« السابقةمتابعة »
substances as sugar, it is not uncommon to line the bag with piper, which excludes foreign matter, and minimizes the loss. AUltough there are large quantities of seamless bags woven in lie loom, the greater part of the cloth is woven in the ordinary «y. It is then cut up into the required sizes by hand and by •pedal machines, and afterwards sewn by one of the chain-stitch or straight-stitch bag sewing-machines.
BAGHAL, a small native state in the Punjab, India.* It is one of the group known as the Simla Hill states, and has an area of 114 sq. m.; pop. (1001) 25,720, showing an increase <•;<,', in the decade; a revenue £3300.
BAGHERIA, a town of the province of Palermo, Sicily, 8 m. bjr rail E. by S. of Palermo. Pop. (1001) 18,218. It contains many villas of the aristocracy of Palermo, the majority of which wre erected in the i8th century, but have now fallen into decay.
BAGILLT. a town of Flintshire, North Wales, 14) m. from Chester, on the London & North Western railway, in the ancient parish of Holywcll. Pop. (1901) 2637. Its importance is due to its zinc, lead, iron, alkali and kindred works, and its collieries. Above HagilU is Bryn Dychwclwch, " Hill of Retreat," so called from the retreat effected by Owen Gwynedd, when pursued by Henry II., with superior numbers. Near is Mostyn Hall, dating l-om the time of Henry VI., the seat of one of the oldest Welsh !- <nilies. Here are antiquities and MSS. (old British history and Welsh, brought from Gloddacth), a harp dated 1568, torques (totckau). Ice. Henry VII., then earl of Richmond, is said to have been concealed here in the reign of Richard III., when the lord of Mostyn was Richard ap Howcl.
BAGIMOND'S ROLL. In 1374 the council of Lyons imposed i tax of a tenth part of alt church revenues during the six following years for the relief of the Holy Land. In Scotland Pope Gregory X. entrusted the collection of this tax to Master Boiamund (better known as Bagimund) dc Vitia, a canon of Asti, whose roll of valuation formed the basis of ecclesiastical taxation for some centuries. Boiamund proposed to assess the tax, not Tcording to the old conventional valuation but on the true value ji' the benefices at the time of assessment. The clergy of Scotland objected to this innovation, and, having held a council at Perth in August 1175, prevailed upon Boiamund to return to Rome for the purpose of persuading the pope to accept the older method of taxation. The pope insisted upon the tax being collected according to the true value, and Boiamund returned to Scotland to superintend its collection. A fragment of Bagimond's Roll in < imething very like its original form is preserved at Durham, and l.is been printed by James Raine in his Priory aj Coldingham i I'ublica lions of the Surtees Society, vol. xii.). It gives the real values in one column and tenth parts in another column of each of the benefices in the archdeaconry of Lothian. The actual (nation to which this fragment refers was not the tenth collected by Boiamund but the tenth of all ecclesiastical property in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland granted by Pope Nicholas IV. to Edward I. of England in the year 1388. The fragment should therefore be regarded as supplementary to the Taxalio EcdenMica Angliae tt Vfalliat printed by the Record Commissioners in >8ot. Although no contemporary copy of Bagimond's Roll b known to exist, at least three documents give particulars of the taxation of the Church of Scotland in the loth century, which are based upon the original roll
See Siatula Eultiiae SaticamH (Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh, 1566).
BAGIRMI, a country of north-central Africa, lying S.E. of Lake Chad and forming part of the Chad circumscription of French Congo. It extends some 940 m. north to south and has i breadth of about 150 m., with an area of 20,000 sq. m. The population in 1003 was estimated at 100,000, having been greatly nrluced a* the result of wars and slave-raiding. By including district* S. and S.E. occupied by former vassal states, the area and population of Bagirmi would be more than doubled. The surface of the country, which lies about 1000 ft. above sea-level, is almost flat with a very slight inclination N. to Lake Chad. It I'.rmt part of what »cems to be the basin of an immense lake, of •Inch Chad is the remnant. The soil is clay. The river Shari
'.».) forms the western boundary. Numerous tributaries of the Shari flow through the country, but much of the water is absorbed by swamps and sand-obstructed channels, and seasons of drought are recurrent- The southern part of thecountryisthemostfcrtilc. Among the trees the acacia and the dum-palm are common. Various kinds of rubber vine are found. The fauna includes the elephant, hippopotamus, lion and several species of antelope. Ants are very numerous. Millet and sesame are the principal grains cultivated. Rice grows wild, and several kinds of Poa grass arc used as food by the natives. Cotton and indigo arc grown to a considerable extent, especially by Bornu immigrants. The capital is Chekna, on a tributary of the Shari, the former capital, Massenia, having been destroyed in iSgS. Fort I.aniy at the confluence of the Logone and Shari, and Fort dc Coint<-t on the middle Shari, are French posts round which towns have grown. Trade is chiefly with Yola, a town on the Benue in British Nigeria, and with Khartum via Wadai. There is also an ancient caravan route which runs through Kanem and across the Sahara to Tripoli.
The population of Bagirmi is mixed. Negroid peoples predominate, but there are many pastoral Fula and Arabs. The Bagirmese proper are a vigorous, well-formed race of NegroidArab blood, who, according to their own traditions, came from the eastward several centuries ago, a tradition borne out by their language; which resembles those spoken on the White Nile. On their arrival they appear to have taken the place of the Bulata dynasty. They subdued the Fula and Arabs already settled in the district, and after being converted to Islam under Abdullah, their fourth king (about 1600), they extended their authority over a large number of tribes living to the south and east. The most important of these tribes are the Saras, Gabcri, Somrai, Gulla, Nduka, Nuba and Sokoro. These pagan tribes were repeatedly raided by the Bagirmese for slaves. Most of them are of a primitive type and appear to be dying out. The Saras are remarkable for their herculean stature, and are one of the most promising of African races. . Tree worship is prevalent among the Somrai and the Gabcri. All the tribes believe in a supreme being whose voice is the thunder. Polygamy is general in upper Bagirmi, where some traces of a matriarchal stage of society linger, one small state being called Bcled-el-Mra, "Women's Land," because its ruler is always a queen.
Bagirmi was made known to Europe by the travels of Dixon Drnh.ua (1823), Hcinrich Barth (1852), who was imprisoned by the Bagirmese for some time, Gustav Nachtigal (1872), and P. Matteucci and A. M. Massari (1881). The country in 1871 had been conquered by the sultan of Wadai, and about 1800 was over-run by Rabah Zobeir (q.v.) who subsequently removed farther west to Bornu. About this time French interest in the countries surrounding Lake Chad was aroused. The first expedition led thither through Bagirmi met with disaster, its leader, Paul Crampcl, being killed by order of Rabah. Subsequent missions were more fortunate, and in 1897 Emile Gcntil, the French commissioner for the district, concluded a treaty with the sultan of Bagirmi, placing his country under French protection. A resident was left at the capital, Massenia, but on Gcntil's withdrawal Rabah descended from Bornu and forced sultan and resident to flee. It was not until after the death of Rabah in battle and the rout of his sons (1001) that French authority was firmly established. Kanem, a country north of Bagirmi and subject in turn to it and to Wadai, was at the same time brought under French control. So far as its European rivals arc concerned, the French right to these regions is based on the Franco-German convention of the I5th of March, 1894 and the Anglo-French declaration of the 2ist of March 1899.
See H. Barth, Trmds and Dilemma in North and Central Africa (London, 1857-1858); G. Nacheigal, Sahara und Sudan (Berlin. 1870-1889); E. Gentil, La Ckult dt I'Empire de Rabah (Paris, 1902). Aho French Congo.
BAGNACAVALLO, BARTOLOHHEO (1484-1542), Italian painter. His real name was Raiienghi, but he received the cognomen Bagnacavallo from the little village where he was born. He studied first under Francia, and then proceeded to Rome, where he became a pupil of Raphael. While studying under him he worked along with many others at the decoration of the gallery in the Vatican, though it is not known what portions are his work. On his return to Bologna he quickly took the leading place as an artist, and to him were due the great improvements in the general style of what has been called the Bolognese school. His works were considered to be inferior in point of design to some other productions of -the school of Raphael, but they were distinguished by rich colouring and graceful delineation. They were highly esteemed by Guido Reni and the Carracci, who studied them carefully and in some points imitated them. The best specimens of Bagnacavallo's works, the" Dispute of St Augustine," and a " Madonna and Child," are at Bologna.
BAGNERES-DE-BIGORRE, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of HautesPyrenees, 13 m. S.S.E. of Tarbcs on a branch line of the Southern railway. Fop. (1906) 6661. It is beautifully situated on the left bank of the Adour, at the northern end of the valley of Campan, and the vicinity abounds in picturesque mountain scenery. The town is remarkably neat and clean and many of the houses are built or ornamented with marble. It is one of the principal watering-places in France, and has some fifty mineral springs, characterized chiefly by the presence of sulphate of lime or iron. Their temperature ranges approximately from 59° to 122° Fahr., and they are efficacious in cases of rheumatism, nervous affections, indigestion and other maladies. The season begins in May and terminates about the end of October, during which time the population is more than doubled. The Promenade des Coustous is the centre of the life of Bagnercs. Close by stands the church of St Vincent of the I4thand 15th centuries. The old quarter of the town, in which there are several old houses, contains a graceful octagonal tower of the t5th century, the remains of a Jacobin monastery. The Neothcrmes, occupying part of the casino, and the Thermes (dating from 1824), which has a good library, are the principal bathing-establishments; both are town property. The other chief buildings include the Carmelite church, remains of the old church of St Jean, a museum and the town-hall. Bagnercs has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, and a communal college. The manufacture of /' •' r\y, a light fabric of silk and wool, and the weaving and knitting of woollen goods, wood-turning and the working of marble found in the neighbourhood and imported from elsewhere, are among the industries, and there are also slate quarries. Bagnercs was much frequented by the Romans, under whom it was known as Vkus Aquensis, but afterwards lost its renown. It begins to appear again in history in the nth century when Ccntulle III., count of Bigorre, granted it a liberal charter. The baths rose into permanent importance in the i6th century, when they were visited by Jeanne d'Albret, mother of Henry IV., and by many other distinguished persons.
BAGNERES-DE-LUCHON. a town of south-western France, in the department of Hautc-Garonne, 87 m. S.S.W. of Toulouse, on a branch line of the Southern raflway from Montrejeau. Pop. (1906) 3448. The town is situated at the foot of the central Pyrenees in a beautiful valley at the confluence of the One and the Pique. It is celebrated for it* thermal springs and aa a fashionable resort Of the promenades the finest and most frequented are the Alices d'Etigny, an avenue planted with lime-trees, at the southern extremity of which is the Thcrmes, or bathing-establishment, one of the most complete in existence. The springs, which number 48, vary in composition, but are chiefly impregnated with sulphate of sodium, and range in temperature from 62° to 150°. A large casino was opened in the town in 1877. The discovery of numerous Roman remains attests the antiquity of the baths, which are identified with the Onrsiorum Thermae of Strabo. Their revival in modern times dates from the latter half of the i8th century, and was due to Antoine Mcgret d'Etigny, intcnJaiJ of Audi.
BAGOAS, a Persian name (Bagoi), a shortened form of names like Bagadita, " given by God," often used for eunuchs. The best-known of these (" Bagoses " in Joaephus) became the confidential minister of Artaxerxes III. He threw in his lot with the
Rhodian condotticre Mentor, and with his help succeeded in subjecting Egypt again to the Persian empire (probably 34 2 B.C.). Mentor became general of the maritime provinces, suppressed the rebels, and sent Greek mercenaries lo the king, while Bagoas administered the upper satrapies and gained such power that he was the real master of the kingdom (Diod. x vi. 50; cf. Didymus, Comtn. in Dcmosth. Phil. vi. 5). He became very wealthy by confiscating the sacred writings of the Egyptian temples and giving them back to the priests for large bribes (Dlod. xvi. 51). When the high priest of Jerusalem, Jesus, murdered his brother Johannes in the temple, Bagoas (who had supported Johannes) put a new tax on the Jews and entered Ihe temple, saying that he was purer than the murderer who performed the priestly office (Joseph. Ant. id. 7.1). In 338 Bagoas killed the king and all his sons but the youngest, Arses (?.?.), whom he raised to the throne; two years later he murdered Arses and made Darius III. king. When Darius attempted to become independent of the powerful vizier (xiXfapxo*)! Bago;is tried to poison him too; but Darius was warned and forced him to drink the poison himself (Diod xvii. 5; Johann. Antloch, p. 38, 39 ed. Mullet; Arrian ii. 14. 5; Curt. vi. 4. 10). A later story, that Bagott was an Egyptian and killed ArUxerxcs III. because he had killed the sacred Apis (Aelian, Var. Hist. vi. 8), is without historical value. Bagoas' house in Susa, with rich treasures, was presented by Alexander to Parmenio (Plut. Alex, 39); his gardens in Babylon, with the best species of palms, are mentioned by Thcophraslus (Hist. Plant, U. 6; Plin. Nat. Hisl. xiii. 41). Another eunuch, Bagoas, was a favourite of Alexander the Great (Dicaearchus in Athen. xiii. 603*; Plut. Al. 67; Aelian, Var. Hitl. 3.13; Curt. vi. 5. 23; x. i. 15 ft".). (Eo. M.)
BAG-PIPE (Celt, piab-mala, ulhii-piob, cttistean, cuislia; Fr. corntmusc, chalcmic, musette, wnrdtline, fkcvrcttt, hurt; Gcr. Sackp/eife, Dudelsack; M. H. Ger. SucgilbaUk1; Ilal. cornamusa, piva, eampogna, surdelina; Gr. &<rKavtat(?}; Lat. ascaulus (?), tibia vtricularis, ulritularivm', med. Lat. chorus), a complex reed instrument of great antiquity. The bag-pipe forms the link between the syrinx (?.».) and the primitive organ, by furnishing the principle of the reservoir for the windsupply, combined with a simple method of regulating the soundproducing pressure by means of the arm of the performer. The bag-pipes consists of an air-tight leather bag having three to five apertures, each of which contains a fixed stock or short tube. The stocks act as sockets for the reception of the pipes, and as air-chambers for the accorriodntion and protection of the reeds. The pipes arc of three kinds: (0 a simple valved insufflation tube or " blow-pipe," by means of which the performer fills the bag reservoir; (2) the " chaunter " (chanter)or the mclody-ptpc, having according to the variety of the bag-pipe a conical or a cylindrical bore, lateral holes, and in some caws keys and a bell; the "chaunter" is invariably made to speak by means of a* double-reed; (3) the "drones," Jointed pipes with cylindrical bore, generally terminating in a bell, but having no Lateral holes and being capable, therefore, of producing but one fixed note.
The main characteristic of the bag-pipe is the drone ground bass which sounds without intermission. Each drone is fitted with a beating-reed resembling the primitive " squeaker " known to all country lads; it is prepared by making a cut partly across > piece of cane or reed, near the open end, and splitting back from this towards a joint or knot, thus raising a tongue or flap. The beating-reed is then fixed in a socket of the drone, which fits into the stock. The sound is produced by the stream of air forced from the bag into the drone-pipe by the pressure of the performer's arm, causing the tongue of reed to vibrate over the aperture, thus setting the whole column of air in vibration. The drone-pipe, like all cylindrical tubes with reed mouthpieces, has the acoustic properties of the closed pipe tnd produces the note of a pipe twice iu length. The drones are tuned by means of sliding-joints.
1 See E. G, Graff, />•,.'..'.. InttrKnitntrtinn d*r Ptalmtn (Tram a izth-cent. Windberg MS. at Munich), p. 384, Ps. lixx. 2. " ncnoet den Sulmen uude gebet <hn Svqpttuka.
The blow-pipe and the chaunter occupy positions at opposite extremities of the bag, which rests under the arm of the performer mhilc the drones point over his shoulder. These are the main features in the construction of the bag-pipe, whose numerous varieties fait into two classes according to the method of inflating the bag: (i) by means of the blow-pipe described above; (2) by means of a small bellows connected by a valved feed-pipe with the bag and worked by the other arm or elbow to which it is attached by a ribbon or strap.
Class I. comprises: (a) the Highland bag-pipe; (b) the old Irish bag-pipe; (<) the comcmuse; (J) the btgnou or biniou CBreton bag-pipe); i» the Calabrian bag-pipe; in the ascaulus of the Greeks and Romans; (j) the tibia utricularis; (A) the chorus. To Class i I belong: (a) Ute musette; (b) the Northumbrian or border bag-pipe; (c) the Lowland bag-pipe; (if) the union pipes of Ireland; i.-t the surdclina of Naples.
I. Tkf Highland Bag-pipe.—The construction of the Highland pipes b practically that given above. The chaunter consists of a conical wooden tube terminating in a bell and measuring from 14 10 16 in. including the reed. There are seven holes in front and one at the hack for the thumb of the left hand, which fingers the upper holes white the right thumb merely supports the instrument. The holes are stopped by the under part of the joints of the fingers. There is in addition a double hole near the bell, which is never covered, and merely serves to regulnte the pitch. As the double reed is not manipulated by the lips of the performer, only nine note* are obtained from the chaunter. as shown:—
The notes do not form any known diatonic scale, for in addition to the C and F being too sharp, the notes are not. strictly in tune with each other. Donald Mac Donald, in his treatise on the bag-pipe * cuces that " the piper is to pay no attention to the flats and sharps marked on the clef, as they are not used in pipe music; yet the ntpe imitates several different keys which are real, but ideal on the bag-pipe, as the music cannot be transposed for it into any other key than that in whirh it is first played or marked." Mr Glen, the great dealer in bag-pipes, gave it as his opinion " that if the chaunter mere to be made perfect in any one scale, it would not go well with the drones. Also, there would not be nearly ao much music produced (if you take into consideration that it has only nine invariable notes) a» at present it adapts itself to the keys of A maj., D in., j . B mm . G ma).. E min. and A min. Of course we do not mean that it has all the intervals necessary to form scale* in all those keys, but that we find it playing tunes that are in one or other of them." * Mr Ellis considers that the natural scale of the chaunter of the bag-pipe corresponds most nearly with the Arab scale of Zalzal, a celebrated lutist who died c. A.d. 800.
The three drones arc usually tutted to A, the two smallest one octave below the A of the chaunter, and the largest two octaves briow. The three principal methods of tuning the drones are shown a* follows:— i «,
A. J. Ettrs, David Gleh.* Angus Mackay.*
The excessive use of ornamental notes on the Highland bag-pipe hjs arifcn from a technical peculiarity of the instrument, wnich
make* a repetition of the same note difficult without the interpolation of what is known among pipers a« " cuts " or " warblers," i.e. grace note* fingered with great rapidity (see below for an example). These warblers, wjiich consist not only of single notes but of groups of
1 The»c harmonics may be obtained by good performers by what i» known as " pinching ' or only partially covering the B and C hole* and increasing the wind pressure.
1 The notes marked with asterisks are approximately a quarter of a ton* sharp.
1 " Complete Tutor for attaining a thorough knowledge of tnt pipe music," prefixed to A Collection t)f tkt Ancient Martial Music of CaUdania ealltd Piobaifiachd, as performed on the Great Highland Bag-pipe, Edinburgh, c. 1805.
* Paper on ** TW Musical Scales of Various Nations," by Alex. J.
from three to seven notet, not consecutive but in leaps, assist in relieving the constant discord with the drone bass. Skilful pipers have been known to introduce warblers of as many as eleven notes between two beats in a bar.
The use of musical notation for the Highland pipe tunes is a recent innovation; the pipers used verbal equivalents for the notes; for instance, the piobaireachd Coghiegh nka Skie, " War of peace," * which opens as shown here, was taken down by Capt. Niel MacLeod
from the piper John M'Crummen of Skye as verbally taught to apprentices as follows:—
"Hodroho, hodroho, haninin, hicchm,
'Hiundratatateriri. hiendatatateriri, hiundratata-
Written down this seems a mere unintelligible jumble, but could we hear it, as sounded by the pipers, with due regard for the rhythmical value of notes, it would be a very different matter. Alexander Campbell' relates that a melody had to be taken down or translated "from the syllabic jargon of illiterate pipers into musical characters, which, when correctly done, he found to his astonishment to coincide I'x.'irtly with musical notation."
A Highland bag-pipe of the 15th century, dated MCCCCIX.. in the possession of Messrs J. & R. Glen of Edinburgh, was exhibited at tne Royal Military Exhibition in London in 1890" (see fig. i (4)). There were two drones, inserted in a single stock in the form of a wide-spread fork, and tuned to A in unison with the lowest note of the chaunter, which had seven finger-holes in front and a thumb-hole at the back.
Fie. i.—(i) Cornemuse. (2) Irish bag-pipe. (3) Musette. (4) Highland bag-pipe, A.d. 1409. (5) Border bag-pipe.
(From Cant. C. R. Dtv'i Dtxriftivt CaialegHt oj Mmsuel InOnmunts txkibittl at tkt Reyal Uifoiry Exhibit**, by pcnnbtioa of Eyre & Spoubwoode.)
The old frisk Bag-pipe.—Very little is known about this instrument. It is mentioned in the ancient Brehon Laws, said to date from the jsth century (they are cited in compilations of the loth century), in describing the order of precedence of the king's bodyguard and household in the Crith Gabhlack: "Poets, harpers, pipers, horn-blowers and jugglers have their place in the south-east part of the house."" The word used for (bag-) pipers is Cttistennaigh, a word associated with reed instruments (cuiscrigh =* reeds; O'Reilly's Irish-English Dictionary, Dublin, 1864). The old Irish bag-pipe, of which we possess an illustration dated 1581," had a long conical chaunter with a bell and apparently seven holes in front and a thumb-hole behind; there were two drones of different jengths—one very long—both set in the same stock. It is exceedingly difficult to procure any accurate information concerning the development of the bag-pipe in Ireland until it assumed the present form, known as the union-pipes, which belong to Class II.
The corntmuse and cnalfmie were the bag-pipes in use in France, Italy and the Netherlands before the advent of the musette, to which they bear the same relation as the old Irish bag-pipe does to the union-pipes, or the cornemusa or pira to the tampogna or furdetina in Italy. Two kinds of cprnemuses were known in France during the i6th and I7th centuries, differing in one important structural detail, which affected the timbre of the instruments. Pdre Marin Mersonne1 has given a detailed description of these varieties and of the musette, with very clear illustrations of the instruments and all their parts. The corncmusc or chalemtc used by shepherds, and as a solo instrument (see fig. I (i) ). was similar to the Highland bag-pipe; it consisted of a leather bag, inflated by means of Pe,i( a valved blow-pipe; a large drone (gros bourdon} bounlon. 2\ ft. long included the beat ing-reed, which ~=r-'3^-z measured 2\ in., and was fixed in the stock; —•*— the small drone (petit bourdon), I ft. in length including a reed 2 in. long, also had a beating-reed and was fixed in the same stock as the chauntcr. The two druiies were tuned to C. The chauntcr had a conical bore and a double reed like an oboe, but hidden within the stock; it could be taken out and played separately, when the compass given by the eight holes (seven in front and a thumb-hole) C to C' could be increased by a third to E, by overblowing the D and E an octave by g-—-^Torr g~ pressure of the breath and lips on the rcea, —3^~.*rT: now taken directly into the mouth. The second kind of corncmuse was played only in concert with a family of instruments known as Hautbois de Poitou, a hautbois having the reed enclosed in an air-chamber, just as is the case with the reeds of the bag-pipe. Thiscornemuse had but one drone which could, like the others, be lengthened for tuning by drawing out the joint; the reed was not a beating-reed but a double reed Tike that of the chaunter; this constitutes the main difference between the two corncmuses. The chauntcr had eight holes, the lowest of which was covered by a key enclosed in a perforated box. t
The Sackpfcift or Dudtlsack of Germany was an instrument of some importance made in no less than five sizes, all described and illustrated by Michael Praetorius.* They consist of the Grower Bock or doublebass bag-pipc.afcrmidablc-looking; instrument with a singtccylindrical drone of a great length, terminating, as did the chaunter also, in a curved ram s horn (to which the name was due). The chauntcr had seven finger-holes and a vent-hole in front, and a thumb-hole at the back. The drone was tuned to G, an octave below the chaunter.
Com pan of
Praetorius also mentions a different kind of sackpfeife he saw in Magdeburg (see op. cit. Thcatrum, pi. v., No. 4), which was somewhat larger than the schaferpfcife and pitched a third lower. There were two chaunters mounted in one stock, each having three holes in front and one for the
thumb at the back. The right-hand chauntcr sounded the five notes D. E. F, G, A, and the left-hand chaunter, G, A, B, C, D. The performer was thus able to play simple two-part.melodies on the Magdeburg bag-pipe. Praetonus mentions in addition the French bag-pipe (musette), similar ia pitch to the hurnmelchen, but inflated by means of the bellows.
The Calabria* bagpipe has a bag of goatskin with the hair left on, and is inflated by means of a blow-pipe. There are two drones and two chaunters, all fixed in one stock. Bach chauntcr has three or four finger-holes and the right-hand pipe has the fourth covered by a key enclosed in a perforated box; both drones and chaunter have double reeds.
The ancient Greek bag-pipe (see Askatii.fs), and the Roman tibia utricularis, belonged to this class of instrument, inflated by the mouth, but it is not certain that they had drones Nr below, History).
II. The second class of instruments, inflated by means of a small bellows worked by the arm, has as prototype the musette (ace fig, I (3)), which is said to nave bct-n evolved during the i.vti century;1 from the end of the Ijth century there were always musette player*1 at the French court, and we find the instrument fully developed at the beginning of the 17th century when Mersermc* Rives a full description of all its parts. The chief characteristic of the musette was a certain rustic \\atteau-like grace. The face of the performer was no longer distorted by inflating the bag; for the long cumbersome drones was substituted a short barrel droner, containing the necessary lengths of tubing for four or five drones, reduced to the smallest and most compact form. The bores were pierced longitudinally through the thickness of the wood in parallel channels. communicating with each other in twos or threes and providing the requisite length for each drone. The reeds were double " hautbois" reeds all set in a wooden stock or box within the bag; by means of regulators or slides, called layettes, moving up and down in longitudinal grooves round the circumference of the barrel, the length of the drone pipes could be so regulated that a simple harmonic bass, consisting mainly of the common chord, could be obtained. The chauntcr, of narrow cylindrical bore, was also
furnished with a double reed and had eleven holes, .^ "£
four of which had keys, giving a compass of twelve n.— il'to^EEr notes from F to C. This number of holes was riot V *~^~ invariable. After Mersenne*s time, Jean Hottcterre (d. 1678), a court musician, belonging to the band known as the Juusiqtte de la Grande Ecurie,* in which he played the -;'.-..• •'•-. hautbois. introduced certain improvements in the drones of the musette.7 His son Martin Hottcterre (d. 1712) added a second chauntcr to the musette, shorter than the first, to which it was attached instead of being inserted into the stock. The Hottcterre chaunter, known as le petit ckatumeo*. had six keys, whereas the grand chaiumeau had seven, besides eight finger-holes and a vent* hole in the bell. All these keys were actuated by the little finger of the left hand and the thumb of the right hunt!, which were not required to stop holes on the large chauntcr. The grand and petit chalumeaux are figured in octnil with keys and holes in a rare and anonymous work by Borjon (or Bourgeon1), who gives much interesting information concerning one of the most popular instruments of his day. The bellows, he states, borrowed from the organ, were added to the musette about forty or fifty yean bed he wrote his treatise. The compass of the improved musette Hottcierrc was as shown:—
1 See E. Thoinan. Les Hotteterre el Its Chedevillt, cilebres facltvrs de flutes, kautbois, bassons et mHtfites (Paris. 1894), p. 23. It is probable, however, that M. Thoinan, who makes this statement, has not considered the possibility of the word musrtte Applying in this case to the small rustic hautboia or desiux de bowwirde, also written musf, musct, musele, which occurs in many ballads of the 13th, I4th and isth centuries. Sec Ft. GoUcfroy. Viitionnairt de iantienne langue Jran^aise du IX* au XV' siede (Paris, IflSfi).
4 Musettes de Poitou; probably the tort with the Hautbois de Poitou.
'Op. cit. vol. ii. bk. v. pp. 287-292.
• e * T?___-.. TI_" i __". *
the tprnemusis uicd in contort
fiaetoriui in 1618 figures and describe* the Magdeburg tackpfeife with two chaunter*. but without key* and with a conical bore. - The sufdfltna or Jamttotna is described and illustrated by Mcr•ennc1 as the musette de Kapies; its construction was very complicated. Mersennc states that the instrument was invented by Jean Baptistc Riva (who was living in Paris in 1620), Dom Julio and Mnccnzc; but Mersennc seems to have nude alterations himself in the original instrument, which arc not very clearly explained. There were two (haunters with narrow cylindrical bore and having both nnger-holes and keys; and two drones each having ten keys. The four pipes were fixed in the tame stock, and double reeds were used throughout; the bag was inflated by r of bellom-s. Paucntl of Venice published a collection of me for the zampogna in 1628, under the title of Canora Zampt>gn<-.
The modern Lfnctand bat-pipe differs from the Highland bag-pipe mainly in that it is blown by bellows instead of by the mouth.
The Northumbrian or Border ba^-tipe, also blown by means of bellows, is chiefly distinguished by having a chauntcr stopped at the lower end to that when all the holes arc closed, the pipe is silent. There are seven finger-holes, one for the thumb, and a varying Dumber of keys. The four drones are fixed in one stock and are tuned by means of stoppers, so that, as in the mu&ctte, any one of them may be silenced. A fine Northumbrian bag-pipe* from the collection of the Rev. F. W. Galpin is illustrated (fig. i. (5)).
The union pipes of the l£th century, or modern Irish bag-pipe, blown by bellows (see fig. I. U)), had one chauntcr with seven finger-hole*, one thumb-hole and ei^jjt keys, which together gave the chromatic scale in two octaves. The drones were tuned to A in different octeves, and three regulators or drones with keys, played by the elbow, produced a kind of harmony: the regulators correspond to the sliders on the drone-barrel of the musette.
History of tkt Bagpipe.—There is reason to believe that the origin of the bag-pipe must be sought in remote antiquity. No •instrument in any degree similar to it is represented on any of the monuments of Egypt or Assyria known at the present day; we are, nevertheless, able to trace it in ancient Persia and by inference in Egypt, in Chaldaea and in ancient Creec*. The most characteristic feature of the bag-pipe is not the obvious bag or air-reservoir from which the instrument derives its name in most languages, but the fixed harmony of the buzzing drones. The principle of the drone, i.t. the beatingreed sunk some three inches down the pipe, was known to the ancient Egyptians. In a pipe discovered in a mummy-case and now in the museum at Turin, was found a straw beatingreed in position. The arghoul (9.?.), a modern Egyptian instrument, possesses the characteristic feature of drone and chauntcr without the bag. The same instrument occurs once in the hieroglyphs, being sounded a*-it, and once on a mural painting preserved in the Musec Guimct and reproduced by Victor Loret.1 During Jacques de Morgan's excavations in Persia some terracotta figures of musicians, dating from the 8th century B.c., were discovered in* kit (mound) at Su&a,4 two of which appear to be playing bag-pipes; the chauntcr, curved in the. shape of a hook from the stock, is dearly visible, the bag under the arm is indicated, and the lips are pursed as if in the act of blowing, but the insufflation lube is absent; a round hole in one of the figures suggests its presence formerly.
Among the names of musical instruments in Daniel iu. 5 and 15, the sixth, generally but wrongly rendered " dulcimer," is thought by many scholars to signify a kind of bug-pipe (see commentaries on Daniel and the theological cncyc.). This belief i* baaed on the supposition that the Aramaic sumpdnyd is a loan-word from the Greek, being a mispronunciation of ffvu$wvio~ The argument is, however, exceedingly weak. In the first place, the date of the book of Daniel is matter of controversy, hingeing partly on precisely such questions as the true significance and derivation of tutnpdnyJ, Second, it is possible Lhat the word sumpdnyd is a late interpolation. Third, its exact form is uncertain1, in verse xo, sipponyd is used of the same instrument, suggesting a derivation from the Gr. oi^wv (tube or pipe). Fourth, even if cvp<buvia is the source of the word, there is very little evidence that it was used for any particular
1 Op, fit. bk. v. p. 203.
1 Illustrated and described by Capt. C. R. Day, Descriptive Cctiitoeue, jtl. ix. fig. C, p. 62.
J L'Egypte cu tempt net Pttaratms—ta vie, la stiftKe tt Cart;- atec PJtotograturei.&c. (Paris, 1889) umo. p. 139.
'S<* DMtaho* en Per*, by J. de Mocpn <F»ri*. 1900).* vol. i. pL viii.. Not. to aod 14.
instrument. The original natural sense of avuQwia is" concord of sound," "a concordant interval," and the evidence of its use for a particular instrument is of the and century B.c., and, even so, very slight. 'Only one passage (Polyb. xxvi. 10. 5) really bears on the question, and there the translation o£ the word depends on a context the reading of which is uncertain (see Syupuonia). It is, however, curious that the bag-pipe was known in Italy and Spain during the middle ages, the two countries through which Eastern culture was introduced into Europe, by the name of zampogna or sampogna, which .strongly recall the Chaldacan sumpdnyd; and further that in the same countries the word tinfonia should be coexistent with sampogna and have the original meaning attached to the classical avftiptania, " a concord of sound." A single passage .only in Dion Chrysostom (see Askaules) is enough to prove that the instrument was known in Greece in Aj>. zoo.* The Greeks had undoubtedly received some kind of bag-pipe from Egypt (in the form of the as-it), or from Chaldaea, but it remained a rustic instrument used only by shepherds and peasants. This conclusion is supported by allusions in Aristophanes and in Plato's Crito, which undoubtedly refer to the drone: u This, dear Crito, is the voice which I seem to hear murmuring hi my ears like the sound of the flute (aulas) in the ears of the mystic; that voice, I say, is humming in my ears."* Aristophanes, in his play The Ackarnians, indulges in a flight of satire at the expense of the musical Boeotians, by making a band of Theban pipers play a Boeotian merchant and his slave into. town. The musicians are dubbed "bumblebee pipers" 03oji0atXwi, L 866) by the exasperated inhabitants. The verb used here for "blowing" is ckwav, the very word anplicd to blowing or inflating the bellows u'<i<ra), and not the usual verb a&Xdj', to play the aulos. Another instrument, mentioned by Aristophanes in Lysistrata (1L1242 and 1245), which was probably a kind of bag-pipe, is also derived from <f>itra, i.e. physallis, the "concrete,"7 and pHysatcria* the "collective"* form of the instrument. We leave the realm of inference for that of certainty when we reach the reign of 'Nero, who had a passion for the Ilydraulus (see Organ! History) and the tibia vtriculoris.*
That the bag-pipe was introduced by the Romans into the British Isles is a conclusion supported by the discovery in the foundations of the praetorian camp at Kichbo rough of a small bronze figure of a Roman soldier playing the tibia utricularis. The Rev. Stephen Wcston, who made a communication on the subject to Archaeologiap points out further the interesting fact in connexion with the instrument, that the Romans had instituted colleges for training pipers on the bag-pipe, a practice followed in the Highlands in the x8th century and notably in Skyc. Grutcrus11 mentions among the fraternities a Corpus et Collegium I 'tritu/ii. inrutn, and Sjxm11 also quotes the Collegia Ulricular. The bag-pipe in question appears to have two drones in front pointing towards the right shoulder, and although no chaunter is shown in the design, both hands are held in correct positions over the spot where it ought to be; it may have been broken off. The bronze figure has been reproduced from drawings by Edward King in three positions." The statement made by several writers on music that a bag-pipe is represented on a contomiatc of Nero is erroneous, as a verification of certain references will show.14 The error is due in. the first place to
•Dion Cl ysostom, ed. Adolphus Emperius (Brunswick, 1844), p. 728 or Ixxi. (R) 381. See Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, i.v. 'Askaulcs."
154. B. Jowett's Eng. translation (Oxford, 1892).
1A suggestion the writer owes to Mr G. Barwick of the British Museum.
* See " Researches into the Origin of the Organs of the Ancients." by Kathleen Schlesingcr, Sammelband ii. Intern. Musik. Cet^\o\. n. 1901, pp. 188-202.
* Suetonius, Nero, 54 (5. Clarke's translation and text).
* Archaeologia, vol. xvji. pp. 176-179 (London. 1814).
11 Inscription** antiquae toiius orbis romani (Heidelberg* 160?1603!.
11 Aftscell. erudU. antiguitatit.
"Muniwntti anliqua, vol. ii. (London. I?99). P- «. pi. XX. fig. 3
14 See Montfaucon, Suppl. de Tun tig. expliqvic. vol. lii. pi. Ixxiii., Noa. I and 3, and explanation p. 189; Francesco Biaochini, d*