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AIR A.ND EXERCISE.
ON THE IMP0RTANCB OF OOOD A IK.
Ais in as necessary to existence as food, and its total deprivation la still more rapidly fatal; but the quality of the air inspired la also of nearly equal importance, though this is not qulte so readily proved. Nevertheless It la an admitted fact that pure air, uncontamlnated by either decomposing animal, vegetable, Of mineral products, Is of the greatest consequence to tho health of the human race.
Exercise comes next to air and food In lts bearings
upon the healthy development of the human frame, but its effects are dependent upon a very different chain of Uws. In all machines made by man the workmanship Is completed before the machine is calculated for use, and etery day's wear and tear has a tendency to injure It, except in the case of very delicate instruments, which require a certain amount of liberty in their joints before taey are at their best—as in musical instruments, for instance. But in the animal machine the uso orexorcise of an organ Is necessary to its full development, and, up to a certain point, the more it is used the more fully is it developed. Thus, a blacksmith's arm Is much larger, in proportion, than his leg; whilo the pedestrian's or opera dancer's leg is more fully developed than the arm. Whatever muscle is used in a moro violent manner than thereat of the body becomes enlarged, and by its increase of size more powerful. But, besides this effect upon the setoal muscles employed in any particular action, a proper amount of exercise also promotes the due performance of all the functions of the body, increasing the activity of the circulation, and in that way influenting the nervous system and the general secretory appantu. All this Is »o fully recognized and well understood by those who have investigated the subject that it Is almost unnecessary to allnde to the fact; and it will probably be allowed as a rule by those who read these pi?es that exercise Is necessary to tho long enjoyment of health.
Exercise intended to maintain health may be taken In three different ways: 1st, by tho uso of the organs of fccoiaofion In tho natural way; 2d, by employing the utoral organs of offence or defence; and 3d, by tho uso of gymnastics, or artificial exercises.
Locomotive exercises inclnde walking, running, loapIng, swimming, skating, and riding. These are all more or lees desirable in strong and robust habits, and may be raried with advantage, so that they shall not become Odious or uninterestlng. None of them are so serviceable to thom* who have recourse to them when they are s*tt pleasant as they are to those who enjoy tho muscular exertion which must be employed. Thus a mero walk ttken for tho sake of health degenerates Into a disagreeable tang!t, and doe-s not promote health nearly so much ssU would if voluntarily undertaken with some pleaant object In view. Tho same is tho case with riding, ftatiag, or swimming; they are always useful when tier give plea«ure, and, though not Injurious, yet they lost a great part of their benefit when they are reluctantly employed, or when they have become tiresome ■J * too frequent repetition. No exercise is equal to *iiking or rnunlng, especially for the young who havo
juat completed their growth, and who require a considerable amount of muscular exertion to carry off the quantity of nourishment which their appetites canse them to take, and which tho growth of tho frame has hitherto demanded.
Offensive and defensive exercise 1b no less useful to the body when It can be taken in a good and wholesome air; but, aa la too often the case, it is comparatively valueless when the combatants exert their skill in a close and confined situation. The system of taking exercise by the gwirded use of the organs of offence and defence is the most valuable of all those offered to roan, because In this mode the mind Is engaged as well as the body, and as a consequence tho latter benefits much more than It does in a more tame and uninteresting muscular exertion, wherein one great object 1b lost sight of—namely, the stimulus to the nervous system.
Gymnastics have been Invented to supply the place of both tho previously described kinds of exercise, and for a time they succeed admirably. But it Is only for a time, as it is always observed that the pupils of a gymnasinm after a while lose their interest, and cease to derive any benefit. The exercises described under the two previous heads are generally inclnded in an extended course of gymnastics, which term, indeed, literally means exercises, but In a limited sense It is used for tho*o which are taught with a view only of developing the muscles, and preparing them for the further progress in walking, riding, fencing, etc. Thus mere swimming, though often tanght as a part of gymnastics, is certainly not usually considered gymnastic, nor Is riding or walking; and, therefore, It is better to confine tho term to those exercises which may bo carried out by means of an apparatus of poles, boards, etc., in a limited space, but in the open air. Such Is the ordinary acceptation of the term; and when a similar object is to be carried out for the female sex, the term calisthenics la made use of. Id both cases there is a call upon certain muscles of the body not generally used, and for the male sex a spirit of emulation Is excited, which makes the effort much more beneficial. With the aid of this effect on the mind, gymnastics are of considerable benefit; but as this emulation cannot be kept up very long, the good effect soon ceases, and gymnastics proper must be replaced by Boido oue of tho exercises described under the two last paragraphs. For the female sex, calisthenics are always open to the same objection; and in their case, dancing, with the aid of the excitement produced by music, in a healthy atmosphere, is a much better substitute. 1 confess that, except aa a mechanical aid for defects of formation, I have never seen much good derived from either one or the other, and in tho case of tho female sex less than in that of boys. When they are intended to remedy disease, the case is somewhat different; but for the purpose of maintaining health, I look upon pure gymnastics as only useful when employed as a good introduction to pedestrianism, riding, fencing, etc.
But, independently of detail, It should be impressed upon all young persons that nature has implanted in them a law which, if neglocted, surely leads to disease. That law la, that every organ (with very fow exceptions) becomes wasted by disuse, and that all are dependent one upon the other, so that if one set is allowed to lie dormant, all the others sympathize with it. This la even true with reference to the mental faculties, which require a healthy body in order to allow of their full play; while, at the same time, if tho wholo energies are wasted upon bodily objects, and tho mind is allowed to
lie fallow, it will suffer in Its powers, and gradually become more and more weak. But though muscular exercise renders the brain as well as all the other organs in a condition fit to exert themselves to advantage, yet It can do no more; and if they are still Buffered to remain idle, in spite of the perfect condition of their machinery, no fault can be imputed to the bodily powers, on account of the high state of health in which they are existing.
The amount of exercise necessary for health is very variable, depending upon natural constitution, education, sex, and age. For men from twenty to fifty, eight or ten miles a day of walking exercise may be taken as the average; and for women of the same age about half this quantity will sutflce. Less than this will go a great way, but for keeping up high health the above amount, omitted only on thoroughly wet days, may be considered necessary.
PRINCIPLES OF CARVING.
The general principles upon which carving is, or ought to be, conducted are very plain, and the only real difficulty consists in the necessity for practice to enable the carver to hit the Joints, either between the several bones of a piece of mutton or veal, or in aoy of the various kinds of poultry or game. Each of these must, therefore, be separately considered; but with regard to butcher's meat, one rule may be laid down as almost, but not quite, invariable, ami that Is, always to cut across the fibres of the meat, and not in the same direction. This insures a short grain, and avoids those long strings in the mouth, which are by no means pleasant. If, therefore, the carver will only examine iuto this point, and ascertain the direction of the grain or fibres of the moat, ho will at once be able to cross them with the knife, and gain the desired advantage. The exception alluded to is the under side of the sirloin of beef, which is always cut in the direction of its fibres, though I really do not sec why, as it is much improved in flavor by cutting it In the same direction as the upper side— that is, parallel with the bones. This, however, is not a very easy task with a bad knife, as the meat is apt to slip from the bone. The next rule to be observed Is to make the knife and fork assist each other—that is to say, the fork should steady the joint for the knife, or where the fork is used as the means of division in removing the leg of a fowl, the knife must take the office of steadying the body of the bird, and the same remark applies to the carving of any other kind of poultry or game; and, thirdly, it is very important, in an economical point of view, to cat all slices, either of meat, game, or poultry, completely down to the bone, so as to leave no ragged portions behind.
In carving fish, the following directions apply:—
In carving salmon, it is only necessary to take care to avoid breaking the flakes unnecessarily, by attempting to divide them at right angles with the long axis of the fish. There is a great difference in the flavor of the back, or thick part, aud that of th>thin part of the fish; and therefore most people like to be aske.d which they prefer. This being done, the knife is carried down to the bone longitudinally, and removes a thick slice of either or both, according to the choice.
Mackerel are split at the tail, and the upper half raised at that part from the bones; after which the bone Is removed from the lower half of the fish, and that In its turn is served, either in one piece or divided Into two, according to its size.
Host other small fish are carved much in the same
way ; that is, either by serving them whole, or dividing them with the kuife into sections, according to me.
DIRECTIONS FOE CABTIHG JOINTS.
The haunch of mutton or venison is carved very differently by different people. The nsual plan is to cut through the flesh between tbe leg and loin, and then to run the knife from this to the lower end of the loin, cutting parallel slices in that direction. A much better plan, however, consists in making these cuts in ooe sweep, carrying the knife directly from the outside of the leg to the end of the loin, and thus getting a beautiful long slice of lean, with the fat at the end. There is, also, a delicious mine of kidney fat in the loin of mutton, under the flank, which is often too high In venison ; but if fresh enough, is even more rich and palatable in that meat than in mutton.
The saddle of mutton Is carved in throe different ways —1st, by longitudinal slices along each side of the bone, by which the lean and fat do not come In the same slice; 2d, by transverse slices, taking in the bones, and which therefore must be thick and clumsy; and 3d, by obliquo slices, slightly curved, which Is far the best plan, in which the knife begins at the bone near the tail, aid, after cutting off the outside, takes a series of parallel slices all through the joint.
In carving a shoulder of mutton or lamb, the first thing for the young housekeeper to ascertain is the position of the bone, which is near the edge on one Bide. Here the knife must not be inserted, because it would be stopped at once; but by trying the opposite side a deep cut may be made, and from its two surfaces slices are readily obtained. When this part Is exhausted, slices may be procured along the sides of the bladeboue, and again on the under side some few good cuts will be met with.
The fore-quarter of lamb must be commenced by separating the shoulder from Its bed, carrying the knife all round it, and raising It with the fork ; after which a lemon should be squeezed into the cut surface, and a little pepper and salt then sprinkled over it; but all this may be much better done in the kitchen than on the dinlng-table. In order to carve this part, the same directions will apply as are given in the last paragraph; and for the remaining portion It is only necessary to separate the thin part, called the brisket, from the ribs, and then divide each Into transverse sections. One rib is usually served to each plate, and with this many people like a small division of the brisket; but the question ought always to be asked before giving cither or both.
A breast of veal is carved In the same way as the bed of the fore-quarter of lamb after the shoulder is removed.
The fillet of veal merely requires successive horizontal slices of meat to be taken off with a sharp knife, serving with each a small portion of fat and forcemeat, unless disliked by the person for whom it is intended.
A loin of veal is usually divided into two portions, the clump end and the kidney end. The latter merely requires to be divided into portions, at right angles wiih its length, every other ono of which contains a twee, and the intermediate one is of meat only. Most people like some of the fat on the under side round the kidi ey spread on toast, and seasoned, when it eats like marrow. The chump end has the tall attached to its upper side, and this must be taken off horizontally, after which, successive slices of meat are served without any bone, which Is all in one piece, and therefore not capable of being divided.
Tho shoulder of veal is carved like the shoulder of mutton by some people, but the best plan is to begin on the under side, and then cut slices from the thick edge opposite the bone and parallel with it. When stuffed, a portion must be served on each plate.
The sirloin of beef 1b usually carved by cutting the upper Bide in slices, parallel with the bone, and commencing at the edge, tho brown of which forms tho first slice. On the under side the knife is generally made to cross the grain, cutting through the middle down to the bone, and removing slices on each side. This part, however, tastes much better if cut on the same plan as the upper side, that is, by commencing at the edge; but in this way the slices are small, and do not look 80 handsome, for which reason the ordinary mode is generally preferred.
The round of beef requires the same management as the fillet of real.
The inferior joints of beef must all be cut by cutting across the grain. The brisket is no exception to this rule, the bones being neglected in carrying it out.
Bbiskbt Of Beef 8tbwed.—Stew it in sufficient water to cover the meat; when quite tender, take out the bones, and skim off the fat; add to the gravy, when strained, a glass of wine and a little splco tied up in a muslin bag. Have ready either mushrooms, truffles, or vegetables boiled, and cut into shapes. Lay them on and round the beef; reduce part of the gravy to a glaze, lay it on the top, and pour the remainder into the dish. It is a good piece to stew, as It may be cut from the bone, and of any size.
Broiled Bump Stbak.—Cut the steaks about threequarters of an inch thick, from a rump of beef that has hung until quite tender; let the gridiron be hot, well rubbed with beef suet, and the fire clear. Lay on the steaks, one by one, turning them frequently with steaktongs—a fork should never be used; when brown on both sides, lay them on a hot dish, and send them inatantly to table, for, if not eaten hot, tho steak will become soddened. Should it not have hung long enough to be tender, beat it with a rolling-pin ; put no salt on, or it will harden the steak. The grand secret is a quick clear fire, frequent turning, and quick cooking; for if the meat be long upon tho fire it will be hard.
As regards turning it frequently, or only once, that must depend upon whether the steak is to be done in the usual way—that the gravy may not be drawn out on either side; or whether it is to bo done " rare"—that is to say, very much underdone. In the former case, the steak should be cut only half an inch thick, and turned frequently—but, if "rare," three-quarters of an inch thick, turning it only once, and the fire should be more brisk than in tho former case; by which means the meat will be sufficiently scorched on both sides, without being burned. It is not eaten in perfection If served with anything else; a little minced shalot and a tablespoonful of ketchup may be put Into the dish, and it may be garnished with horseradish; to pepper the steak is to spoil it.
Ten minutes will be sufficient to cook a large steak if it is to'be done rare; but if well done, from ten to fifteen minutes.
The tit should bo separated and pnt on the gridiron first and taken off laBt, so as to broil it half as long again u tho lean. That makes it pulpy, like marrow.
To Hash Beef.—If the meat is raw, hang it till it is quite tender; then cut some thin slices, and put them iuto a stewpan with just water enough to cover them, a bunch of sweet-herbs, an onion, and a little pepper and salt; cover tho stewpan close, and let them stow till tender; then put In a glass of port wine, and a tablespoonful of shalot vinegar. When It is warm, pour the gravy through a halr-Bleve to clear it from the herbs and vegetables; then put it back iuto the saucepan with tho hash, and thicken it with butter kneaded in flour, with a little brown sugar. This isau excellent dish, and may be made from the trimmings of large joints of meat.
If the meat has been cooked, minco a Bhalot and an onion; fry in a little butter; then add a spoonful of flour, a littlo gravy, and a spoonful of walnut liquor or ketchup. When It boils, put In the slices of beef cut thin; let them got hot through, but not boiled. Sliced potatoes and onions may be added if approvod.
Observe that it is owing to boiling hashes or minces that they get hard. All sorts of stews, or meat dressed a second time, should be only simmered.
Leo Of Mutton Roasted—A leg of mutton intended for roasting should bo kept longer than for boiling; it should be carefully attended to during the time it is hung up, constantly wiped to prevent any mustlness gathering on the top and below tho flap, and In hot weather lightly dusted with flour or pepper to keep off the flies. Tho kernel in tho fat on the thick part of tho leg should be taken out by the butcher, for It taints first there; and tho bloody part of tho neck should also be cut off when first brought in.
Remove the thick skin very carefully; trim off the piece of flank that adheres to the fat, and flatten tho fat with a cutlet-beater or chopper; cut off the knuck le, aud nick the cramp-bone, to allow it to become more plump, as la the haunch. Put a little Bait and water into tho dripping-pan to basto tho meat at first; but then use only its own gravy. Serve with jelly.
A leg of mutton Is usually roasted whole, but can bo divided advantageously for a small family. Cut the knuckle into a good-sized joint, and boil it until tender; but put a coarse paste over the lower part of tho thick end to keep in the gravy, and roast lt« or if the skin bo raised gently from tho outside of the leg, to about six or seven inches wide, two or three good slices may be cut off for steaks, and tho skin then fastened down with skewers.
Boxed Quarter Op Lamb.—Take off tho shoulder and bone it; 6tuff it with fine forcemeat, and skewer it in a handsome shape. Braise it with two ounces of butter, add a teacupful of water, stirring the braiso until tho gravy is drawn. Then cut the brisket into pieces, and stow them In white gravy; thicken it with cream and eggs Bo that It shall be very white; cut tho long bones into chops and fry them; thicken the gravy of the braise, add anything vegetable in season. Place the shouldes in the centre of a dish with its own sauce, lay the brisket covered with white sauce round it, and place the fried chops at the edge.
To Broii, A Fowl.—Split the fowl down the back; season it very well with pepper, and put it on the gridiron with the inner part next tho fire, which must bo very clear. Hold the gridiron at a considerable distance from tho fire, and allow the fowl to remain until it Is nearly half done; then turn it, taking great care that it does not burn. Broil it of a fine brown, and serve it up with stewed mushrooms or a sauco with pickled mushrooms. A duck may bo broiled in tho same way. If the MISCELLANEOUS.
fowl is very large, half-roast it, then cat it into four quarters and finish it en the gridiron.
Wild DrcKs must be roasted at a very brisk fire; they take from twelve to twenty minntes, according: to taste. Some people are of opinion that they should only fly through the kitchen; by epicures they are considered to be in true perfection when they come up dry and brown, and, when cut, flood the dish with gravy. The means of insuring success consists in a very ardent fire, rapid motion of the spit, and constant basting. The carver should score the breast of the duck, put a piece of butter on it, and cut a lemon in half, putting on one half a spoonful of salt, and on the other a spoonful of cayenne; put the two together, and squeeze vigorously over the duck; then pour over them a wine-glass of hot port wine.
To Dress Eqo-plant.—Parboil the egg-plants till they become soft, then cut them in half lengthwise. Scoop out the inside, leaving the skin whole; take half of a small onion to about seven egg-plants, with half a pound of butter, and put them over the fire In a pot for a few moments; then mix with It half a good-sized loaf of bread which has been soaked in milk; mix it all well together; put in salt, black and red pepper, and a little parsley, and let it stew an hour. Then take some grated toast and strew over it, and put it for half an hour over the coals ou a gridiron, then return the mixture to the shells, aud serve them.
To Fry Ego-plant.—Cut the egg-plant Into slices qnarter of an inch thick; let it lie for several hours in salted water to remove the bitter taste. Heat a small quantity of butter; when very hot, put in the slices; turn them when one side is done. Let them cook thoroughly.
Winter Sqpash.—This requires rather more boiling than the summer kind. Pare it, cat it In pieces, take out the seeds and Btrings; boil it in a very little water till it is quito soft. Then press out the water, mash it, and add butter, salt, and pepper to your taste. From half to three-quarters of an hoar will generally suffice to cook it.
Parsnep Fritters.—Boll six parsneps tender; then skin and mash them; mix with them one or two eggs well beaten, and two teapoonsfnls of wheat flour. Make them up in small cakes, and fry them in a little lard or beef gravy, mado boiling hot before the cakes are put in. A little salt should be added to the lard or gravy.
Turnips In Gravy.— To a pound of turnips sliced and cut into dice, pour a quarter pint of boiling veal gravy, add & small lump of sugar, some salt and cayeune, or white pepper, and boM them quickly 50 to GO minutes. _Serve them very hot.
Potato Jei.lt.—Is made from the flour, only boiling water must be poured upon it, but care must be taken that it be absolutely boiling, or the complete change into jelly will not take place. It does not take many minutes to thus change a raw potato into this substance, which is not only highly nntritive, but extremely agreeable to the palate when flavored with a little sugar, nutmeg, and white wine.
To Boil Onions Plain.—Peel them and soak them an hour in cold water; put them into boiling milk and water, boil them till tender, and serve with melted butter. Or, boil the onions in two waters.
Cleaning Marble.—One quarter of a pound of pearlash, one pound of soft soap, and three quarts of water; boil for three hours, then bottle it. When used, mix some with whiting into a paste, spread it upon the marble, and let it remain for a day, then wash it off. Warm the paste before you use it.
To Take Oct Grease From The Leaves Op Books.— After having warmed the paper Btained with grease, wax, oil, or any fat body whatever, take as much of it out as possible by means of blotting-paper. Then dip a small brush in the essential oil of well-rectified spirits of turpentine, heated almost to ebullition (for when cold it acts but weakly), and draw it gently over both sides of the paper, which must be kept warm. This operation must be repeated as many times as the quantity of the fat body imbibed by the paper, or the thickness of the paper, may render necessary. When the greasy substance Is entirely removed, recourse may be had to the following method to restore the paper to its former whiteness, which is not completely restored by the first process: Dip another brush in highly rectified spirits of wine, and draw it in like manner over the place which was stained, and particularly round the edges, to remove the border, that would still present a stain. By employing these means with proper caution, the spot will totally disappear, the paper will assume its original whiteness, and if the process has been employed on a part written on with common ink, or printed with printer's ink, it will experience no alteration.
To Make Paper Fireproof.—To do this, it is only necessary to dip the paper in a strong solution of alumwater, and when thoroughly dry, it will resist tho action of flame. Some paper requires to imbibo more of the solution than it will take up at a single immersion, and when this is the case, tho process mnst be repeated until it becomes thoroughly saturated.
Destroying Crickets.—I will tell you how I got rid of hundreds, by means of a common white glazed jar, about nine or ten inches-high, put in tho place they infest, with a slice or two of cucumber in it, and one Jire cricket, as a decoy. They will hop in, and strange to say, have not the power to hop out. When the jar Is one-third full of insects, have it filled with boiling water. I got rid of them by this simple method.
Black Beetles may be destroyed in the same way; but the jar should be rough outside, so that the insects can creep up. With a jar of this kind, glazed with whitn inside, we have seen a great quantity destroyed, without any bait or decoy; the beetles, from curiosity, or some other motive, creep in, but cannot creep out again.
To Clean Turkbt Carpets.—To revive the color of a Turkey carpet, beat it well with a stick till the dust is all got out; then, with a lemon or sorrel juice, take out tho spots of ink, if the carpet be stained with any; wash it In cold water, and afterwards shake out all the water from the threads of the carpet. When it is thoroughly dry, rub it all over with the crumb of a hot wheaten loaf; and if the weather is very fine, hang it out in the open air a night or two.
How To Renovate The Tops Of Kid Boots.—Defaced kid boots will be greatly improved by being rubbed well with a mixture of cream and ink.
French Milk Of Robes is made with rose-water; tincture of benzoin, tincture of storax; of each of the two latter one ounce put into the rose-water; to increase the scent a little spirits of roses is added.