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The consultation begun, Satan debates whether another battle be to be
hazarded for the recovery of heaven : some advise it, others dissuade. A third proposal is preferred, mentioned before by Satan, to search the truth of that prophecy or tradition in heaven concerning another world, and another kind of creature, equal, or not much inferior, to themselves, about this time to be created. Their doubt who shall be sent on this difficult search : Satan, their chief, undertakes alone the voyage, is honored and applauded. The council thus ended, the rest betake them several ways and to several employments, as their inclinations lead them, to entertain the time till Satan return. He passes on his journey to hell gates; finds hem shut, and who sat there to guard them; by whom at length they are opened, and discover to him the great gulf between hell and heaven. With what difficulty he passes through, directed by Chaos, the power of that place, to this sight of this new world which he sought.
High on a throne of royal state, which far
1. High, etc. A magnificent opening, somewhat similar to the description in Faerie Queene, I. iv. 8; also the beginning of Ovid's Met. II. – 2. Ormus, Hormuz, a little island, once a rich diamond mart, now miserably poor, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf. Ind; i. e. of the Moguls or of the Golconda mines ?-3. Gorgeous East is a Shakes. phrase. Love's Lab. Lost, IV. 3 ; so is rich East’in Macbeth, IV. 3. — 4. Showers, etc. “I'll set thee in a shower of gold, and hail rich pearls upon thee.” Shakes. Ant. and Cleop. II. 5. A ceremony at coronations in Tartary and Persia. Barbaric (Asiatic), an epithet of 'gold' in Virg. Æn. II. 504. 5. Satan. Rhetorical effect of reserving the name till this 5th line? Merit. What kind ? — 6. Despair, as stated in Book I. 126. 9. Success, result, event, experience.
“Powers and dominions, deities of heaven!
So used repeatedly in Shakes. – 11. Powers. See note, Book I. 128. – 12. For; i. e., I say 'deities of heaven,' because, etc. Lines 12-17 inclusive are parenthetic ? — 15. Virtues (Lat. rir, man ; virtus, manhood). Powers ? powerful beings? Or heroic qualities? See I. 320. – 18. Me. A classical order of words, adopted for emphasis ? Syntax ? Note the grounds of his leadership; “just right,' 'fixed laws,' 'free choice,' and meritorious achievements. Any others ? — 24. Happier, etc. The argument is ingenious. Express it in your own words. Meaning of 'state'? — 28. Thunderer. Repeatedly (as in Book I. 92, 93, 258) he ascribes the victory to the thunder, as of a Jupiter Tonans. – 33. Precedence. Observe the acccent. None ; i. e. there
To claim our just inheritance of old,
He ceased; and next him Moloch, sceptred king,
is none. — 41. Open . . . . covert. See note, Book I. 662. Spenser (F. Q. 11. XI. 7) has t' assail with open force or hidden guile.' What of the rhetorical fitness of Satan's utterances ? -- 42. “ There is a decided manly tone in the argument and sentiments, an eloquent dogmatism, as if each person spoke from thorough conviction," Hazlitt. 43. Next. Beside ? or next after ? Moloch. See note, I. 392. Why should he speak next ? Sceptred. 'Sceptre-bearing,' Gr. OKNATOûxos, is the Homeric epithet with king. -- 46. Trust. Stronger than hope'! Was. When ? --- 48. Cared. Subject nom. ? 50. Recked, cared. So found repeatedly in Shakes. Thereafter, therefore, accordingly? "Molocli's speech is a masterpiece of furious eloquence." Ross. Analyze it to ascertain its rhetorical and poetic merit. 51. Sentence (Lat. sententia), opinion, decision, vote. — 52. Unexpert than in open war? or than others! Trony here ? - 55. Stand. They were not disbanded yet. See II. 522, 523. — 61. All, instead of diviling forces, or leaving any inactive. At once,
O'er heaven's high towers to force resistless way,
now, instead of further delay. Burke suggested that all at once' ought to be onitted. — 62. Force. He represents brute force, most like the war-god Mars ? - 63. Tortures, the flames and fire of 11. 61, 67, 69 — 64, 65. Quite similar to Prometheus' threat against Jove. Æsch. Prom. Vinct. 920, 921. Engine. The commentators generally seem to have misunderstood this word. It means the Messiah's war-chariot, the most tremendous engine that the imagination ever conceived ; the chariot which rushed with whirlwind sound (VI. 749), . with the sound of torrent floods or of a numerous host' (VI. 829, 830); the chariot under whose crushing weight 'the steadfast empyrean shook throughout' (VI. 832, 833), and whose living wheels were studded with eyes, every one of which 'glared lightnings and shot forth pernicious fire’(VI. 849). See UI. 394, 395, 396. – 67. Black fire and horror. Hendiadys ? Black, as emitting little or no light ? I. 62, 63, 181-183. 69. Tartarean. From Tartarus, the name by which the ancients called the place of punishment in the lower world. Strange fire. See this phrase in Levit. x. 1. ; also, we that are of purer fire,' Comus, 111. — 72. Upright wing, wing flying towards the zenith ?73. Such as suggest this objection to my plan ? Drench, copious draught ? or soaking ? (A. S. drincan, to drink, drencan, to give to drink, ply with drink, drench; Old Norse, dreckia, to sink in water). — 74. Forgetful, like
oblivious,' I. 266. — 77. Adverse, unnatural. Because our bodies are celestial and buoyant ? — 78. Hung on, etc. So it seemed ; but in fact no angel pursued. “Sulphurous hail,' 'lightnings,' 'thunders’ (I. 171, 174, 175) pursued them ; perhaps “terrors and furies' (VI. 859); and "eternal