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But ik an olde; me lift not play for age; 3866
Gras time is don, my foddre is now forage :
This white top writeth min olde yeres;
Min herte is also mouled as min heres; si de
But if I fare as doth an open ers,
That ilke fruit is ever lenger the wers 3870
Til it be roten in mullok or in ftre.

We olde nten, I drede, fo faren we;
Til we be roten can we not be ripe;
We hoppe alway while that the world wol pipe;
For in our will ther stiketh ever a nayl,

3875
To have an hore hed and a grene tayl,
As hath a leke; for though our might be gon
Our will defireth folly ever in on;
For whan we may not don than wol we fpeken,
Yet in our afhen cold is fire yreken.

Four glades han we which I fhal devise, Avaunting, lying, anger, and covetise; These foure sparkes longen unto elde;' Our olde limes mow wel ben unwelde,

3880

. 3877. As ha:b a leke] Loccace has the same allusion, Decan.. Introd. to D. iv.;" Et quegli, che contra alla mia eta

parlando vanno, moitran male che conoscano, che per che "il porro habbi il capo bianco, che la coda fia verde.”

. 3880. Yet in our ashen] There is fo great a resemblance between this line and the following of The Churchyard Elegy, Dodsley's Coll. vol. 4,

Er'n in our afhes live their wonted fires that I shouid certainly have confidered the latter as an imitation, if Mr. Gray himself had not referred us to the 169 (170) Tonnet of Petrarch as his original;

Ch'i' veggio nel pensier, &'c.

But will ne shall not faillen that is fothe; ... 3885
And yet have I alway a coltes tothe, nos
As many a yere as it is passed henne
Sin that my tappe of lif began to renne:
For sikerly whan I was borne anon
Deth drow.the tappe of lif and let it gon; 3890
And ever fith hath so the tappe yronne;"sizei
Til that almost all empty is the tonne;
The streme of lif now droppeth on the chimbe.
The sely tonge may wel ringe and chimbe ?"
Of wretchedneffe that passed is ful yore : as 3895
With olde folk save dutage is no more.

Whan that our Hofte had herd this sermoning
He gan to fpeke'as lordly as a king,
And sayde; What amounteth all this wit?
What, shall we speke all day of holy writ? 3900
The devil made a Reve for to preche,
Or of a fouter a fhipman or a leche.

Say forth thy Tale, and tary not the time;, Lo Depeford, and it is half way prime:

*. 389 3. the chimbe] Kime, Teut. means the prominency of the ftaves beyond the head of the barrel. The imagery is very cxact and beautiful.

p. 3902. of a fouter a Mipman or a leche] The proverbial expression, Ex sutore medicus, was perlaps derived from the fable of Phaurus with that title, 1. i. fab. 14. The other, Ex sutore nauclerus, is alluded to by Pynfon the printer åt the end of liis edit. of Lyttelton's Tenures, 7525. [ Ames, p. 488,] speaking of one Redman, another printer, lie says.---" Miror “ profecto unde nunc tandem fe fateatur typographum, nisi " forte quum Diabolus fuiorem nauclerum, et illum calcogra“phum fecit."

.3904. it is hálf u'ay' frio:e] In the Discourse, &c. $ 14

Lo Grenewich, ther many a shrew is inne : 3905 It were al time thy 'Tale to beginne.

Now, fires, quod this Ofewold the Reve, I pray you alle chat ye not you greve Thouglı I answere, and somdel fet his howve, For leful is with force force off to showve. 3910

This dronken Miller hath ytold us here How that begiled was a carpentere, Paraventure in fcorne, for I am on; And by your leve I fhal him quite anon : Right in his cherles termes wol Ispeke ; 3915 I pray to God his necke mote to-breke. He can wel in min eye seen a stalk, But in his owen he cannot seen a balk. I have supposed that this means halfway pak prime, about half hour after seven A. M. the half way between prime and terce. In the fiétitious modus tenendi Parlamentum (a book not much older than Chancer) " Hora mediæ primæ" feems to be used in the same sense, c..“ de dicbus et horis Parliamnenti.” Mf. Cot 101, Nero, D. vi. On common days “ Parliamentum debet in“choari horâ mediæ primæ-in diebus feftivis horâ primâ

propter divimum feryitium.” In a contemporary French tranllation of this treatise, mr.Harl, 305,“ hora mediæ prima" is rendered “ a la my heure le prime;" in an old Englith ver, fion, mf. Harl.930, the our e of myd pryme ; and in another, mr. Harl. 5309, midde prime time. Our Author uses prime larga, ver. 10674, to fignify that prime was confiderably patt.

V. 3909. fet his bowve] His hood: fo in Tr. b. iii. 775, aq bowve above a caul signifies a bood over a cap. And in P. P. fol. 4, Serjeants at law are described in bowves of silk; but in fol. 16, it is said,

Shal no Sergeant for his service were no filke hode. Both words seem to be derived from the Teut. boofil, a head. -Hood and cap being equally coverings for the head, to set a man's howve is the lame as to let his cap. See n, on ver. 58

THE REVES TALE.. Ar Trompington, not fer fro Cantebrigge, Ther goth a brook, and over that a brigge, -3920 Upon the whiche brook ther ftont a melle; And this is veray sothe that I you telle. A miller was ther dwelling many a day, As any peacock he was proude and gay : Pipen he coude, and fishe, and nettes bete, 3925 And turnen cuppes, and wraftlen wel and there. Ay by his belt he bare a long pavade, And of a swerd fultrenchant was the blade: A joly popper bare he in his pouche; Ther n'as no man for peril dorst him touche. 3930 A Shefeld thwitel bare he in his hofe: Round was his face, and camufe was his nose: 1

The Reves Tale] Denyse Simkin, the miller of Trompington, deceiveth two clarkes of Soller's-hall in Cambridge in ftealing their corn, but they so manage their matters that they revenge the wrong to the full. This Tale is imitated from Boccace, Novel the 6th, Day the 9th. ---This you may pass over if you please. Urry.

Ť. 3927. a long pavade] It appears from ver. 3958 that the pavade was a weapon of offence; of what fort I cannot tell, as I do not remember to have met with the word any where else. Pavois, Fr. in thofe times fignified a long thield.

. 3929. A joly popper) A bodkin, according to Sf. and Sk. who however produce no authority for such an interprétation. The name seems to be fitter for a pistol, though I am not prepared to prove that piftols were carried in the pocket in-Chau. cer's time.

As pilled as an ape was his skull :
He was a market beter at the full.
Ther dorite no wight hond upon him legge, 3935
That he ne swore he fauld anon abegge.

A chefe he was forsoch of corn and mele,
And that a lie, and usant for to Rele :
His name was hoten Deinous Simekin,
A wif he hadde comes of noble kin;

3940 The person of the toun hire father was : With hire he yaf ful many a pagne of bras

* • 3934. a marker-beper] One that makes quarrels in markets, says the Gloff. but according to Mr. Upton [Pref.ro Obferv. on Shakesp. p. 20,]" A marker-beter is one who raises the

price of the market. ----To beat the fire Chaucer uses in The “Knight's Tale (ver. 2255, 2294,) for--r-lo rouse, to ftir up." 'Though this explanation of Mr. Upton's be not quite satisface tory, I think it far preferable to the other. See the Gloff. and Supp. in v. Market-beter. In a more modern author to beat ibe market leems to fignify merely to go up and down the market. Promos and Caband, by whetstone, ac iv. fc. 6, a servant lays,

Wilde foule, &c. are so deare
That this houre I have the market bett

To drive a bargayne to my most profytt. . 3939. Deinous Simekin] His name was Simon, [ver. 4020, 4024,) of which Simekin is the diminutive, and from his dirdainful infolent manners he had acquired the surname of Deinous, just as Nicholas, in the former Tale, ver. 2109, was cleped Hendy from the very opposite behaviour. A great number of our surnames have been derived from qualities of the mind, and it is reasonable to suppose that at the beginning they were merely personal, like what we call nicknarnes. It is probable that the use of hereditary turnames was not even in Chaucer's Limnc fully established among the lower claffcs of people.

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