder, and put it Into a preserving bottle, and it will long retain its smell and flavor.
To Stew Red Cabeage.—Shred finely half a cabbage, and put it into a stew-pan, with a teacupful of gravy and two ounces of butter; stew slowly till tender, season with salt and serve. To heighten the color of the cabbage, a slice or two of beet-root may be added, but should be taken out before serving.
CAKES, ETC. Cocoanut PuFrs.—Break up a large ripe cocoanut. Pare the pieces, and lay them awhile in cold water; then wipe them dry, and grate them as finely as possible. Lay the grated cocoanut in well-formed heaps on a large, handsome dish. It will require no cooking. The heaps should be about the circumference of a dollar, and must not touch each other. Flatten them dowu in the middle, so as to make a hollow in the centre of each
heap, and upon this pile some very nice sweetmeats. Make au excellent whipped cream, well sweetened and flavored with lemon and wine, and beat it to a stiff froth. Pile some of this cream high upon each cake over the sweetmeats. If on a supper-table, you may arraugo them in circles round a glass stand.
Palmer Cabes.—Sift a pound of flour into a pan, and rub into it half a pound of butter and a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Add a teaspoonful of mixed spice, powdered cinnamon, nutmeg, and mace. Wet the mlxturo with two well-beaten eggs; the juice of a largo lemon or orange, and sufficient rose-water to make it Into a dough just stiff enough to roll out easily. Sprinkle a little flour on the paste-board, lay the lump of doutfh upon it, roll it out rather thin, and cut it into round cakes, with the edge of a tumbler, dipped every time In flour to prevent stickiness. Lay the cakes in buttered square pans. Set them in a rather brisk oven, and bake them brown.
A Nice Soda Currant Cake, Suitaele For Young Folk. — Rub into two pounds of flour the ordinary quantity of salt; add a quarter of an ounce of carbonate of soda, with* a little of tho flour first, and then with the whole; then put a quarter of an ounce of muriatic acid in a pint of cold water, mix it with the flour and other ingredients, adding half a pound of tfurrunts, nicely washed; knead it well, and put it In the oven immediately.
Chocolate Puffs.—Beat very stiff the whites of two eggs, and then beat in, gradually, half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Scrape down very fine an ounco and a half of the best chocolate (prepared cocoa k better still), and dredge it with flower to prevent its oiling, mixing the flour well among it. Then add it, gradually, to the mixture of white of egg and sugar, and stir the whole very hard. Cover the bottom of a square tin pan with a sheet of fine white paper, cut to fit exactly. Place upon it thin spots of powdered loaf-sugar, abont the size of a half-dollar. Pile a portion of tho mixture on each spot, smoothing it with the back of a spoon or a broad knife, dipped in cold water. Sift white sugar over the top of each. Set tho pan into a brisk oven, and bake them a few minutes. When cold, loosen them from tho paper with a broad knife.
Common Wine Sauce.—Make thin a few ounces of melted butter, then add from a tablespoonful to two of coarsely pounded lump sugar, and a glass of sherry with half a glass of brandy; a little grated lemon-peel or nutmeg, or both together, are improvements.
Arrowroot Sauce For Puddings.—Mix a small teaspoonful of arrowroot with a little cold water, and boil a large teacupful of sherry or raisin wine with sugar enough to sweeten it. Make the arrowroot with this, and pour over the pudding. It is an improvement to rub a lump or two of the sugar on lemon-peel.
Burnt Cream Sauce.—Put two ounces of sifted sugar on the fire In a small saucepan, stir it, and when quite brown pour slowly in a gill of thin cream, stirring it all the time. To be used as a sance to custard or batter pndding.
Sweet Pudding Sauce Without Wine is made with melted butter, a little cream added, sweetened to the palate, and flavored with nutmeg, cinnamon, or mace.
Plum Pudding Sauce.—Add to four ounces of melted butter, or thick arrowroot, an ounco and a half of each of the following — viz.: sherry, French brandy, and euracoa; sweeten to the taste, and add also a little nutmeg and lemon-peel grated.
Frcit Sauces are easily made for any plain puddinga by stewing the fresh fruit with rather less sugar than for preserving, and adding water till they are of a proper consistence for a sauce. Some cooks mix a little arrowroot with the water, and then strain before serving.
PERFUMES AS PREVENTIVES OF MOULDINESS.
An Interesting paperon this subject has been published 'by Dr. Macculloch. We presume our readers aro aware that mouldincss is occasioned by the growth of minute vegetables. Ink, paste, leather, and seeds, are the substances that most frequently sutler from it. The effect of cloves in preserving ink is well known; any of the essential oils answer equally well. Leather may bo kept free from mould by tho same substances. Thus Russian leather, which is perfumed with the tar of birch, never becomes mouldy; indeed it prevents it from occurring in other bodies. A few drops 0/any essential oil are sufficient also to keep books entirely free from It. For harness, oil of turpentine Is recommended. Bookbinders, in general, employ alum for preserving their paste ; but mould frequently forms on it. Shoemakers' resin is sometimes nlso used for tho same purpose; but it is less effectual than oil of turpentine. The best preventives, however, aro the essential oils, even in small quautity, as those of peppermint, anise, or cassia, by which paste may be kept almost any length of time; indeed, it has, in this way, been preserved for years. Tho paste recommended by Dr. Macculloch, is made in the usual way, with flour, some brown sugar, and a little corrosivo sublimate; the sugar keeping It flexible when dry, and the sublimate preventing it from fermenting, and from being attacked by insects. After it is made, a few drops of any of the essential oils are added. Paste made in this way dries when exposed to the air, and may be used merely hy wetting it. If required to be kept always ready for use, It ought to bo put into covered pots. Seeds may also be preserved by the essential oils ; and this is of great consequence, when they are to be sent to a distance. Of course moisture must be exclnded as much as possible, as tho oils or ottos prevent ouly the bad effects of mould.
MISCELLANEOUS. Uses Op Tfie Dandelion.—Its uses aro endless: the young leaves blanched make an agreeable and wholesome early salad; and they may be boiled, like cabbages, with salt meat. The French, too, slice the roots and eat them, as well as the leaves with bread and butter, and tradition frays that the inhabitants of Minorca once subsisted for weeks on this plant, when their harvest had been entirely destroyed by insects. Tho leaves are ever a favorite and useful article of food in the Vale of Kashmir, where, in spite of the preconceived prejndices we all have to the contrary, dandelions, and other humbler t-samples of our northern "weeds," do venture to associate themselves with tho rose or the jasmine of its eastern soil. On the banks of the Rhino the plant is cultivated as a substitute for coffee, and Dr. Harrison contends that it possesses the fine flavor and snlWance of the best Mocha coffee, without its Injurious principle; and that it promotes sleep when taken at night, Instead of banishing It, as coffee does, Mrs. Modtc gives us her
experiences with dandelion roots, which seem of a most satisfactory nature. She first cut the roots into small pieces, and dried them in the oven until they wore brown and crisp as coffee, and in this state they appear to have been eaten. But certain it is that she ground a portion of them, and made a most superior coffee. In some parts of Canada they make un excellent beer of the leaves, in which the saccharino matter they afford forms a substitute for malt, and the bitter flavor servos instead of hops. In medicine, too, it is invaluable
Cbmbnts Fok Porcelain, Marele, Alaeahtir, Glass, Rtc—Take of isinglass two drachms, wet it with water, and allow it to stand until softened ; then add as much proof spirit a* will rather more than cover it and dissolve with a moderate heat. Take of gum mastic one drachm, dissolve it in two or three drachms of rectified spirit. Mix the two solutions, and stir in one drachm of gum ammoniiicum in a fine powder, and rubbed down with a little water. Keep the cement in a bottle. When required for use place tho bottle in warm water, and apply tho cement with n stick or small hard brush to the china, previously warmed Compress tho pieces firmly together until cold, taking care to make the contact perfect, and using a veiy thln layer of cemont.
The white of eggs, thickened with powdered quicklime, is also used us a cement for broken china, marble, and glass.
White re^in and white beeswax melted and mixed with plaster of ]\iris make a good cement for mending alabaster and marble ornaments.
A Good Blacb Dtb Kor Straw Bonnets.—Straw bonnets may be dyed black by boiling them three or four hours in a strong liquor of logwood, adding a little green copperas occasionally. Let the bonnet remain in the liquor all night, then take out to dry in the air. If the black is not satisfactory, dye again after drying. Rob inside and out with a sponge, molstcued in fiuo oil Then block.
To Clean Plated Aeticles.—They should always be tlean-washed with wai in water and soap and perhaps a little soda, then wiped dry with a clean cloth, before polishing with whitening, or rott^nstone and sweet oil.
For Removing Inb-spots From Mahouaxy.— Apply spirits of salts with a bit of rag till the Ink disappears
Or: Put a fow drops of spirits of nitre in a teaspoonfal of water, touch the spot with a feather dipped in the mixture, and, on the ink disappearing, rub it over immediately with a rag wetted in cold water.
For Wttitenino The Hands.—Take a wineglassful of eau de cologne, and another of lemon-juice; then scrape two cakes of brown Windsor soap to a powder, and mix well lu a mould. When hard, it will be an excellent soap for whitening the hands.
A Cure For Sopt Corns —Scrape a piece of common chalk, and put a pinch to the soft corn, and bind a piece of linen rag upon it. Repeat the application during a few days, and you will find the corn come off like a shell, and perfectly cured. Tho cure is simple and efficacious.
How To Hasten Tur Blowing Op Flowers.—To hasten the blowing of flowers, use the following mixture: Nitrate of sulphate of ammonia, four ounces; nit e, two ounces; sugar, one ounce; hot water, one pint; dissolve and keep well closed. Add twenty drops to the water used to moisten or surround the flowers, changing it each week. Cut flowers may lie preserved longer by using a little nitrate of soda to the water in which they arc put, or by placing over them a bell jar.
HEW IDEA OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
What might a single Mind may wiold,
And Hope to lead the way;
The night before the day.
In June, 18.17, an English lady, being in London, took a walk through tho Seven Dials to see, for herself, the condition of the miserable population of St. Giles. The lady was accompanied by a friend, a retired physician, who knew tho city, and this wretched portion had been the scene of his benevolent labors; he was therefore ablo to go where no stranger would have dared venture. They went on and on through the terrible crowds of ragged, dirty, lazy loungers, many of whom were womon of the vilest sort, for the dwellers hi tho filthy cellars had come up in the afternoon to breathe the air, though It was hot and fetid. What haggard and disgusting forms were gathered together I Among these was the mournful spectacle of lanky, sallow, squalid children—" not a true child-face among them all"—dirt and rags, ignorance, misery, wickednoss, and want were everywhere!
As they walked on, the heart of the lady was moved with the tenderest compassion for those wretched outcasts of humanity, compared with whose daily life the condition of brute animals seemed happiness, when two thoughts or questions were suggested to her heart:—
1st. "Has the Bible found its way to these dark places?"
2d. "If it had, would they remain, as we now see them?"
Then the New Idea flashed like a burst of sunshine on her mind—that of finding a poor, pious woman who, living in the district, would not be afraid to go among this dreadful population, and sending her nn& Bible-Woman! This messenger could find entrance to the miserable abodes where a lady would not dare to go, and would not be admitted; and through the ministry of the Biblewoman, this multitude of neglected women and children whom the clergy could not reach, nor the bounty of the benevolent relieve, would be reached and be taught the Word of God!
Tho Idea was clear and true in the mind of the lady. She consulted the physician, and, to his honor be it recorded, he did not cavil because It was a woman's thought, but encouraged her and strengthened her hope. He knew of a poor woman whom he commended for the work. The lady found hor, engaged her for a month on a small salary, and being successful she served a year. This poor, pious woman went forth through the worst ntreots of London, with the Bible in her hands; she told Its message of mercy to all who would listen; she read of the Saviour's love to those who could not read; she sold the Book by subscriptions of one penny a week to those who would buy, till the Bible became popular in tbe Seven Dials, welcomed and purchased by the poorest »nd by those who had been the worst women in that street. It has not only proved a cleansing fountain for that dark valley of pollution, but by the wonderful in
crease of this ministry of Bible-women, during the succeeding four years, it has found its way to multitudes of the lowest and most degraded of tho London poor, is healing their worst diseases and transforming them, from lazy, drunken, ragged, and hopeless outcasts, into indnstrious, sober people, "clothed and in their right mind."
The lady whoso idea of Bible-women has wrought this wonderful change is Mrs. L. N. Ranyard, of London, then editress of "The B.<ok and Us Mission"—now better known as authoress of ''The Missing Link" and "Lifework ; or, the Link and the Rivet.''* Both books are descriptive of the manner and the means by which tbe progress of the Idea has been sustained and managed. Marian was the name of the first Bible-woman; her story is told in tho "Missing Link," which gives a sad picture of tho lowest depths of misery in which human beings are existing in the Great Metropolis: but then comes the silver lining to the dark cloud—theso hard hearts can be softened by woman's Christian sympathy, can be turned from evil indigencies to tho love of the good by the power of the Gospel. The changes wrought In their domestic character is one of the wonderful results on those poor wives and mothers. As soon as the Bible was made known in its holy precepts and blessed promises, it infused hope, and with that came tho wish and the energy to try for a better life here as well as for the life hereafter. The women were willing to give up the gin-shop and save their hard earnings to buy beds and clothing. Theso articles were furnished by tho Lady Superintendents of the Bible women; the poor subscribing, In clubs, one shilling weekly for beds, clothing, etc., were supplied at cost; many a weary creature, who then had never in her life slept on a bed, now has one of her own; and children, whoso only clothing had been rags and dirt, are now clean and neatly arrayed.
"Life-Work" continues the story of tho Biblo-woinan down to July, 1661—so that wo have the result for four years, since Marian was first sent out to this work. There aro now over one hundred and fifty Bible-women In London; these havo sold, in the four years, upwards of twonty thousand Bibles. During this tinio tho outcast poor have paid over $8,000 for Bibles ; and the poor mothers in Loudon have contributed to clothing clubs and to purchase beds the astonishing snm of $25,000! They paid this in penny orshilling subscriptions, mostly the penny saved from the beer-shop and gin-palace. Is not this change wonderful? It is tho result of a new lDRA—tiutt woman mutt minister to woman. Mrs. Ranyard says truly: "When tho women hearken the men will follow. The Bible must make tho women, the women make the homes, the homes make the men and the children."
Read her two books and then say—has not this Idea or Bible-women, carried out in the manner of having Lady Superintendents as it is by Mrs. Ranyard, done more, in tho four years described, to make the reformation and
* These books are republished in New York by Robert Carter & Brothers; sold in Philadelphia by Win. Martien & Co.