« السابقةمتابعة »
pfcturesquely situated. The railway terminus at Bandarawclla if it m. from Badulla. Tea is cultivated by the .planters, and rice, fruit snd vegetables by tie natives in the district.
BAEDEKER. KARL (1801-1859), German publisher, was bom »t Eraen on the 3rd of November 1801. His father had a printing establishment and book-shop there, and Karl followed the same business independently in Coblcnz. Here he began to issue the fast of the series of guide-books with. which his name is associated. They followed the model of the English series instituted by John Murray, bat developed in the course of years so as to cover the greater part of the civilized world, and later were issued in English and French as well as German, Baedeker's son Fritz carried on the business, which in 1872 was transferred to Leipzig.
BAEHH, JOHANN CHRISTIAN IT.LIX (1708-1872), German philologist ^vas bom at Darmstadt on the i,uh of June 1798. He studied at the university of Heidelberg where he was appointed professor of classical philology in 1823, chief librarian in 1837, and on the retirement of G. F. Crcuzcr became director of the philological seminary. He died at Heidelberg on the 2oth ef November 1871. His earliest works were editions of Plutarch's AlfiMaJa (1822), Plrilopaemtn, Flaatininai, Pyrrlitu (1826), the fragments of Ctcsias (1824), and Herodotus (1830-1835, 18551867). But most important of all were his works on Roman literature and humanistic studies in the middle ages: Gcschicklc der rdmiscltcn Litteralur (.ith ed., 1868-1870), and the supplementary volumes, Die chriitlirlirn Dicliler unJ Gackiclitschreiber Roms
der rSmischen LitUratur im karolingischcn Zcitalter (1840).
BACL FRUIT (Acglc marmelos). Acgle is a genus of the botanical natural order Rutaccae, containing two species in tropical Asia and one in west tropical Africa. The plants are trees bearing strong spines, with alternate, compound leaves each with three leaflets and panicles of sweet-scented white flowers. Acgle marmelos, the bael- or bcl-fruit tree (also known is Bengal quince), is found wild or cultivated throughout India. The tree fa valued for its fruit, which is oblong to pyriform in shape, »-$ in. in diameter, and has a grey or yellow rind and a meet, thick orange-coloured pulp. The unripe fruit is cut up in slices, sun-dried and used as an astringent; the ripe fruit is described as sweet, aromatic and cooling. The wood is yellowishwhite, and hard but not durable. The name Aegle is from one of the Hespcridcs, in reference to the golden fruit, marmetos is Portuguese for quince.
BAENA.a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cordova; 3> m. by road S.E. of the city of Cordova. Pop. (1900) 14,539. Baena is picturesquely situated near the river Marbclla, on the slope of a hill crowned with a castle, which formerly belonged to the famous captain Gonzalo de Cordova. Farming, horsebreeding, linen-weaving and the manufacture of olive-oil are the chief local industries. The nearest railway station is Luque (pop. 4972), 4 m. S.E. on the Jaen-Lucena line. The site of thr Roman town (Baniana or Biniana) can still be traced, and various Roman antiquities have been disinterred. In 1202 the Moors under Mahommcd II. of Granada vainly besieged Bacna, which watt held for Sancho IV. of Castile, and the five Moorish heads in its coat-ot-arms commemorate the defence.
BAER, KARL ERNST VON (1792-1876), German biologist, was bam at Hep, in Esthonia, on the 29th of February 1791. His father, A small landowner, sent him to school at Rcval, which he left in his eighteenth year to study medicine at Dorpat University. The lectures of K. F. Burdach (1776-1847) suggested i-.-j.aifh In the wider 6eld of life-history, and as at that time Germany offered more facilities for, and greater encouragement to, scientific work, von Baer went to WOrzburg, where J. I. J IMJingiT (1770-1841). father of the Catholic theologian, was professor of antitomy. In teaching von Baer, Ddllingcr gave a direction to his studies which secured his future pre-eminence in the idence of organic development. He collaborated with C. H. Pander (1704-1865) in researches on the evolution of the chick, the results of which were first published in Burdach's treatise on physiology. Continuing his investigations alone von Baer extended them to the evolution of organisms generally, and after a
sojourn at Berlin he was invited by his old teacher Burdach, who had become professor of anatomy at Kb'nigsberg, to join him as prosector and chief of the new zoological museum (1817). Von Baer's great discovery of the human ovum is the subject of his Epiilola de Ota UammaKum el Hominii Genesi (Leipzig, 1827), and in the following year he published the first part of his History of the Evolution of Animals (Ueber die Kntu-UMnnesgesMchle der Tkiere), the second part following in 1837. In this work he demonstrated first, that the Graafian follicles in the ovary are not the actual eggs, but that they contain the spherical vesicle, which is the true ovum, a body about the one hundred and twentieth of an inch in diameter, wherein lie the properties transmitting the physical and mental characteristics of the parent or grandparent, or even of more remote ancestors. He next showed that in all vertebrates the primary stage of cleavage of the fertilized egg is followed bymodification into leaf-likegermlayers—skin, muscular, vascular and mucous—whence arise the several organs of the body by differentiation. He further discovered the gelatinous, cylindrical cord, known as the chorda dor salts, which passes along the body of the embryo of vertebrates, in the lower types of which it is limited to the entire inner skeleton, while in the higher the backbone and skull are developed round it. His " law of corresponding stages " in the development of vertebrate embryos was exemplified in the fact recorded by him about certain specimens preserved in spirit which he had omitted to label. "I am quite unable to say to what class they belong. They may be lizards, or small birds, or very young mammalia, so complete is the similarity in the mode of formation of the head and trunk in these animals. The extremities arc still absent, but even if they had existed in the earliest stage of the development we should learn nothing, because all arise from the same fundamental form." Again, in his History nfEvolulimhc suggests, "Are not all animals in the beginning of their development essentially alike, and is there not a primary form common to all ?" (i. p. 223) Notwithstanding this, the " tclic " idea, with the archetypal theory which it involved, possessed von Baer to the end of his life, and explains his inability to accept the theory of unbroken descent with modification when it was propounded by Charles Darwin and A. R- Wallace in 1858. The influence of von Baer's discoveries has been far-reaching and abiding. Not only was he the pioneer in that branch of biological science to which Francis Balfour, gathering up the labours of many fellow-workers, gave coherence in his Comparative Embryology (1881), but the impetus to Tt H. Huxley's researches on the structure of the medusae came from him (Life, i. 163), and Herbert Spencer found in von Baer's" law of development " the " law of all development " (Essays, i. 30) In 1834 von Baer was appointed librarian of the Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg. In 1835 he published his Development of /•':./.•;, and as the result of collection of all available information concerning the fauna and flora of the Polar regions of the empire, he was appointed leader of an Arctic expedition in 1837 The remainder of his active life was occupied in divers fields of research, geological as well as biological, an outcome of the latter being his fine monograph on the fishes of the Baltic and Caspian Seas. One of the last works from his prolific pen was an interesting autobiography published at the expense of the Esthonian nobles on the celebration of the jubilee of his doctorate in 1864. Three years afterwards he received the Copley medal. He died at Dorpat on the 28th of November 1876. (E. Cl.)
BAER, WILLIAM JACOB (1860- ), American painter, was born on the 29th of January 1860 in Cincinnati, Ohio. He studied at Munich in 1880-1884. He had much to do with the revival in America of the art of miniature-painting, to which he turned in 1892, and was the first president of the Society of Painters in Miniature, New York, Among his miniatures are " The Golden Hour," "Daphne," "In Arcadia" and "Madonna with the Auburn Hair."
BAETYLUS (Gr. 0o!rvXot, f>arrt\u>r), a word of Semitic origin ( = bethel) denoting a sacred stone, which was supposed to be endowed with fife. These fetish objects of worship were meteoric stones, which were dedicated to the gods or revered as symbols of the gods themselves (Pfiny, Nat. Hist. xvii. 9; Photius, Cod. 242) In Greek mythology the term was specially applied to the stone supposed to have been swallowed by Cronus (who feared misfortune from his own children) in mistake for his infant son Zeus, for whom it had been substituted by Uranus and Gaca, his wife's parents (Elymologicum Uognunt, s.v). This stone was carefully preserved at Delphi, anointed with oil every day and on festal occasions covered with raw wool (Pausanias x. 24). In Phoenician mythology, one of the sons of Uranus is named Baetylus. Another famous stone was the effigy of Rhea Cybcle, the holy stone of Pessinus, black and of irregular form, which was brought to Rome in 204 B.c. and placed in the mouth of the statue of the goddess. In some cases an attempt was made to give a more regular form to the original shapeless stone: thus Apollo Agyieus was represented by a conical pillar with pointed end, Zeus Meilichius in the form of a pyramid. Other famous Dactylic idols were those in the temples of Zeus Casius at Selcucia, and of Zeus Tcleios at Tcgea. Even in the declining years of paganism, these idols still retained their significance, as is shown by the attacks upon them by ecclesiastical writers.
See Munter, Obtr die vom Himmel gtfaUenen Sleine (1805); Busigk, De Batlytiis (1854); and the exhaustive article by F. Lcnorroant in Darcmberg and Saglio's Dictionary of Antiquities.
BAEYER, JOHAKN FRIEDRICH WILHELH ADOLF VON (1835- ), German chemist, was born at Berlin on the jist of October 1835, his father being Jobann Jacob von Baeyer (17941885), chief of the Berlin Gcodctical Institute from 1870. He studied chemistry under R- W. Bunscn and F. A. Kekule, and in 1858 took his degree as Ph.D. at Berlin, becoming privatdocent a few years afterwards and assistant professor in 1866. Five years later he was appointed professor of chemistry at Strassburg, and in 1875 he migrated in the same capacity to Munich. He devoted himself mainly to investigations in organic chemistry, and in particular to synthetical studies by the aid of 41 condensation" reactions. The Royal Society of London awarded him the Davy medal in iSSr for his researches on indigo, the nature and composition of which he did more to elucidate than any other single chemist, and which he also succeeded in preparing artificially, though his methods were not found commercially practicable. To celebrate his seventieth birthday his scientific papers were collected and published in two volumes (Gcsammcltc Werte, Brunswick, 1005), and the names of the headings under which they arc grouped give some idea of the range and extent of his chemical work:—(i) organic arsenic compounds, (2) uric acid group, (3) indigo, (4) papers arising from indigo researches, (5) pyrrol and pyrtdine bases,
(6) experiments on the elimination of water and on condensation,
(7) the phthaleins, (8) the hydro-aromatic compounds, (g) the terpcnes, (10) nitroso compounds, (n) furfurol, (12) acetylene compounds and " strain" (Spannungs) theory, (13) peroxides, (14) basic properties of oxygen, (i.;) dibenzalacetonc and triphcnylamine, (id) various researches on the aromatic and (17) the aliphatic senes.
BAEZA (anc. Bcalia), a town of southern Spam, in the province of Jain, in the Loma dc Ubeda, a mountain range between the river Guadalquivcr on the S. and its tributary the Guadalimar on theN. Pop. (1900) 14,379 Baeza has a station 3 m. S.W on the Linarcs-Almcrfa railway Its chief buildings are those of the university (founded in 1533, and replaced by a theological seminary), the cathedral and the Franciscan monastery. The Cordova and Ubeda gates, and the arch of Baeza, are among the remains of its old fortifications, which were of great strength. The town has little trade except in farm-produce, but 1U red dye, made from the native cochineal, was formerly celebrated. In the middle ages Bacza was a flourishing Moorish city, said to contain 50,000 inhabitants', but it was sacked in 1239 by Ferdinand III. of Ca-slile, who In 1248 transferred its bishopric to Jaen. It was I lie birthplace of the sculptor and painter, Caspar Becarra.
BAFFIN, WILLIAM (1584-1612), English navigator and discoverer. Nothing is known of his early life, but it is conjectured that he was born in London of humble origin, and gradually raised himself by his diligence and perseverance. The earliest mention of his name occurs in 1612, in connexion with
an expedition in search of a North-West Passage, under the ordett of Captain James Hall, whom he accompanied as chief pilot. Captain Hall was murdered in a fight with the natives on the west coast of Greenland, and during the two following years Baffin served in the Spitsbergen whalc-fisbcry, at that time controlled by the Muscovy Company. In 1615 he entered ihe service of the Company for the discovery of the North-West Passage, and accompanied Captain Robert Bylol as pilot of the little ship " Discovery," and now 'carefully examined Hudson Strait. The accuracy of Baffin's tidal and astronomical observations on this voyage was confirmed in a remarkable manner by Sir Edward Parry, when passing over the same ground, two centuries later (1821). In the following year Baffin again sailed as pilot of the " Discovery," and passing up Davis Strait discovered the fine bay to the north which now bears his name, together with the magnificent scries of straits which radiate from its head and were named by him Lancaster, Smith and Jones Sounds, in honour of the generous patrons of his voyages. On this voyage he had sailed over 300 m. farther north than his predecessor Davis, and for 236 years his farthest north (about lat. 77° 450 remained unsurpassed in that sea. All hopes, however, seemed now ended of discovering a passage to India by this route, and in course of time even Baffin's discoveries came to be doubted until they were re-discovered by Captain Ross in 1818. Baffin next took service with the East India Company, and in 1617-1619 performed a voyage to Surat in British India, and on his return received the special recognition of the Company for certain valuable surveys of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf which he had made in the course of the voyage. Early in 1620 he again sailed to the K.ist, and in the AngloPersian attack on Kishm in the Persian Gulf, preparatory to the reduction of Ormuz, he received his death-wound and died on the 23rd of January 1622. Besides the importance of his geographical discoveries, Baffin is to be remembered for the importance and accuracy of his numerous scientific and magnetic observations, for one of which (the determination of longitude at sea by lunar observation) the honour is claimed of being the first of its kind on record.
BAFFIN BAT and BAFFIN LAND, an arctic sea and an insular tract named after the explorer William Baffin. Baffin or Baffin's Bay is part of the long strait which separates Baffin Land from Greenland. It extends from about 69° to 78° N. and from 54° to 76° W From the northern end it is connected (i) with the polar sea northward by Smith Sound, prolonged by Kane Basin and Kennedy and Robeson Channels; (2) with the straits which ramify through the archipelago to the north-west by narrow channels at the head of Junes Sound, from which 0. Svcrdrup and his party conducted explorations in 19001902, (3) with the more southerly part o! the same archipelago by Lancaster Sound Baffin Bay was explored very fully in 1616 by Baffin The coasts arc generally high, precipitous and deeply indented. The most important inland on the cast side is Disco, to the north of Disco Bay, Greenland. During the greater part of the year this sea is frozen, but, while hardly ever free of ice, there are normally navigable channels along the coasts from the beginning of June to the end of September connected by transverse channels. The bay is noted as a centre of the whale and seal fishery At more than one point a depth exceeding 1000 fathoms has been ascertained.
Baffin Land is a barren insular tract, included in Franklin district, Canada, with an approximate area of 236,000 sq m., situated between 61° and 90" W and 6j° and 74° N The eastern and northern coasts are rocky and mountainous, and are deeply indented by large bays including Frobiihcr and Home Bays, Cumberland Sound and Admiralty Inlet. Baffin Land is separated from Greenland by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, from Ungava by Hudson Strait, from Kecwalin and Melville Peninsula by Fox Channel and Fury-and Hccla Stnit, from Boothia Peninsula and North Somerset by the Gull of Boothia and Prince Regent Inlet, and from North Devon by Lancaster Sound. Various names are given to various parts of the land— Jhua the north-western part is called Cockburn Land, farther cut h North Galloway; on the extreme eastern peninsula arc Cumberland and Penny Lands, while the southern is called Met* Incognita; in the west is Foi Land. In the southern psrt of the interior are two large lakes, Amadjuaks which lies at an altitude »l 189 ft., and NellUing or Kennedy.
EACAMOYO, a seaport of German East Africa in 6° »»' S., if 55* E. Pop. about 18.000. including a considerable number oi Bntiih Indians. Being the port on the mainland nearest the town of Zanzibar, >6 m. distant, Bagamoyo became the startingpoint for can vans to the great lakes, and an entrepot of trade with the interior of the continent. It possesses no natural harbour. The beach slopes gently down and ships anchor about 2 m. off the coast. The town is oriental in character. The buildings include the residence of the, administrator, barracks, a government school for natives, a mosque and Hindu temple, and the establishment of the Mission du Sacrt Caur, which possesses • large plantation of coco-nut palms. Bagamoyo is in telegraphic communication with Zanzfbar and with the other coast towns of German East Africa, and has regular steamship communication with Zanzibar. Of the explorers who made Bagamoyo the starting-point for their journeys to the interior of Africa, •tie most illustrious were Sir Richard Burton, J. H. Speke, J A. Grant and Sir H. M. Stanley.
BAGATELLE (French, from Ital bafaltlla, bagala, a trifle), primarily a thing of trifling importance. The name, though French, is given to a game which is probably of English origin, though its connexion with the tlueel-boanl of Cotton's Complete Gamortr is very doubtful. Strati does not mention it. The game b very likely a modification of billiards, and is played on an oblong board or table varying in size from 6 ft. by i J ft. to 10 ft. by ) f i. The bed of the table is generally made of slate, although, in the smaller sizes, wood covered with green cloth is often used. The sides are. cushioned with india-rubber. The head is semicircular and fitted with 9 numbered cups set into the bed, their numbers showing the amount scored by putting a ball into them. An ordinary billiard-cue and nine balls, one black, four red and four white, are used. The black ball is placed upon a fpot about 9 in. in front of hole I, and about 18 in. from the player's end of the board a line (the baulk) is drawn across it, behind which is another spot for the player's ball. (These measurements of course differ according to the size of the table.) Some modern tables have pockets as well as cups.
Bt(alette Proper.—The black ball having been placed on the upper spot, the players " suing " for the lead, the winner being that player who plays his ball into the highest hole. Any number may play, either separately, or in sides. Each player in turn plays all eight balls up (he table, no score being allowed until a ball has touched the black ball, the object being to play as many balls as possible into the holes, the black ball counting double. Balls missing the black at the beginning, those rolling back across the baulk-line, and those forced off the table arc "dead " for that round and removed. The game is decided by the aggregate score made in an agreed number of rounds.
Sans Eiai.—This is a French form of the game. Two players take nan, one using the red and one the while balls. After stringing for lead, the leader plays at the black, forfeiting a hall if he misses. His opponent then plays at the black if it has not been touched, otherwise any way he likes, and each then plays alternately, the object being to hole the black and his own balls, the winner being the one who scores the highest number of points. If a player holes one of his opponent's balls it is scored for too opponent. The game is decided by a certain number of rounds, or by points, usually it or 31. In other mat ten the rules of bagatelle apply.
The Cannon Came.—This is usually considered the best and most scientific of bagatelle varieties. Tables without cups are sometime* used. As in billiards three balls are required, the white, spot-white and black, the last being spotted and the non-striker's ball placed midway between holes i and 9. The object of the game is to make cannons (caroms), balls played into boles, at the same time counting the number of the holes, bat if > ball falls into a bole during a pUy in which no cannon
is made the score counts for the adversary. If the striker's ball is holed he plays from baulk; if an object-ball, it is spotted as at the beginning of the game. A cannon counts 2; missing the white object-ball scores i to the adversary; missing the black, 5 to the adversary. If there arc pockets, the striker scores 2 for holing the white object-ball and 3 for holing the black, but a cannon must be made by the same stroke; otherwise the score counts for the adversary.
r*« hitk Cannon Came.—The rules of the camon game apply, except that in all cases pocketed balls count for the adversary.
Mississippi.—This variation is played with a bridge pierced with 9 on more arches, according to the size of the table, the arches being numbered from i upwards. All nine balls are usually played, though the black is sometimes omitted, each player having a round, the object being to send the balls through the arches. This may not be done directly, but the balls must strike a cushion first, the black, if used, counting double the arch made. If a ball is played through an arch, without first striking a cushion, the score goes to the adversary, but another ball, lying in front of the bridge, may be sent through by the cue-ball if the latter has struck a cushion. If a ball falls into a cup the striker scores the value of the cup as well as of the arch.
Trou Madame.—This is a game similar to Mississippi, with the exceptions that the ball need not be played on to a cushion, and that, if a ball falls into a cup, the opponent scores the value of the cup and not the striker.
Bell-Bagatelle is played on a board provided with cups, arches from which bells hang, and stalls each marked with a number. The ball is played up the side and rolls down the board, which is slightly inclined, through the arches or into a cup or stall, the winner scoring the highest with a certain number of balls.
BAGDAD, or Baghdad, a vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, situated between Persia and the Syrian desert, and including the greater part of ancient Babylonia. The original vilayet extended from Mardin on the N. to the Persian Gulf on the S., and from the river Khabor on the W. to the Persian frontier on the E. From the middle of the i;th century, when this region was annexed by the Turks, until about the middle of the 191)1 century, the vilayet of Bagdad was the largest province of the Turkish empire, constituting at times an almost independent principality. Since then, however, it has lost much of its importance and all of its independence. The first reduction in size occurred in 1857, when some of the western portion of the vilayet was added to the newly created sanjak of Zor. In 1878 the Mosul vilayet was created out of its northern, and in 1884 the Basra vilayet out of its southern sanjaks. At the present lime it extends from a point just below Kut el-Amara to a point somewhat above Tekrit on the Tigris, and from a point somewhat below Samawa to a point a little above Anah on the Euphrates. It is still, territorially, the largest province of the empire, and includes some of the most fertile lands in the Euphrates-Tigris valleys; but while possessing great possibilities for fertility, by far the larger portion of the vilayet is to-day a desert, owing to the neglect of the irrigation canals on which the fertility of the valley depends. From the latitude of Bagdad northward the region between the two rivers is an arid, waterless, limestone steppe, Inhabited only by roving Arabs. From the latitude of Bagdad southward the country is entirely alluvial soil, deposited by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, possessing great possibilities of fertility, but absolutely flat and subject to inundations at the time of flood of the two rivers.'' At that season much of the country, including the immediate surroundings of Bagdad, is under water. During the rest of the year a large part of the country is a parched and barren desert, and1 much of the remainder swamps and lagoons. Wherever there is any pretence at irrigation, along the banks of the two great rivers -end by the few canals which are still in existence, the yield is enormous, and the shores of the Tigris and Euphrates in the neighbourhood of Bagdad and Hilla seem to be one great palm garden. Sultan Abd-uI-Hamid II. personally acquired large tracts of land in various parts of the vilayet. These so-called tennieMi are well farmed and managed, in conspicuous contrast with the surrounding territory. Canals and dikes have been constructed to control and distribute the much-needed water, and the officials are housed in new buildings of substantial appearance. Indeed, wherever one finds a new and prosperous-looking village, it may be assumed to belong to the sultan. These senniehs are an advantage to the country in that they give security to their immediate region and certain employment to some part of its population. On the other hand, they withdrew large tracts of fertile and productive land from taxation (one-half of the cultivated land of the vilayet was said to be administered for the sultan's privy purse), and thus greatly reduced the revenue of the vilayet.
The chief city of the vilayet is its capital, Bagdad. Between the Euphrates and the Arabian plateau lie the sacred cities of Kerbela or Meshcd-Hosain, and Ncjcf or Meshed AH, with a population of 20,000 to 60,000 each, white a number of towns, varying in population from 3000 to 10,000, are found along the Euphrates (Anah, Hit, Ramadieh, Musseyib, Hilla, Diwanieh and Samawa) and the Tigris (Tekrit, Samaria and Kut elAmara). The settled population lies entirely along the banks of these streams and the canals and lagoons westward of the Euphrates, between Kerbcla and Nejef. Away from the banks cf the rivers, between the Euphrates and the Tigris and between the latter and the Persian mountains, arc tribes of wandering Arabs, some of whom possess great hctds of horses, sheep, goats, asses and camels, while in and by the marshes other tribes, in the transition stage from the nomadic to the settled life, own great herds of buffaloes. Of the wandering Arab tribes, the most powerful is the great tribe of Shammar, which ranges over all Mesopotamia. In January and February they descend as low as the neighbourhood of Diwanieh in such numbers that even Bagdad is afraid. Here and there are regions occupied by a semi-sedentary population, called Madon, occupying reed huts huddled around mud castles, called meftul. These, like the Bedouin Arabs, are practically independent, waging constant warfare among themselves and paying an uncertain tribute to the Turkish government. In general, Turkish rule is confined to the villages, towns and cities along the river banks, in and by which garrisons are located. Since the time (1868-187 a) of Midhat Pasha, who did much to bring the independent Arab tribes under control, the Turkish government has been, however, gradually strengthening its grip on the country and*extending the area of conscription and taxation. But from both the racial and religious standpoint, the Arab and Persian Shi'as, who constitute the vast bulk of the population, regard the Turks as foreigners and tyrants.
Of crops the vilayet produces wheat (which is indigenous), rice, barley (which takes the place of oats as food for horses), durra (a coarse, maize-like grain), sesame, cotton and tobacco; of fruits, the date, orange, lemon, fig, banana and pomegranate. The country is naturally treeless, except for the tamarisk, which grows by the swamps and along the river-beds. Here and there one sees a solitary sifsaf tree, or a small plantation of poplars or white mulberries, which trees, with the date-palm, constitute the only timber of the country. The willows reported by some travellers are in reality a narrow-leaved variety of poplar.
Besides the buffaloes and a few humped Indian oxen, there arc no cattle in the country. Of wild animals, the pig, hyena, jackal, antelope and hare arc extremely numerous; lions are still found, and wolves and foxes are not uncommon. Snipe and various species of wild fowl are found in the marshes, and pelicans and storks abound along the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris. Fish are caught in great numbers in the rivers and marshes, chiefly barbel and carp, and the latter attain so great a size that one is a sufficient load for an ass. The principal exports of the province are coarse wool, hides, dates and horses. At various points, especially at Hit, and from Hit southward along the edge of the Arabian plateau occur bitumen, naphtha and white petroleum springs, all of which remain undeveloped. The climate is very hot in summer, with a mean temperature of 97° F. From April to November no rain falls; in November the rains commence, and during the winter the thermometer falla to 46° F.
Cholera is endemic in come parts of the vilayet, and befon 1875 the same was true of the bubonic plague. At that date this disease was stamped out by energetic measures on the part of the government, but it has reappeared again in recent yean; introduced apparently from India or Persia by pilgrims. There are four great centres of pilgrimage for Shi'ite Moslems in the vilayet, Samarra, Kazemain, a suburb of Bagdad, Kerbela and Nejef. These are visited annually by tens of thousands of pilgrims, not only from the surrounding regions, but also from Persia and India; many of whom bring their dead to be'buried in the neighbourhood of the sacred tombs.
Unpleasant, but not dangerous, is another disease, the so-en I led "Bagdad date-mark," known elsewhere as the "Aleppo button," &c. This disease extends along the riven Tigris and Euphrates, and the country adjacent from Aleppo nnd Diarbckr to the Persian Gulf, although there arc individual towns and regions in this territory which seem to be exempt. It shows itself as a boil, attacking the face and extremities. It appears in two forms, known to the natives as male and female respectively, The former is a dry scaly sore, and the latter a running, open boil. It is not painful but leaves ugly scars. The natives all carry somewhere on their face, neck, hands, arms or feet the scars of these boils which they have had as children. European children born in the country are apt to be seriously disfigured, as in their case the boils almost invariably appear on the face, and whereas native children have as a rule but one boil, those born of European parents will have several. Adult foreigners visiting the country are also liable to be attacked, and women, especially, rarely escape disfigurement if they stay in the country for any length of time. The boils last for about a year, after which there is no more likelihood of a recurrence of the trouble than in the case of smallpox.
The area of the vilayet is 54,480 sq. m. The population is estimated at 852,000; Christians, 8000, principally Ncstorians or Chaldacans; Jews, 54,000; Moslems, 790,000, of whom the larger part arc Shi'as.
See G. Ic Strange. Baghdad under the Abbot id Cat tp halt (1901); Tke Lands of the Eastern Catipkatc (Cambridge, 1905); V. Cuinet, La Turquie d'Asit (Paris, 1890); J. P. Peters. Nippur XNew York and London. 1897); Ed. Sachau, Am Euphrat und Ttftt (Leipzig. 1900); A. V. Geere, By Nile and Euphrates (Edinburgh, 1904). (J- P. Pk.)
BAGDAD, or Baghdad, the capital of the Turkish vilayet of the same name. It is the headquarters of the VI. Army Corps, which garrisons also the Basra and Mosul vilayets. It lies on both sides of the river Tigris, in an extensive desert plain which has scarcely a tree or village throughout its whole extent, in latitude 33° so' X , longitude 44° 24' E. At this point the Tigris and the Euphrates approach each other most nearly, the distance between them being little more than 25 m. At this point .tin the two rivers are connected by a canal, the northernmost of a scries of canals which formerly united the two great waterways, and at the same time irrigated the intervening plain. This canal, the Sakhlawich (formerly Isa), leaves the Euphrates a few miles above Fcluja and the bridge of boats, near the ruins of the ancient Anbar. As it approaches Bagdad it spreads out in a great mar&h, and finally, through the Masudi canal, which encircles western Bagdad, enters the Tigris below the town. At the time of Chcsncy's survey of the Euphrates in 1838 this canal was still navigable for craft of some size. At present it serves no other purpose than to increase the floods which periodically turn Bagdad into an island city, and sometimes threaten to overwhelm the dikes which protect it and to submerge it entirely.
The original city of Bagdad was built on the western bank of the Tigris, but this is now, and has been for centuries, little more than a suburb of the larger and more important city on the eastern shore, the former containing an area of only > ^ acres within the walls, while the latter extends over 591 acres. Both the eastern and the western part of the city were formerly enclosed by brick walls, with large round towers at the principal angles and smaller towers intervening at shorter distances, the whole surrounded by a deep foss* _ There were three gates In the •ettern city and lour in the eastern; one ol the latter, however, on the north side, called "Gale of the Talisman" from an Arabic inscription bearing the dale A.o. 1110, has remained closed since the capture of the city by Murad IV. in 1638. These walls all fell into decay long since-, at places they were used as brick quarries, and finally the great reforming governor, (1868-1872), Midhal Pasha, following the example set by many European cities, undertook to destroy them altogether and utilize the free space thus obtained as a public park and esplanade. His plans were only partially carried out. At present fragments of the walls exist here and there, with the great ditch about them, while elsewhere a line of mounds marks their course. A great portion of the ground »ithin the wall lines is not occupied by buildings, especially in the north-western quarter; and even in the more populous parts of the city, near the river, a considerable space between the houses is occupied by gardens, •here pomegranates, figs, oranges, lemons and date-palms grow in gnat abundance, so that the city, when seen at a distance, has the appearance of rising out of the midst of trees.
Along the Tigris the city spreads out into suburbs, the most important of which is Kazemain, on the western side of the river northward, opposite which on the eastern side lies Muazzam. The former of these is connected with western Bagdad by a very primitive horse-tramway, also a relic of Midhat 1'asha's reforms. The two parts of the city are joined by pontoon bridges, one in the suburbs and one in the main city. The Tigris is at this point tome 175 yds. wide and very deep. Its banks are of mud, with no other retaining walls than those formed by the foundations of the houses, which are consequently always liable to be undermined by the action of the water. The western part of the dty, which is very irregular in shape, is occupied entirely by Shi'as. It has its own shops, bazaars, mosques, &c., and constitutes a quarter by itself. Beyond the wall line on that side vestiges of ancient buildings are visible in various directions, and the plain is strewn with fragments of bricks, tiles and rubbish. A burying-ground has also extended itself over a large tract of land, formerly occupied by the streets of the city. The form of the new or eastern city is that of an irregular oblong, ibout 1500 paces in length by 800 in breadth. The town has been built without the slightest regard to regularity; the streets are even more intricate and winding than those in most other Eastern towns, and with the exception of the bazaars and tome open squares, the interior is little else than a labyrinth of alleys ancj passages. The streets are unpaved and in many places so narrow that two horsemen can scarcely pass each other; as it is seldom that the houses have windows facing the thoroughfares, and the doors are small and mean, they present on both sides the gloomy appearance of dead walls. All the buildings, both public and private, arc constructed of furnaceburnt bricks of a yellowish-red colour, principally derived from the ruins of other places, chiefly Madain (Ctesiphon), Wasit and Babylon, which have been plundered at various limes to furnish materials for the construction of Bagdad.
The houses ol the richer classes arc regularly built about an interior court. The ground floor, except for the urdab, is given «P to kitchens, store-rooms, servants'' quarters, stables, &c. The principal rooms are on the first floor and open directly from > covered veranda, which is reached by an open staircase from the court. These constitute the winter residence of the family, reception room*, &c. The roofs of the houses are all flat, surroanded by parapets of sufficient height to protect them from the observation of the dwellers opposite, and separate them from their neighbours. In the summer the population sleeps tnd dines upon the roofs, which thus constitute to all intents a iWrt storey. The remainder of the day, so far as family life is foncemed, Is spent in the jfrrfa*. a cellar sunk somewhat below ll>e level of the courtyard, damp from frequent wettings, with its tall windows covered with hurdles thatched with camel thorn Md kept dripping with water. Occasionally the serdabs are Provided with punkahs.
Sometimes, in the months of June, July and August, when tkt Anki or south wind is blowing, the thermometer at break
of day is known to stand at iu* F., while at noon it rites to Iiq° and a little before two o'clock to 122", standing at sunst * at:14°, but this scale of lemperature is exceptional. Ordinarily during the summer months the thermometer averages from about 75° at sunrise to 107° at the hottest time of the day. Owing to the extreme dryness of the atmosphere and the fact that there is always a breeze, usually from the K.W., this heat is felt much less than a greatly lower temperature in a more humid atmosphere. Moreover, the nights are almost invariably cool.
Formerly Bagdad was intersected by innumerable canals and aqueducts which carried the water of both the Euphrates and the Tigris through the streets and into the houses. To-day these have all vanished, with the exception of one aqueduct which still conveys the water of the Tigris to the shrine of Abd al-Qadir (ul-Kadir). The present population draws its water directly from the Tigris, and it is distributed through the city in goat-skins carried on the backs of men and asses. There is, of course, no sewerage system, the surfaces of the streets serving that purpose, and what garbage and refuse is not consumed by the dog scavengers washes down into the Tigris at the same place from which the water for drinking is drawn. As a consequence of these insanitary conditions the death-rate is very high, and in case of epidemics the mortality is enormous. At such times a large part of the population leaves the city and encamps in the desert northward.
The principal public buildings of the city, such as they are, lie in the eastern section along the river bank. To the north, just within the old wall line, stands the citadel, surrounded by a high wall, with a lofty clock-tower which commands an excellent view. To the south of this, also on the Tigris, is the serai or palace of the Turkish governor, distinguished rather for extent than grandeur. It is comparatively modern, built at different periods, a large and confused structure without proportion, beauty or strength. Somewhat farther southward, just below the pontoon bridge, stands the custom house, which occupies the site and is built out of the material of the medreseh or college of Mostansir (a.d. 1233). Of the original building of the caliph Mostansir all that remains is a minaret and a small portion of the outer walls. Farther down are the imposing buildings of the British residency. The German consulate also is on the river-front. As in all Mahommedan cities, the mosques are conspicuous objects. Of these very few are old. The Marjanieh mosque, not far from the minaret of Mostansir, although its body is modern, has some remains of old and very rich arabesque work on its surface, dating from the Mth century. The door is formed by a lofty arch of the pointed form guarded on both sides with red bands exquisitely sculptured and having numerous inscriptions. The mosque of Khaseki, supposed to have been an old Christian church, is chiefly distinguished for its prayer niche, which, instead of being a simple recess, is crowned by a Roman arch, with square pedestals, spirally fluted shafts and a rich capital of flowers, with a fine fan or shell-top in the Roman style. The building in its present form bears the date of A.d. 1682, but the sculptures which it contains belong probably to the time of the caliphate. The minaret of Suk el-Ghazl, in the south-eastern part of the city, dates from the I3th century. The other mosques, of which there are about thirty within the walls, excluding the chapels and places of prayer, are all of recent erection. Most of them are surmounted by bright-coloured cupolas and minarets. The Mosque of the Vizier, on the eastern side of the Tigris, near the pontoon bridge,1 has a fine dome and a lofty minaret, and the Great Mosque in the square of el Meidan, in the neighbourhood of the serai, is also a noble building.
The other mosques do not merit any particular attention, and in general it may be said that Bagdad architecture is neither distinctive nor imposing. Such attractions as the buildings possess are due rather to the richly coloured tiles with which many of them are adorned, or to inscriptions, like the Kufic inscription, dated A.d. 944, on the ruined lekke of the Bektasb dervishesin western Bagdad. More important than the mosques