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gone, agricultural wealth, the care tions than those of hatred and revolta manifested in 'sowing proper grain, of ing luxury. An important discovery opening water canals, and forming is generally attributed to the Phenici. water basins in mountainous districts, ans, namely, the fabrication of glass ; the draining of moist soils, &c. are still but Reynier proves that there is no regarded as acts of piety, and as the foundation for this opinion, since they most useful of all occupations.

took the process by which it is formed The care of cattle and the import- from the Ethiopians, among whom it ance of their extensive increase were, was known from the remotest times; next to agriculture, among the precepts and also, because even the Egyptians most strongly recommended by the bad brought it to perfection before the Persian worship. No country can boast arrival of the Phenician colonies on of such fine horned cattle as that of the coasts of the Mediterranean. the Aspians. The oxen were exclu On the whole, there is great credit sively reserved for agricultural labour: due to the learned writer of the work the horse was only used by the warrior before us for having compiled a politiand the nobleman. They possessed cal and moral history on the most angreat quantities of sheep, and the rich cient of nations, which may be strictly ness of their fleeces was singularly re considered unique in its kind. It memarkable. The goat was in great esti. rits the encouragement of all lovers of mation among them. The breed was science, and the gratitude of every the same which is now known by the man who is called to share in the adpame of the goat of Angora. They ministration of bis country. The exreared a great variety of poultry, espe- perience of the past should serve as cially cocks and heng. To have a cock lessons for the future. in every house was an indispensable religious duty.

Europe has borrowed largely from Persian agriculture. We are indebted

Euvres Choisies de Mirabeau :to it for many of our grains : the un Select Works of Mirabeau, 8 vols. bearded barley of Cappadocia, rice, the grape which is cultivated at present

8vo. Paris, 1821. in the lonian islands under the name The character and political influence of currants, &c. Many trees, as the of Mirabeau, as well as his oratorical

on, the bactrian pistachio, the jo. talents, has been the subject of much jube, &c.

commentary and discussion. All bis A remarkable law among the Per- writings were not of a nature proper sians forbids the augmentation of im to form part of the present collection; posts under pretext of the improve some, because they were offensive to ments, which had been effected by morality and manners,—some, because abundant cultivation: another restrict they relate to fugitive circumstances, ed statesmen themselves from using which have ceased to be interesting; any commodities, that belonged not to and others, because they were too vothe agriculture and industry of the luminous, as his “ History of the Ruscountry.

sian Monarchy,” forming 7 vols. 8vo. We have little to say of the third with an Allas. part of the work. The Phenicians, « L'Essai sur le Despotisme" is the who erected the walls of Tyre and Si- first work avowed by Mirabeau. He don, were not an aboriginal 'people, was but twenty-five years of age when but a family of merchants whose sole he composed it, in the prisons of the object was to enrich themselves, and to Chateau d'If. The style of this work form colonies wherever commercial re is formed after the models left by the lations held forth promises of interest. celebrated French rhetoricians of the ed speculations. Their laws were of last century, as Volney, Diderot, Raythe most horrid character. Their wor- nal, and Thomas. It is a union of ship required that their altars should oratory, erudition, and philosophy.be stained with human blood : their The taste of the present day, however, priests and magistrales were inexora. required a severer logic, a more cor. ble. The poor were oppressed by a rect taste, and more profound erudition. despotic aristocracy, and were destined Besides, Mirabeau frequently wanders to the most cruel slavery. The people from his subject, and indulges in too having no agriculture led a pastoral much passion, faults which he himself life. Commerce heaped up gold; and subsequently acknowledged, in lament. when it became surfeited with it, it ing that he had mutilated so fipe a, słumbered in the arms of despotism subject. witbout transmitting other recollec. His “ Considerations on the Order

of Cincinnatus" contain facts and réa acquainted. The affirmation, however, sonings relative to hereditary and per appears to us rather unsatisfactory; for sonal nobility, which are laid down in if M. Dubois was perfectly acquainted the clearest manner. The truths which with Mirabeau's hand, he must perhe maintains, and which were almost fectly know, whether it be his hand or universally admitted at the commence not; and, therefore, the word appear ment of ihe French Revolution, and implies a doubt, which we cannot retriumphed over personal interests, are concile with such perfect knowledge. at present greatly obscured over a con The “ Secret History” was torn and siderable portion of Europe. America burned by the common executioner. avoided the rock which Mirabeau point The “Secret History of the Cabinet ed out to her. The military spirit, of Berlin,” is even at this day a work a spirit which is essentially aristocratic, of great curiosity, and, of all Miraexalted by the late French government, beau's productions, promises most profit gave additional force to a prejudice, and delight. which the babits of a Representative This collection contains several other goverument must progressively weaken. pamphlets : his treatise on “ Stock

His Essay on “the Liberty of the jobbing," on “ the Civil and Political Press," is little more than a translation State of the Jews," on “ Cagliostro of Milton's 6 Areopagitica, or Speech and Lavater," and " Advice to the Hesfor the Liberty of the Press ;” and his sians, and other German people, who " Rules observed by the House of Com are sold by their princes to the English mons, in debating and voting,” are a government,” “ to the Batavians on the literal translation from the English, Stadholdership,” with various pieces on with some notes.

the Revolution of Holland in 1787, &c. His work on the "Lettres de Cachet,All these are productions that maintain and “ State Prisons," is not, like his their original reputation, and deserve work on despotism, a mere brilliant being generally known. It is scarcely declamation. The subject is treated in necessary to notice his " Letters to the most perfect manner. His reason Sophia," which form a collection of ings are entirely deduced from princi three volumes, because their reputation ples of eternal justice, and supported and character are generally known; por, by the historical monuments and special indeed, would it be easy to point out archives of French legislation. De all the merits which have procured stined to be served with eighteen Let. them such unexampled success. tres de Cachets, he wrote this work in will only add, that the late M. Cadet the Dungeon of Vincennes, where he Gassicourt has prefixed a private life was sent by the fourth of these arbi. of Mirabeau to the “ Letters to Sopbia." trary orders. It is said, that being de. The anecdotes, and remarkable particuprived of paper, he wrote on the margin larities which it contains, render it an of books, which they permitted bim to extremely interesting production. procure; and that, in parting from Vincennes, he carried this singular manuscript along with him, concealed in his

Lettres Sur la Vallachie, &c.clothes.

Letters on Walachia, or Observations His “ Secret History of the Cabinet

on this Province and its Inhabitants, of Berlin" was never intended to be made public. It was published, how.

written from 1815 to 1821, with an ever, shortly after it was written, which Account of the Events which have caused a great scandal. A bookseller requested the maņuscript several lately taken place in that country. times of Mirabeau, but though almost By F. Recordon. 1 vol. 12mo. Paris, reduced to distress he refused the most

1821. tempting offers which the bookseller could make bim. In his absence, how The scene of the present war between ever, the escrutoire, in which he depo- the Turks and Greeks has long remainsited bis correspondence, was forced ed unnoticed and unknown; and if the open. The bookseller posted off to Alen- latter should now emerge from obscuçon, to the printer Malassis, and the rity, we can attribute it only to the 6 Secret History” was sent to press. It ravages of war. Had the Greek conwas pretended, that the proofs were tinued passively to endure the bondage corrected by Mirabeau himself; but M. of Turkish despotism, had he still re. Louis Dubois, who saw these proofs, pelled the inspiring and tumultuous: affirms that the corrections do not glow of patriotic emotion, and linger. appear to be in the hand-writing of ed in the silent obscurity of inglorious Mirabeau, with which he was perfectly ease; had he refused to listen to the

We

call of honour and the voice of free a poem, which would be worthy the dom, and had completely banished suffrages of the first literary society in from his memory the recollections of France. happier days, and the thunders of him

who

Wielded at will the fierce democracy,

Promenade des Tuileries.-AWalk Shook the arsenal, and fulmin'd over Greece To Macedon and Artaxerxes' throne,

in the Tuilleries, 8vo.

This is an historical and critical acthis unhappy country, once the seat of count of the monuments belonging to genius and of valour, would still con the garden of the Tuilleries. The varitinue a blank in the civilized world, ous descriptions given of these monuunnoticed by historians, unvisited by ments, in former works, have been mintravellers, and unheard of by strangers. gled with many erroneous and unauthen. Whatever be the issue of the present ticated relations, all of which are no contest, it will at least put the world in ticed and exploded by the compiler mind that such a nation exists; and if of the present account. It contains, the Greeks prove unsuccessful, they also, a description of the Louvre, and can repel the charges so often brought other monuments. It is embellished against them of being deaf to the call

with plates, and a fac simile of the of liberty and of national glory. They hand-writing of Henry IV. and His will convince surrounding nations, that Royal Highness the Duke of Berry. they dared to die in defence of both.

It is, in every respect, the best account Walachia and Moldavia claim more

of the garden of the Tuilleries extant, particular notice than the other pro and it should be in the possession of vinces, as being the chief seat of war, every Englishman who visits the French the terrors of which are increased by Capital. the dark spirit of Turkish fanaticism. The present work contains very interesting accounts of Walachia, and of

Epitre aux Grecs, &c.-A Letter the manners and customs of its inhabitants, the writer having resided in

to the Greeks, with Notes on the the country for several years.

Situation and Resources of Modern
Greece. By X. Boniface de Saintine.

8vo. Paris, 1821. L'Amour de la Patrie.-The Love of Country, a Poem, crowned by the ed the sublime, at least breathes a true

This little epistle, if it have not reachAcademy of Amiens, at the Meeting poetic spirit; and, what is still more ra. of August, 1821. By P.C. de Baugy, luable, an unadulterated mind. The

notes which accompany it are fraught 8vo. Paris, 1821.

with sentiments of the most enlightenThis is one of the most beantiful ed patriotism. Poems which has lately issued from the French press. The sentiments are poetic, and the versification elegant. Voyage Aux Colonies Orientales, After having sung in a strain of im

&c.—A Voyage to the Oriental Colopassioned enthusiasm that love of country, which was the soul of great

nies ; or, Letters written from the and important events among the Anci Isles of France and Bourbon during ents, the author comes down to the civil the Years 1817-18-19, and 20. By Auwars, in which France, forgetting her internal broils, opposed innumerable gustus Billiard, 1 vol. 8vo. pp. 485. legions to the nations that sought to deprive ber of her liberty. Nothing This work, properly speaking, is but can be more affecting, than the picture a voyage to the Isle of Bourbon, filled which the poet gives of the Exile, fly- with curious details, relative to agriing his natal country, to mourn her culture, commeree, manners, the his. destiny and his own in foreign climes. tory of the colony, its judicial and adThe scene, in which he represents him ministrative institutions, and its political beholding, in a dream, his paternal roof, relations. It contains, moreover, a numand imagining himself receiving once ber of useful views, relative to the ad. more the caresses and attentions of his vantages which France might derive family, is highly poetic; and the Aca. from Madagascar, or the Isle of France, demy of Amiens may boast of crowning in case of retroeession.

ENGLISH PUBLICATIONS.

· Napoleon in Exile; or, A Voice evidence of truth displayed by any of from St. Helena. By Barry O'Meara,

the memoirs which have gained the

credence of society. Esq. 2. vols. 8vo. pp. 1053. 11. 8s.

A great French author has told us,that London, 1822.

no man is a hero in the eyes of his Valet

de Chambre; but it would appear, from The work before us possesses, in this exposè of Napoleon's private hours, a very eminent degree, two qualifica that a man can be something much bet. tions, seldom found in the same pro ter than a hero in the eyes of his valet duction, that of being both enter -in throwing off the hero, he can taining, and replete with important in become an affectionate and amiable iuformation.-Mr. O'Meara has enjoyed dividual. It has always surprised us, a good fortune, which seldom falls to to hear of the power which Buonaparte the lot of any man, an opportunity of had of attaching those around him to producing a bighly interesting and uses his person. Whether this is one of the fal work, without the necessity of in- mighty effects of genius, or whether tellectual pre-eminence, or any other it is the result of genius, of good nature, requisite than the moral qualification of and amiable manners combined, we accuracy. We do not mean by this know not'; but it is certain, that even remark to detract from Mr. O'Meara's those who entered his presence with literary character, for he has shewn the most rooted prejudices, glided from judgment and good sense, in pot being hatred into admiration, and, finally, induced by vanity to interpolate any into love.' It is almost impossible to original composition in a work, wbich conceive, that a man who can lead can be valuable only in proportion to armies to perish by violence, or by the its being a simple narration of facts, seasons, and, as soon as they are swept and a faithful portraiture of him whom from the face of the earth, renew them he professes to describe under such for a similar purpose,' can have a single extraordinary circumstances. As to compunctious visiting of humanity in the accuracy of the work, it appears to his bosom. But so inconsistent an us, that we have no reason to doubt animal is man, that we find the hero, upon the subject. Memoirs and pseudo- who, without emotion, orders thousands biography must, of necessity, receive of human beings to slaughter, merely some tinge from the passions and in to gratify his ambition, can yet, out of terests of him who composes the work, the field of battle, be one of the most and “ Napoleon ip Exile," perhaps, merciful and amiable disposition. Consuffers some little from this common sidering circumstances, Buonaparte aplot of our nature; but the book is so pears to us to have committed less of exclusively narrative, and confined to private wrong and individual cruelty facts without comment or observations, than any usurper. - It would seem, that that it appears to us, that it is less bis disposition did not qualify him for exposed to the imputation of colouring, gainjog a throne by creating anarchy than any work of the sort we have or revolution. Cromwell may be said ever read. The author, in the form of to have waded through slaughter to a journal, tells us only what he sees a throne, whilst Buonaparte gained and hears; and his statements relate a crown by stopping slaughter, and to public documents, or concern so re-establishing social order. After his many persons of all ranks and nations, defeat at Waterloo, a man, reckless of that it is impossible he can misrepre- human life, would have made every sent any point without the certainty of desperate effort to retain his crowu, detection; and this, we apprehend, is and have made the scaffold subservient the best warranty of truth which we to his purpose ; but no act of individual could possibly have in any case. The sacrifice stained this trying era of his air of candour, which pervades the life. Frederic the Great carried the fascinating Confessions of Rousseau, is ferocity of his disposition from the field unequalled in literature, and stamps to the closet; he was always a tiger ; truth on tbe work with irresistible whilst Buonaparte individually appears force. The internal evidence of vera to bave been merciful and kind in the city in the book before us, if not equally extreme. Judging of him by abstract conclusive, is, at least, as conclusive as principles of virtue, we must pronounce the nature of the work admits of; and him, in common with all usurpers and is, unquestionably, equal to the internal beroes, an object most detestable; but Eur. Mag. Vol. 82.

U

estimating him by the standard of work; and it is in all respects extrememany coloured life, and by a comparison ly interesting and important. with the Alexanders, the Cæsars, and the Frederics, he must at once excite both admiration and esteem. It Halidon Hill, a Dramatic Sketch. is, however, necessary for human happiness to hold all such characters up to

By Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 8vo. execration, to rob military ambition of pp. 109. 6s. London, 1822. its lustre, and to pay our homage to the more peaceful virtues, Buonaparte's The subject of the present dramatic ambition was, therefore, not only de sketch is taken from Scottish history, structive of the general peace of man and related in Pinkerton's History of kind, but peculiarly injurious to this Scotland, vol. I. p. 71. The Scottish country; and whatever may be our troops are encamped on the northern admiration of his genius, or our love side of the eminence of Halidon. The of his virtues, as it was impossible to English troops appear advancing in restrain his ambition as a potentate, it the valley beneath. Swinton, the chief was the duty of every Englishman to character in the piece, advises the promote his dethronement; and being Scottish regent and his leaders to dedethroned, to prevent the possibility scend from the hill and meet the Engof his again disturbing the peace of lish in close combat on the plain, to Europe. This is the view we ought to avoid being exposed to their arrows, take of this extraordinary character, knowing that wbile they fought at a and to withhold our admiration of his distance they might assure themselves genius, to feel any thing like personal of victory without receiving a wound. hostility to his memory, or to hesitate The regent rejects this counsel, though to acknowledge his prodigious merit at the same time he can adopt no deand shining virtues, is totally beneath 'cided measures from the disunion that the dignity of our national character. exists among his own chiefs, each of Heinous as the crimes of rebellion aud whom seeks to lead the van, and none usurpation may be, we cannot bring of whom will submit to the dishonour Napoleon under censure for either. of conducting the rear. Swinton, who The Revolution had begun long before only commanded “ sixty spears," dehe had either rank or influence; his termines to sell his life dearly to the assuming supremacy was the means of enemy, and descends the hill, accomstopping its dreadful consequences, and panied by Gordon, whom he dubs a had he been disposed to perform bis knight, potwithstanding the deadly duty, of restoring the legitimate prince, feuds that existed between their famithe state of the public mind rendered it lies. The entire band is cut off, the impossible. His treason appears to have regent having refused to send them been not against his Sovereign, but any assistance, and himself and his against the cause of liberty, and the stubborn chiefs fall afterwards an easy natural rights of mankind. Had be, prey to the distant bows of the English after the battle of Austerlitz, confined archers. France within the extensive but na It must be observed that this engagetural limits of the Pyrennees, the Alps, ment took place at Homildon, but the and the Rhine; and devoted his mighty author transfers the scene to Halidon genius to the arts of peace, and to Hill, where an engagement bad afterestablisbing a free Representative Go wards taken place between the same vernment, he would have been infi

parties, under circumstances nearly nitely the greatest and the best cha. similar. " Who would again venture,” racter that ever existed.--At present, says he,“ to introduce upon the same) the historian can bestow only the praise scene the celebrated Hotspur, who of unlimited greatness.

commanded the English at the former The work being in the form of a Jour- battle." nal,the matter it contains is without clas We must say, it was wise in our exsification, but it may be divided into two perienced author, not to make his Draparts; the first, relating to the events on matis Personæ appear on the same board of the men of war, and at St. He scene with those of Shakspeare. The Jepa, with the treatment inflicted upon distance between them is immeasurathe prisoner; and the second, compris. ble, and indeed a comparison between ing ihose remarkable conversations, in them would be absurd. They are, it which Napoleon uttered his opinions is true, the same species of being; but upon persons and events. The future they resemble each other in those quahistorian will unquestionably draw much lities which depend not on species, as of his materials from Mr. O'Meara's the cat resembles the lion. Like them

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