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Scytlukas by the Greeks, amongst which the Tochari, identical with the Yue-chi (y.::) of the Chinese, were the most important. I: 159 B.C., according to Chinese sources, they entered Sogdiana, Li r» they conquered Baclria, and during the next generation tfcey bid made an end to the Greek rule in eastern Iran. Only in India the Greek conquerors (Mcnantler, Apollodotus) maintained themselves some time longer. But in the middle of the ut century B.c. the whole of eastern Iran and western India belonged to the great "Indo-Scythian" empire. The mling 'd',T.i,*,y had the name Kushan (Kushana), by which they are called on their coins and in the Persian sources. The most famous d these kings is Kani&hka (ca. 123-153), the great protector of Buddhism. The principal scat of the Tochari and the Kushan tiyoiity seems to have been Bactria; but they always maintained Lite eastern parts of modem Afghanistan and Baluchistan, •bile the western regions (Arcia, i.e. Herat, Scistan and part of the Helmund valley) were conquered by the Arsacids. In the .• ! century the Kushan dynasty began to decay; about A.d. j:a the Gupta empire was founded in India. Thus the Kushanas *nr reduced to eastern Iran, where they had to fight against the ; .-.in 11 la. In the 5th century a new people came from the east, [fee Ephlhaliles (g.f.) or " white Huns," who subjected Dactria

• -ji 450); and they were followed by the Turks, who first ippeor in history about A.u. 560 and subjugated the country north of the Oxus, Most of the small principalities of the Tochari or Ku&haD became subject to them. But when the Sassaman m;vire was overthrown by the Arabs, the conquerors immcdiildy advanced eastwards, and in a few years Bactria and the vtolc Iran to the banks of the Jaxartcs hod submitted to the rale of the caliph and of Islam.

Bibliography. — For the earlier times sec Persia. For the Gncco-Bottrbn and Indrt-Scyihun kingdoms sec (beside article* <M the separate king*) :— II. II. Wilson, Ariana Antigua (iS-Jl; Cunningham, *' The Greeks of Bactn.ina, Ariana and India'

, .,

Chronicle, N. Ser. viii.-xii.; A. Voq Sallci. Die NachAlextindert dcs Grosten in H, ti.tr i.->t und frtditn (1879); P. Gcrdoer, Tk* Coins of lite Greek and Scylhic Kinit of India (1886, riulocVt* of Greek Coins in the British Museum, x.); A. von Gutschmid, Gestliiilttc Irnns und seiner .\iich? >itt<iisJt-r i.m Alexander tern Groittn bis turn Unltrgant tier Artcicidtn (1888): A. Stein, "ZoruMtruin Deities on lmI<»-S« ythun Coin*," Babylonian and l>te*lat Record, i. 1887 (cf. Cunningham. ib. U. 1888); Vincent A. Svtth, "The Kushin or Indo-Scyihian Period of Indian History-," Jemftal of the R.Asiatic Soc.t 1903 (cf. his Early History of India, 2nd *> 1908); \V. W. Tarn. " Notes on Ilcllcni*m in liucliia and ladia" ta Jour*. "f Hellenic Studies, xxii. 1903. For the history and character dthe Indian alphabet cf j. lUIhler, " IndUche Palaographic" (in Grvndrity dtr indo-ariitnen Pkitologit, Bd. i.). From the Greek author* only a few notices have been preserved, especially by Justin Und in the prologue of Troguw) and Strata; for the later times *• get tome information from the Byzantine authors and from Pmtaq and Armenian sources; cf. Th. Nt'ildckc't translation of Tabcri {Gttckithte dtr Perter und Arobrr tur Zeit dcr Sasaniden, 1890) «nrl J. Marquart, M ErAn^ahr " (Abhandlurtfen der Itoniglichen '•'•- d, l\'nifni(htijicn tu Gottinxcn, 1901). The Chinese sources are rjvcn by Deguignrs, "Recherche* §ur quclnues evcnemcnts qui onrtnient 1 nlsioirc dcs rois greet dc la Bactriane." Mem. de Cccad. dej iiurriptiont. xxv.: E. Spccht, "Etudes sur 1'Asie ccniralc d'apris Ics historicns chirtois" in Journal asiatique, 8 s£rie, it iSJBj, o w'-ric, x. 1897; Sylvain Lt-vi, "Notes sur Ics Indo•cythtcits. Journal asiaiique, 9 a^ric i\ . & and othcra. (Eo. M.)

BACUP* a market town and municipal borough in the Rosscn•lale parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, on the river Invdl, 203 m. N.K.W. from London, and 22 N. by E. from Manchester, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway. Pop. (1901) 31,505. It is finely situated in a narrow valley, surrounded by wild, high-tying moorland. It is wholly of modern growth, and ".it mi» several handsome churches and other buildings, while irnoog institutions thcchicf is thcmcchanics' institute and library. The recreation grounds presented in 1893 by Mr. J. H. Madcn, M.I'., arc beautifully laid out. Cotton spinning and power-loom weaving arc the chief of numerous manufacturing industries, utd there are large collieries in the vicinity. The principle of co-operation is strongly developed, and a large and handsome store contains among other departments a free library for members. The borough was incorporated in 1882, and the corporation coiuists of a mayor, 6 aldermen and 17 councillors. Area, 6120 tcrts. In 1841 the population of the chapclry was only 1526.

On* of the hills in the vicinity is fortified with a great ancient earthwork and ditch.

BADAGAS (literally "a Tehigu man"), a tribe inhabiting the Nilgiri Hills, in India, by some authorities declared not to be an aboriginal or jungle race. They are probably Dravidian by descent, though they are in religion Hindus of the S.iiv.i siu. They are supposed to have migrated to the Nilgiris from Mysore about A.m. 1600, afu-r the breaking up of the kingdom of Vij.;yanagar. They are an agricultural people and far the most numerous and wealthy of the hill tribes. They pay a tribute in gram, &c., to the Todas. Their language is a corrupt form of Kanarese. At the census of 1901 they numbered 34,178.

See J. W. Breeks, An Account of the Primitive Tribes of the Nilgiris (1873); Nilgiri Manual, vol. i. pp. 218-228; Madras Journ. of Sci. and Lit. vol. viii. pp. 103-105; Madras Museum Bulletin, vot. ii . no. i, pp. 1-7.

BADAJOZ (formerly sometimes written Badajos), a frontier province of western Spain, formed in 1833 of districts taken from the province of Estrcmadura ('/••'•', and bounded on the N. by Cacercs, E. by Cordova and Ciudad Real, S. by Seville and Huelva, and W. by Portugal. Pop. (1900) 520,246; area, 8451 sq. m. Badajoz is thus the largest province of the xvholc kingdom. Although in many districts there are low ranges of hills, the surface is more often a desolate and monotonous plain, flat or slightly undulating. Its one large river is the Guadiana, which traverses the north o[ the province from east to west, fed by many tributaries; but it is only at certain seasons that the river-beds nil with any considerable volume of water, and the Guadiana may frequently be forded without difficulty. The climate shows great extremes of heat in summer and of cold in winter, when fierce north and north-west winds blow across the plains. In the hot months intermittent fevers are prevalent in the Guadiana valley. The rainfall is scanty in average years, and only.an insignificant proportion of the land is irrigated, while the rest is devoted to pasture, or covered with thin bush and forest. Agriculture, and the cultivation of fruit, including the vine and olive, are thus in a very backward condition; but Badajoz possesses more livestock than anyothcrSpantsh province. Its acorn-fed swine arc celebrated throughout Spain for their hams and bacon, and large herds of sheep and goats thrive v. here the pasture is too meagre for cattle. The exploitation of the mineral resources of Badajoz is greatly hindered by lack of water and means of communication; in 1003, out of nearly 600 mines registered only 26 were at work. Their output consisted of lead, with very small quantities of copper. The local industries are not of much importance: they comprise manufactures of woollen and cotton stuffs of a coarse description, soaps, oils, cork and leather. The purely commercial interests are more important than the industrial, because of the transit trade to and from Portugal through no less than seven custom-houses. Many parts of the province arc inaccessible except by road, and the roads arc ill-made, ill-kept and wholly insufficient. The main line of the Madrid-Lisbon railway passes through Villanuc va dc la Serena, Merida and Badajoz; at Mcrida it is joined by the railways going north to ('ice-res and south to Zafra, where the lines from Huelva and Seville unite. After Badajoz, the capital (pop. (1900) 30,899), the principal towns arc Almendralcjo (12,587), Azuaga (14,192), Don Bcnito (16,565), Jerez dc Jos' Caballeros (10,271), Mcrida (11,168) and Villanueva dc la Serena (13,489); these, and also the historically interesting village of Albuera, are described in separate articles. Other small towns, chiefly important :is markets for agricultural produce, are Albuquerque (0030), Cabcza del Bucy (7566), Campanario (74So)i Fregcnal de la Sierra (9615), Fucnte de Cantos (8483), Fuente del Maestre (6934), Llcrcna (7049), Montijo (7644), Olivade Jerez (8348),Olivcnza (9066), San Vicente de Alcantara (7722), and Viliafranca de los Barros (9954). Very few inhabitants emigrate from this province, where the birth-rate considerably exceeds the death-rate* Education, even primary, is in a very backward condition.

BADAJOZ, the capital of the Spanish province described above; situated close to the Portuguese frontier, on the left bank of the tivcr Guadiana, and the Madrid-Lisbon railway. Pop.^ioco) 30,809. Badajoz is the sec of a bishop, and the official residence of the captain-general of Estremadura. It occupies a slight eminence, crowned by the ruins of a Moorish castle, and overlooking the Guadiana. A strong wall and bastions, with a broad moat and outworks, and forts on the surrounding heights, give the city an appearance of great strength. The river, which flows between the castle-hill and the powerfully armed fort of San Cristobal, is crossed by a magnificent grinitc bridge, originally built in 1460, repaired in 1597 and rebuilt in 1833. The whole aspect of Badajoz recalls its stormy history; even the cathedral, built u> 1258, resembles a fortress, with massive embattled walls. Badajoz was the birthplace of the statesman Manuel dc Godoy, duke of Alcudia (1767-1851), and of thcpnnterLuisdcMorales(i 500-1586). Two pictures by Morales, unfortunately retouched in modern times, arc preserved in the cathedral. Owing to its position the city enjoys a considerable transit trade with Portugal; its other industries include the manufacture of linen, woollen and leather goods, and of pottery. It is not mentioned by any Roman historian, and first rose to importance under Moorish rule. In 1031 it became the capital of a small Moorish kingdom, and, though temporarily held by the Portuguese in 1168, it retained its independence until 1229, when it was captured by Alphonso IX. of Leon. As a frontier fortress it underwent many sieges. It was beleaguered by the Portuguese in 1660, and in 1705 by the Allies in the War of the Spanish Succession. During the Peninsular War Badajoz was unsuccessfully attacked by the French in 1808 and 1809; but on the loth of March 1811, the Spanish commander, Jose Imaz, was bribed into surrendering to the French force under Marshal Soult. A British army, commanded by Marshal Beresford, endeavoured to retake it, and on the i6th of May defeated a relieving force at Albuera, but the siege wts abandoned in June. The fortress was finally stormed on the 6th of April 181 j, by the British under Lord Wellington, and carried with terrible loss. It was then delivered up to a two day's pillage. A military and republican rising took place here in August 2883, but completely failed.

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BADAKSHAN, including Wakhan, a province, on the northeast frontier of Afghanistan, adjoining Russian territory. Its north-eastern boundaries were decided by the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1873, which expressly acknowledged "Badaksban with its dependent district Wakhan " as " fully belonging to the amir of Kabul," and limited it to the left or southern bank of the Oxus. Much of the interior of the province is still unexplored. On the west, Badakshan is bounded by a line which crosses the Turkestan plains southwards from the junction of the Kunduz and Oxus rivers till it touches the eastern waterdividc of the Tashkurghan river (here called the Koh-i-Chungar), and then runs south-east, crossing the Sarkhab affluent of the Khanabad (Kunduz), till it strikes the Hindu Kush. The southern boundary is carried nlong the crest of the Hindu Kush as far as the Khawak pass, leading from Badakshan into the Panjshir valley. Beyond this it is indefinite. It is known that the Kafin occupy the crest of the Hindu Kush eastwards of the Khawak, but how far they extend north of the main watershed is not ascertainablc. The southern limits of Badakshan become definite.again at the Dorah pass. The Dorah connects Zebak and Ishkashim at the elbow, or bend, of the Oxus with die Lutku valley leading to Chitral. From the Dorah eastwards the crest of the Hindu Kush again becomes the boundary till it effects a junction with the Muztagh and Sarikol ranges, which shut off China from Russia and India. Skirting round the head of the Tagdumbash Pamir, it'finally merges felo the Pamir boundary, and turns westwards, following the course of the Oxus, to the junction of that river and the Khanabad (Kunduz). So far as the northern boundary follows the Oxus stream, under the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, it is only separated by the length of these slopes (some 8 or ro m.) from the southern boundary along the crest. Thus Badakshan reaches out an arm into the Pamirs eastwards—bottle-shaped—narrow at the neck (represented by the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush). and

swelling out eastwards so as to include a part of the great and

little Pamirs. Before the boundary settlement of 1873 the small states of Roshan and Shignan extended to the left bank of the Oxus, and the province of Darwaz, on the other hand, extended to the right bank. Now, however, the Darwaz extension northwards is exchanged for the Russian Pamir extension westwards, and the river throughout is the boundary between Russian and Afghan territory; the political boundaries of those provinces and those of Wakhan being no longer coincident with their geographical limits.

The following are the chief provincial subdivisions of Badakshan, omitting Roshan anil Shignan:—On the west Ruslak, Kataghan, Ghori, Narin and Andcrab; on the north Darwaz, Ragh and Shiwa; on the east Cbaran, Ishkashim, Zebak and Wakhan; and in the centre Faiiabad, Farkhar, Minjan and Kishm. There are others, but nothing certain is known about these minor subdivisions.

The conformation of the mountain districts, which comprise all the southern districts of Badakshan and the northern hills and valleys of Kafiristan, is undoubtedly analogous to that of the rest of the Hindu Kush westwards. The water-divide of the Hindu Kush from the Dorah to the Khawak pass, i.e. through the centre of Kafiristan, has never been accurately traced; but its topographical conformation is evidently a continuation of that which has been observed in the districts of Badakshan to the west of the Khawak. The Hindu Kush represents thj southern edge of a great central upheaval or plateau. It breaks up into long spurs southwards, flccp amongst which are hidden the valleys of Kafiristan, almost isolated from each other by tha rugged and snow-capped altitudes which divide them. To the north the plateau gradually slopes away towards the Oxus, falling from an averago altitude of 15,00° ft. to 4000 ft. about Faizabad, in the centre of Badakshan, but tailing off to noo at Kunduz, in Kataghan, where it merges into the flat plains bordering the.Oxus.

The Kokcha river traverses Badakshan from south-cast to north-west, and, with the Kunduz, drains all the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush west of the Dorah pass. Some of its sources are near Zebak, close to the great bend of the Oxus northwards, so that it cuts off all the mountainous area included within that bend from the rest of Badakshan. Its chief affluent is the Minjan, which Sir George Robertson found to be a considerable stream where it approaches the Hindu Kush close under the Dorah.* Like the Kunduz, it probably drains the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush by deep lateral valleys, more or less parallel to the crest, reaching westwards towards the Khawak pass. From the Oxus (1000 ft.) to Faizabad (4000 ft.) and Zebak (8500 ft.) the course of the Kokcha offers a high road across Badakshan; between Zebak and Ishkashim, at the Oxus bend, there is but an insignificant pass of 9500 ft.; and from Ishkashim by the Panja, through the Pamirs, is the continuation of what must once have been a much-traversed trade route connecting Afghan Turkestan with Kashgar and China. It is undoubtedly one of the great continental high-roads of Asia. North of the Kokcha, within the Oxus bend, is the mountainous district of Darwaz, of which the physiography belongs rather to the Pamir type than to that of the Hindu Kush.

A very remarkable meridional range extends for 100 m. northwards from the Hindu Kush (it is across this range that the route from Zebak to Ishkashim lies), which determines the great bend of the Oxus river northwards from Uhkaihim, and narrows the valley of that river into the formation of a trough as far as the next bend westwards at Kala Wamar. The western slopes of this range drain to the Oxus cither north-westwards, by the Kokcha and the Ragh, or else they twist their streams into the Shiwa, which runs due north across Darwaz. Here again we find the main routes which traverse the country following the rivers closely. The valleys are narrow, but fertile and populous. The mountains are rugged and difficult; but there is much of the world-famous beautyof scenery,and of the almost phenomenal agricultural wealth of the, valleys of Bokhara and Ferghana la be found in the as yet half-explored recesses of Badakshan.

The principal domesticated animal is the yak. There are also huge flock* of sheep, cows, goats, ponies, fine dogs and Bactrian czmels. The more important wild animals are a large wild theep (Otis poli), foxes, wolves, jackals, bears, boars, deer and leopards; amongst birds, there arc partridges, pheasants, raven*, jays, sparrows, larks, a famous breed of hawks, &c.

Badak-shan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommcdan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts arc inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shi'itc creed and speaking distinct dialect* in diflcieul districts.

Hillary.—Badaksha», part of the Greek Bactzia, was visited by Hruan Tsang in 630 and 644. The Arabian geographers of the toth century speak of its mines of ruby and lapis lazuli, and give notice! of th« flourishing commerce and large towns of Waksh ind Khotl, regions which appear to have in part corresponded with Badakshao. In i>;>-i>7j Marco Polo and his companions '-iv el for a time in Badakshan. During this and the following centuries the country was governed by kings who claimed to be descendants of Alexander the Great. The last of these kings was Shah Mahommcd, who died in the middle of the isth century, tearing only his married daughters to represent the royal line. Early in the middle of the i6th century the Usbegs obtained possession ol Badakshan, but were soon expelled, and then the country was generally governed by descendants of the old royal dynasty by the female line. About the middle of the iSth ctntury The present dynasty of Mirs established Its footing in the place of the old one which had become extinct. In 1765 the country was invaded and ravaged by the ruler of Kabul. During the first three decades of the loth century it was overrun and depopulated by Cohan Beg and his son Murad Beg, chiefs of the Kataghan Usbegs of Kunduz. When Murad Beg died, the power passed into the Kinds of another Usbcg, Mahommed Amir Khan. In 1859 the Kjtigha-n Usbegs were expelled; and Mir Jahandcr Shah, the representative of the modern royal line,was rcinstatcdat Faizabad under the supremacy of the Afghans. In 1867 he was expelled by Abdur Rahman and replaced by Mir Mahommed Shah, and other representatives of the same family. (T. H. H.*)

BADALOCCHIO. SISTO, surname.! Rosa (1581-1647), Italian painter and engraver, was born at Parma. He was of the school of Anru'bale Carracci, by whom he was highly esteemed for design. His principal engravings are the series known as Raphael's Bible, which were executed by him in conjunction with Lanfranco, another pupil of Carracci. The best of his paintings, which are few in number, are at Parma. He died at Bologna.

BADALONA (anc. Baelali'), a town of north-eastern Spain, in the province of Barcelona; 6 m. N.E. of the city of Barcelona, an the left bank of the small river Bes6s, and on IheMcditerranean Sea. Pop. (1000) 19,340. Badalona has a station on the coast railway from Barcelona to Perpignan in France, and a small harbour, chiefly important for its fishing and boat-building trades. There are gas, chemical and mineral-oil works in the town, which also manufactures woollen and cotton goods, glass, biscuit*, sugar and brandy; while the surrounding fertile plains produce an abundance of grain, wine and fruit. Badalona thus largely contributes to the export trade of Barcelona, and may, in fact, be regarded as its industrial suburb.

BADBY. JOHN (d. 1410), one of the early Lollard martyrs, was a tailor (or perhaps a blacksmith) in the west Midlands, and was condemned by the Worcester diocesan court for his denial of tnniubstantiation. Badby bluntly maintained that when Christ sat at supper with his disciples he had not his body in his hand to distribute, and that ' if every host consecrated at the altar were the Lord's body, then there be 20,000 Gods in England." A further court in St Paul's, London, presided over by Archbishop ArundcJ, condemned him to be burned at Smithfield, the tournament ground just outside the city walls. It is said that the prince of Wales (afterwards Henry V.) witnessed the execution and offered the sufferer both life nnd a pension if he would rec»nl;but in Walsingham's words," the abandoned villain declined the prince's advice, and chose ralber to be bumcd than

to give reverence to the life-giving sacrament. So it befell that this mischievous fellow was burnt to ashes, and died miserably in his sin."

BADDELEY, ROBERT (c. 1731-1704), English actor, is said to have been first a cook to Samuel Footc, " the English Aristophanes," and then a valet, before he appeared on the stage. In 1761, described as " of Drury Lane theatre," he was seen at the theatre in Smock Alley, Dublin, as Gomez in Dryden'* Spanish Friar. Two years later he was a regular member of the Drury Lane company in London, where he had a great success in the low comedy and servants' parts. He remained at this theatre and the Haymarket until his death. He was the original Moses in the School for Scandal. Baddcley died on the 2oth of November 1704. He bequeathed property to found a home for decayed actors, and also £3 per annum to provide wine and cake in the green-room of Drury Lane theatre on Twelfth Night. The ceremony of the Baddcley cake has remained a regular institution.

His wife Sophia Baddeley (1743-1786), an actress and singer, was born in London, the daughter of a sergeant-trumpeter named Snow. She was a woman of great beauty, but excessive vanity and notorious conduct. At the age of eighteen she ran away with Baddcley, then acting at Drury Lane, and she herself made her first appearance on the stage there on the 27th of April 1765, as Ophelia. Later, as a singer, she obtained engagements at Ranclagh and Vauxhall. Though separated from her husband on account of her misconduct, she still played several years in the same company. Her beauty and her extravagance rendered her celebrated, but the money which she made in all sorts of ways was so freely squandered that she was obliged to take refuge from her creditors in Edinburgh, where she made her last appearance on the stage in 1784.

See Memoirs of Mistress Sophia BaMcley, by Mrs Elizabeth Steele, 6 •. "I . (1781),

BADEN, a town and watering-place of Austria, in lower Austria, 17 m. S. of Vienna by rail. Pop. (1900) 12,447. It is beautifully situated at the mouth of the romantic Helencnthal, on the banks of the Schwechat, and has become the principal summer resort of the inhabitants of the neighbouring capital. It possesses a new Kurliaus, fifteen bathing-establishments, a parish church in late Gothic style, and a town-hall, which contains interesting archives. The warm ba ths, which gave name to the town, are thirteen in number, with a temperature of from 72° F. to 97° F., and contain, as chief ingredient, sulphate of lime. They rise for the most part at the foot of the Calvaricnbcrg (1070 ft.), which is composed of dolomitic limestone, and are mostly used for bathing purposes. Several members of the Austrian imperial family have made Baden their summer residence and have built here beautiful villas. There are about 20,000 visitors annually. Baden possesses several parks and is surrounded by lovely and interesting spots, of which the most frequented is the picturesque valley of the Helencnthal, which is traversed by the Schwechat. Not far from Baden, the valley is crossed by the magnificent aqueduct of the Vienna waterworks. At the entrance to the valley, on the right bank of the river, lie the ruins of the 12th-century castle of Rauheneck, and at its foot stands the Chateau Wcilburg, built in 1820-1825 by Archduke Charles, the victor of Aspcrn. On the left bank, just opposite, stands the ruined castle of Rauhenstcin, dating also from the I2th century. About 4 m. up the valley is Mayerling, a hunting-lodge, where the crown prince Rudolph of Austria was found dead in 1889. Farther up is Alland, whence a road leads to the old and well-preserved abbey of Heiligenkreuz. It possesses a church, in Romanesque style, dating from the nth century, with fine cloisters and the tombs of several members of the Babenberg family. The highest point in the neighbourhood of Baden is the peak of the Hoher Lindkogel (2825 ft.), popularly called the Eiserne Thor, which is ascended in about three hours.

The celebrity of Baden dates back to the days of the Romans, whoknew it by the name of Tfirrmac Pannonitae, and remains of their occupation still exist. It received iti charter as a town in 1480, and although sacked at various times by Hungarians and Turks, it soon flourished again.

See J. Schwarz, Die Hcitqucllen von Baden bet Wien (Vienna, 3rd ed.t 1900).

BADEN, or Baden-baden (to distinguish it from other places of the name), a town and fashionable watering-place of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, 23 m. S. by W. of Karlsruhe, with which it is connected by a branch of the Mannheim and Basel railway. Its situation—on a hill 600 ft. high, in the beautiful vatlcy of the Black Forest—its extensive pleasure-grounds, gardens and promenades, and the brilliancy of the life that is led during the season, have long attracted crowds of visitors from all parts of the world. The resident population was in 1885, 11,779; in 1895, 14,862; and in 1005, 16,238; but the number of visitors exceeds 70,000 annually. Until the war of 1870, the prevailing nationality was French, but of late years Americans, Russians and English are the more numerous. The hot springs arc twenty-nine in number, and vary in temperature from 37° to 54° R., i.e. from 115° to 153° Fahr. They flow from the castle rock at the rate of 90 gallons per minute, and the water is conveyed.through the town in pipes to supply the different baths. There arc two chief bathing-establishments, accounted the most elegant in Europe. The waters of Baden-Baden are specific in cases of chronic rheumatism and gout, paralysis, neuralgia, skin diseases and various internal complaints, such as stone and uric acid. The town proper is on the right bank of the <><>:•., but the principal resorts of the visitors arc en the left. A Comcrsationsliotu and a Trinkhalle or pump-room, a theatre and a picture-gallery, library and reading-room are among the chief buildings. The public gaming-tables, which for Bo many years were a striking feature, are now abolished. The only building of much antiquarian interest, with the exception of the castles, is the parish church, which dates from the i $th century, and contains the tombs of several of the margraves. The churches include a Lutheran, an English, in the Norman style of architecture, and a Russian, with beautiful frescoes; while on the Michaclsberg is the Greek chapel, with a gilded dome, which was erected over the tomb of a son of the Rumanian prince Michel Stourdza, who died here in 1863.

The springs of Baden were known to the Romans, and the foundation of the town is referred to the emperor Hadrian by an inscription of somewhat doubtful authenticity. The name of A wrelia A quctisis was given to it in honour of Aurch'us Scverus, in whose reign it would seem to have been well known. Fragments of its ancient sculptures arc still to be seen, and in 1847 remains of Roman vapour baths, well preserved, were discovered just below the New Castle. From the I4th century down to the close of the i;ili, Baden was the residence of the margraves, to whom it gave its name. They first dwelt in the Old Castle, the ruins of which still occupy the summit of a hill above the town, but in 1479 they removed to the New Castle, which is situated on the hill-side nearer to the town, and is remarkable for its subterranean dungeons. During the Thirty Years' War Baden suffered severely from the various combatants, but especially from the French, who pillaged it in 1643, and laid it in ashes in 1689. The margrave Louis William removed to Rastatt in 1706. Since the beginning of the I9th century the government has greatly fostered the growth of the town.

See Wettcndorfcr, Dcr Kxrml Baden-Baden (2nd ed., 1898); Schwarz, Die HcitqueUcn mn Baden-Baden (4th cd., 1902).

BADEN, a town in the Swiss canton of Aargau, on the left bank of the river Limmat, 14 m. by rail N.W. of Zurich. It is now chiefly visited by reason of its hot sulphur springs, which are mentioned by Tacitus (Hist. i. cap. 67) and were very fashionable in the 15th and i6th centuries. They arc especially efficacious in uses of gouty and rheumatic affections, and are much frequented by Swiss invalids, foreign visitors being but few in number. They lie a little north of the old town, with which they are now connected by a fine boulevard. Many Roman remains have been found in the gardens of the Kursaal. The town is very picturesque, with its steep and narrow streets, and its one surviving gateway, while it is dominated on the west by thejuined' castje_of Stein,

formerly a stronghold of the Habsburgs, but destroyed in 1415 and again in 1711. In 1415 Baden (with the Aargau) was conquered by the Eight Swiss Confederates, whose bailiff inhabited the other castle, on the right b.ink of the Limmat, which defends the ancient bridge across that river. As the conquest of the Aargau was the first made by the Confederates, their delegates •(or the federal diet) naturally met at Baden, from 1496 to about 171-, to settle matters relating to these subject lands, so that during that period Baden was really the capital of Switzerland. The diet sat in the old town-hall or Ralliata, where was also signed in 1714 the treaty of Baden which put an end to the war between France aud the Empire, and thus completed the treaty of Utrecht (1713). Baden was the capital of the canton of Baden, from 1798 to 1803, when the canton of Aargau was created. To the N.W. of the baths a new industrial quarter has sprung up of late years, the largest works being for electric engineering. In 1900 the permanent population of Baden was 6050 (Germanspeaking, mainly Romanists, with many Jews), but it is greatly swelled in summer by the influx of visitors.

One mile S. of Baden, on the Limmat, is the famous Gstcrcian monastery of Wettingcn (1237-1841—the monks arc now at Mchrcrau near Bregcnz), with splendid old painted glass in the cloisters and magnificent early i;th-ccntury carved stalls in the choir of the cLurch. Six miles W. of Baden is the small town of Hru.L'i; (2345 inhabitants) in a fine position on the Aar, and close to the remains of the Roman colony of Vlnioaitsa (Windisch), as well as to the monastery (founded 1310) of Konigsfeldcn, formerly the burial-place of the early Habsburgs (the castle of Habsburg is but a short way off), still retaining much fine painted glass.

See Bartli. Flicker. Ctschichte der Sladl wtd Bdder m Baden (Aarau. 1880). (W. A. B. C-)

BADEN, GRAND DUCHY OF. n sovereign slate of Germany, lying in the south-west corner of the empire, bounded N. by the kingdom of Bavaria and the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt; W. and practically throughout its whole length by the Rhine, which separates it from the Bavarian Palatinate and the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine; S. by Switzerland, and E. by the kingdom of VViirttcmbcrg and part of Bavaria. The country has an area of 5823 sq. m. and consists of a considerable portion of the eastern half of the fertile valley of the Rhine and of tho mountains which form its boundary. The mountainous part is by far the most extensive, forming, indeed, nearly So % of the whole area. From the Lake of Constance in the south to the river Neckar in the north is a portion of the Black Forest or ScltwamvaU, which is divided by the valley of the Kiiuig into two districts of different elevation. To the south of the Kinzig the mean height is 3100 ft, and the loftiest summit, the Fddbcrg, reaches about 4898 ft., while to the north the mean height is only 2100 ft., and the Belchen, the culminating point of the whole, docs not exceed 4480 ft. To tho north of the Neckar is the Odcnwald Range,with a mcanof 1440(1.,ami in ihcKaUcnbuckol, an extreme of 1980 ft. Lying between the Rhine and the Drcisam is the Kaiscrstuhl, an independent volcanic group, nearly 10 m. in length and 5 in breadth, the highest point of which is 1760 ft. The greater part of Baden belongs to the basin of the Rhine, which receives upwards of twenty tributaries from the highlands; the north-eastern portion of the territory is also watered by the Main and the Neckar. A part, however, of the eastern slope of the Black Forest belongs to the basin of the Danube, which there lakes its rise in a number of mountain streams. Among the numerous lakes which belong to the duchy arc the Mummcl, Wilder, Eichcner and Schluch, but none of them is of any size. The Lake of Constance (Baden-Sec) belongs partly to Bavaria and Switzerland.

Owing to its physical configuration Baden presents great extremes of heat and cold. The Rhine valley is the warmest district in Germany, but the higher elevations of the Black Forest record the greatest degrees of cold experienced in the south. The mean temperature of the Rhine valley is approximately 50° F. and that of the high table-land, 43° F. July is the hottest and January the coldest month in the year.

i •!•• n-iirr.i) wealth of n.Mc n is not great; but iron, coal, zinc and lead of excellent quality are produced, and silver, copper, gold, cobalt, vitriol and sulphur are obtained in small •j-iintnies. Peat is found in abundance! as well as gypsum, china-clay, potters'earth and salt. The mineral springs of Baden m very numerous and have acquired gnat celebrity, those of Baden-Baden, Badenweiler, Antogast, Grietbach, Frciersbach mil Prtcnthal being the most frequented.

In the valleys the soil is particularly fertile, yielding luxuriant crops of wheat, maite, barley, spell, beans, potatoes, flax, hemp, bops, beetroot and tobacco; and even in the more mountainous parti rye, wheat and oats are extensively cultivated. There is a considerable extent of pasture land, and the rearing of cattle, ihcrp, pigs and goats is largely practised. Of game, deer, wild boars, hares, snipe and partridges are fairly abundant, while the mountain streams yield trout of excellent quality. The culture of the vine increases, and the wines, which are characterized by a mildness of flavour, arc in good demand. The gardens and orchards supply great abundance of fruits, especially almonds ind walnuts; and bee-keeping is common throughout the country. A greater proportion of Baden than of any other of the south German states is occupied by forests. In these the predominant trees are the fir and pine, but many others, such as the chestnut, are well represented. A third, at least, of the annual supply of timber is exported.

Ptfiliation.—At the beginning of the loth century Baden was only a margraviate, with an area little exceeding 1300 sq. m., and a population of 710,000. Since then it has from time to time acquired additional territory, so that its area now amounts to 58*3 vi. m., and its population (1005) to 2,000,320, of whom about 60% arc Roman Catholics, 37% Protestants, ij% Jews.andtheremainderofothcrconfessions. Of Ihe population, about one-half may be classified as rural, i.e living in communities of Jess than 2000 inhabitants; while the density of the population n about 330 to the square mile. The country is divided into the following districts, with the respective chief towns and populations as shown:—

[table]

The capital of the duchy is Karlsruhe, and among important towns other than the above are Rastait, Baden-Baden, Bruchsal and Labr. The population is most thickly cluttered In the north and in the neighbourhood of the Swiss town of Basel. The inhabitants of Baden are of various origin—those to the north of the Murg being descended from the Alemanni and those to the south from the Franks, while the Swabtan plateau derives its name and its population from another race. (See Wobttembebg.)

Jmditslriet.—Of the area, 56-8 % is cultivated and 38 % forest, but the agricultural industry, which formerly yielded the bulk of the wealth of the country, is now equalled, if not surpassed, by the industrial output, which has attained very considerable dimensions. The chief articles of manufacture are machinery, woollen and cotton goods, silk ribbons, paper, tobacco, leather, china, glass, clocks, jewellery and chemicals. Beet sugar is also largely manufactured, and the inhabitants of the Black Forest have long been celebrated for their dexterity in the manufacture of wooden ornaments and toys, musical boxes and organs.

The exports of Baden, which coincide largely with the industries just mentioned, are of considerable importance, but the bulk of ils trade consists in the transit of goods. The country is well-furnished with roads and railways, the greater proportion of the latter bting in the hands of the state. A line runs the •hole- length of the land, for the most part parallel with the Rhine, while branches cross obliquely from east to west. Mannheim H the great emporium for the export of goods down the Rhine and hu a large river traffic. It is also the chief manu

facturing town of the cTuchy and the seat of administrative government for the northern portion of the country.

Education and Religion.—The educational establishments of Baden are numerous and flourishing, and public education is entirely in the hands of the government. There are two universities, the Protestant at Heidelberg and the Roman Catholic at Freiburg-im-Breisgau, and a celebrated technical college at Karlsruhe. The grand-duke is a Protestant; under him the Evangelical Church is governed by a nominated council and a synod consisting of the " prelate," 48 elected, and 7 nominated lay and clerical members. The Roman Catholic archbishop of Freiburg is metropolitan of the Upper Rhine.

Constitution and Gmtrnmtnt.—The government of Baden is an hereditary monarchy, with the executive power vested in the grand-duke, while the legislative authority is shared by him with a representative assembly (Landtag) consisting of two chambers. The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke. The lower chamber consists of 73 popular representatives, of whom 24 are elected by the burgesses of certain towns and 49 by the rural communities. Every citizen of 25 years of age, who has not been convicted and is not a pauper, has a vote. The elections are, however, indirect; the citizens nominating the Wahlm&nntr (deputy electors) and the latter electing the representatives. The chambers meet at least every two years. The members of the lower chamber are elected for four years, half the number retiring at the expiration of every two years. The executive consists of four departments of state —those of the interior, of foreign affairs and of the grand-ducal house, of finance, and of justice, ecclesiastical affairs and education. The chief sources of revenue are direct and indirect taxes, domains and railways. The last are worked by the state, and the sole public debt, amounting to about 22 millions sterling, is attributable to this head. The supreme courts of justice of the duchy are in Karlsruhe, Freiburg, Offenburg, Heidelberg, Mosbach, Waldshut, Constance and Mannheim, whence appeals lie to the Reuksgerictit (supreme tribunal of the empire) in Leipzig. By virtue of a convention with Prussia, of 1871, the Baden army forms a portion of the Prussian army.

Hillary—During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zihringen. In 1112 Hermann, a son of Hermann, margrave of Verona (d. 1074), and grandson of Bertold, duke of Carinthia and count of Zahringen, having inherited some of the German estates of his family, called himself margrave of Baden, and from this date the separate history of Baden may be said to begin. Hermann appears to have called himself by the title of margrave, and not the more usual title of count, owing to the connexion of his family with the margraviate of Verona. His son and grandson, both named Hermann, added to their territories, which about i 200 were divided, and the lines of Baden-Baden and BadenHochberg were founded, the latter of which was divided about a century later into the branches of Baden-Hochberg and BadenSausenberg. The family of Baden-Baden was very successful in increasing the area of its possessions, which after several divisions were united by the margrave Bernard I. in 1391. Bernard, a soldier of some renown, continued the work of his predecessors, and obtained other districts, including BadcnHochberg, the ruling family •( which died out in 1418.

During the ijth century a war with the count palatine of the Rhine deprived Margrave Charles I. (d. 1475) of a part of his territories, but these losses were more than repaired by his son and successor, Christopher I. In 1503 the family of Baden

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