« السابقةمتابعة »
Montfaucon, who misunderstood the explanation oi Bianchini's drawing which he reproduced. The contornutc referred to is one containing the hydraulic organ, and the legend Laureatinus Aug., but no bag-pipe. Bianchini gives a drawing of a bag-pipe with two long drones, which, he says, was copied from a marble relief over the gateway of the palace of the prince of Santa Croce in Rome, near the church of San Carlo ad Catinarios. If the drawing be accurate and the sculpture of classical Roman period, it would corroborate the details of the instrument held by the little bronze figure of the Roman soldier.
From England the bag-pipe spread to Caledonia and Ireland, where it took root, identifying itself with the life of the people, as a military instrument held in great esteem by the Celtic races. The bag-pipe was used at weddings and funerals, and at all festivals; to lighten labour, during the iSth century, as for instance in Skyc, in 1786, when the inhabitants were engaged in roadmaking, and each party of labourers had its bag-piper. It was used in old mysteries at Coventry in r 534. Readers who wish to follow closely the history of the bag-pipe in the British Isles should consult Sir John Graham'DalyeU's Musical Memoirs tf Scotland (London, 1849. with illustrative plates).
On the downfall of the Roman empire, the bag-pipe, sharing the fate of' other instruments, probably lingered -for a time among itinerant musicians, actors, jugglers, &c., reappearing later in primitive guise with the stamp of naitetl which characterizes the productions of the early middle ages, and with a-ncw name, chorus (?.r.). An illustration of a Persian bag-pipe dating from the 6th century AJ>. (reign of Chosrocs II.) is to be found on. the great arch at Takht-i-Bostan (see fig. 2). This very ""<k representation of the bag.pipe can only be useful as evidence that during the fourteen centuries which elapsed between the moulding of the figurine found in the lell at Susa, mentioned above, and the carving in the rock at Takht-i-Bostan, the instrument had survived. The reign of Chosroes was noted for its high standard of musical culture. The fault probably lies with the draughtsman,- who drew the sculptures on the arch for the book. Nothing more is heard henceforth of the tibia <>t i h ul. u is. If the drawings of the .early medieval bag-pipes, which are by no means rare in MSS. and monuments' of the olh to the ijth century, are to be trusted, it seems bard to understand the raison d'etre of the instrument shorn of its drones, to sec how it justified its existence except as an ill-understood reminiscence. What could be the object of laboriously inflating a bag for the purpose of making a single chaunlcr speak, which could be done so much more satisfactorily by taking the reed itself into the mouth, as was the practice of the Greeks and Romans? There is a fine psalter in the Library of University Court, Glasgow,1 belonging to the Huntcrian collection, in which King David is represented, as usual in the 1 2th century, playing or rather tuning a harp, surrounded by musicians playing bells, rebec, guitar fiddle (in 'cello position), quadruple pipes or ganistrum, and a bag-pipe with long chauntcr having a welldefined stock. The insufflation tube appears to have been left out, and there are no drones to be seen.
There are interesting specimens of bag-pipes in Spanish illuminated MSS. such as the magnificent volume of the Canligas it Santa Maria, in the Escurial, compiled for King Alphonso the Wise ( i ith century). There are fifty-one separate figures of instrumentalists forming a kind of introduction to the canticles, and among the instruments are three bag-pipes, one of which is a remarkable instrument having no lest than four long drones and two chaunters which by an error of the draughtsmen are repretribui gfncritnti instr. tntu. vettrum. Romae, \"\.'. pi. ii . No*. 12 and 13, ana p. II ; Suetonius, Vilae Neronis, cd. Charles Patin, cap. 41,' p. 304, where the contorniate in question, whose musical instrument differs essentially from Hianchini s and Mnntfaucon's. is figured.
> See Catalogue of the Exhibition of Illuminated MSS; at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908, No. j i
sentcd as being blown from the piper's mouth. The fifty-one musicians have been reproduced in black and white by Juan F. Riaflo* and also by Don F. Aznar.1 Another fine Spanish MS. in the British Museum, Add. MS. 18,851, of the end of the i -un century, illustrated by Flemish artists for presentation to Queen Isabella, displays a profusion of musical instruments in innumerable concert scenes; there are bag-pipes on i. i;, 11 .'•• and 419; one of these has two drones, one conical, the other cylindrical, bound together, and a curved chauntcr.
The most trustworthy evidence we have of the medieval bag-pipe is the fine Highland bag-pipe dated 1409, and belonging to Messrs J. & R. Glen, described above. Edward Buhlc' points out that from the I3th century the bag-pipe became a court instrument played by minnesingers and troubadours, as seen in literature and in i he MSS. and monuments. It was about 1250 that the human or animals' heads were used as stocks and as bells for the chauntcrs. The opinion advanced that the bellows were first added to the bag-pipe in Ireland seems untenable and is quite unsupported by facts; the bellows were in all probability added to the union-pipes in imitation of the musette. In the Image of Ireland and Discnerie o] Woodkarnt, by John Derrick, 1581, the Irish insurgents are portrayed in pictures full of life and character, as led to rebellion and pillage by a piper armed with a bag- pipe, similar to the Highland bag-pipe. The cradle of the musette is inconceivable anywhere but in France, among the courtiers and elegant world, turning from the pomps and luxuries of court life to an artificial admiration and cult of Nature, idealized to harmonize with silks and satins. The corncmusc of shepherds and rustic swains became the fashionable instrument, but as inflating the bag by the breath distorted the performer's face, the- bellows were substituted, and the whole instrument was refined, in appearance and tone-quality to fit it for its more exalted position. The Holteterrc family and that of Chcdcvillc were past masters of the art of making the musette and of playing upon it; they counted among their pupils the highest and noblest in the land. The cult of the musette con* tinucd throughout the 17th and i8th centuries until the 'seventies, when its popularity was on the wane and musettes figured largely in sales.* Lully introduced the musette into his operas, and in 1758 the list of instruments forming the orchestra at the Opera includes one musette.*
Illustrations of bag-pipes are found In the miniatures of the following MSS. in the Bnii»h Muwum.—2 D. VII. I, 19} and 197; Add. MS. 34,194 (the Sforta Book), t. 61, vol. U; Burncy, 275. f. 715; Add, MS. 17,280, f. 236'; Add. MS. 24,686 (7Y»nyjoii Psallcrl. I. 17"; Add. MS. 17,280, f. 82"; Add. MS. 34,681, f. 44; Add. MS. 32,454: Add. MS. 11,867, f. 38; &c. &C. (K. S.)
BAGRATION, PETER, Prince (1765-1812), Russian general, descended from the noble Georgian family of the Bagratides. was born in 1765. He entered the Russian army in 1782, and served for some years in the Caucasus. He was engaged in the siege of Ochakov (1788), and In the Polish campaign of 1794, being present at the taking of Praga and Warsaw. His merits were recognized by Suvarov, whom he accompanied in t he Italian and Swiss campaign of 1799, winning particular distinction by the capture of the town of Brescia. In the wan of 1805 Ms achievements were even more brilliant. With a small rearguard he successfully resisted the repealed attacks of forces five times his own numbers (Hollabrunn), and though half bis men fell, the retreat of tht main army under Kutusov was thereby secured. At Austerlitz he was engaged against the left-wing of the French army, under Murat and Lannes, and at Eylau, Heil&berg and Friedland he fought with the most resolute and stubborn courage. In iSoS by a daring march across the frozen Gulf of Finland he captured the Aland Islands, and in 1809 be commanded against the Turks at the battles of Rassowa and Tauritza. In 1811 he
• Notes of Early Spanish Music (London, 1887), pp. HO and ill. •• ldnmftttorio Estxiftola (Madrid, 1880).
• Die mutilutiscken InslnmenU in tat ttimiaturm fit fiUken Mitlclalters, p. 50 (Leipzig, 1003).
1 An interesting pamphlet by Eugene <le BricoueviUe, Les Uuiatrs (Paris, 1894), p. 36, with illustrations.
'See Antoiot V: I,i. La Irammals d ttcktt (Paris, T8; 11. vol I p. 81, note l.
commanded the 2nd army of the West, and though defeated it Mogilev f; trd July), rejoined the main army under Barclay, and led the left wing at Borodino (7th Sept.), where he received a mortal wound. A monument was erected in his honour by the tsar Nicholas 1. on the battlefield of Borodino.
BAGSHOT BEOS, in geology, a series of sands and clays of shallow-water origin, some being fresh-water, some marine. They belong to the upper Eocene formation of the London and Hampshire basins (England), and derive their name from Bagshot Heath in Surrey; but they are also well developed in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. The following divisions are generally accepted:—
Upper Bag&hot Bedf Barton sand, and Barton clay.
Middle _ „ Bracltlciham I.-.I..
Lower ,, .. Bournemouth beds, Alum Bay beds,
and Bovcy Tracey beds (?).
'The lower division consists-of pale-yellow, current-bedded sand and loam, with layers of pipeclay and occasional beds of flint pebbles. In the London basin, wherever the junction of the Bagshot beds with the London clay Is exposed, it is clear that no sharp line can be drawn between these formations. The Lower Bagshot beds may be observed at Brcntwood, Billcricay and Highbecch in Essex; outliers, capping hills of London clay, occur at Hampstead, Highgatc and Harrow. In Surrey considerable tracts of London clay are covered by heath-bearing Lower Bagshot beds, as at Weybridge, Aldcrshot, Woking, &c. The "Ramsdcll clay," N. W. of Basingstokc, belongs to this formation. In the Isle of Wight the lower division is well exposed at Alum Bay Id'a ft.) and White Cliff Bay (140 ft.); here it consists of unfossilifcrous sands (white, yellow, brown, crimson and every intermediate shade), and days with layers of lignite and ferruginous sandstone. Similar beds are visible at Bournemouth, and in the neighbourhood of Poolc, Wareham, Corfc and Studland.
The leaf-bearing clays of Alum Bay and Bournemouth are well known, and have yielded a large and interesting scries of plant remains, including Eucalyptus, Caesalpinia, Populus, Plalanus, Sequoia, Arolia, Polypodium, Osmundo, NipaJitrs and many others. The sands and clays of Bovey Tracey (see Bovey Beds) are probably of the same age. The clays of this formation are of great value for pottery manufacture; they are extensively mined in the vicinity of Wareham and Corfe, whence they are shipped from Poolc and are consequently known as "Poole days"; similarly, "Tcignmoulh clay" is obtained from the Bovcy beds. Alum was formerly obtained from the clays of Alum Bay; and the lignites have been used as fuel near Corfc and at Bovey.
The Bracklcsham beds (?.t.) are sometimes classed with the overlying Barton clay as Middle Bagshot. In the London basin the Barton beds arc unknown. In Surrey and Berkshire the Bracklesham beds arc from 20 to 50 ft thick; in Alum Bay they are 100 ft., with beds of lignite in the lower portion; and about here they are sharply marked off from the Barton day by a bed of conglomerate formed of flint pebbles. The Upper Bagshot beds, Barton sand and Barton clay, are from 140 to 300 ft. thick in the Isle of Wight.
The Agglestone (or Haggcrstonc) rock and Puckstonc rock, near Studland in Dorsetshire, arc formed of large indurated masses of the Lower Bagshot beds that have resisted the weather; Crecchbarrow near Corfc is another striking feature due to the same beds. Many of the sarsen stones or grcywcthers of S.E. England have been derived from Bagshot strata.
See Uftnoirt cf ttu Ceotofical Sunty (England):—" Geology of the I*lc of Wight." new edition (1889); " Tnc Geology of London and Part of the Thames Valley," vol. i. (1889); and The Geology ol the Country Around Bournemouth " (1808).
BAHADUR KHEL, an Indian salt-mine in the Koh.it district of the North-West Frontier Province, in the range of hills south of the village of Bahadur Khel between Kohat and Bannu. For a tpace of 4 m. in length by a quarter of a mile in breadth therr exists an exposed mass of rock-salt with several large hillocks of salt on either side. The quarries extend over an area 1 m. long by half a mile broad, and the salt is hewn out in largt blocks with picks and wedges. The Indian government
formerly maintained a large preventive establishment for the preservation of the revenue, but ft was withdrawn in 1808. Consumption of Kohat salt is restricted, on account of its paying less duty, to the tracts lying to the north of the Indus and to the frontier tribes. In 1003 the rate'was fixed at K.il per maund, against R.2 for the rest of India. The mines arc under the control of the Northern India Salt Department.
BAHADUR SHAH I., a Mogul emperor of Hindustan, A.d. 1707-1712, the son and successor of Aurangzcb. At the time of the latter's death his eldest surviving son, Prince Muazim, was governor of Kabul, and in his absence the next brother, Azam Shah, assumed the functions of royalty. Muazim came down from Kabul, and with characteristic magnanimity offered to share the empire with his brother. Azam would not accept the proposal and was defeated and slain on the plains of Agra. Muazim then ascended the throne under the title of Bahadur Shah. He was a man of 64 and died live years later. During his lifetime the empire was already falling to pieces before the inroads of the Sikhs and Mahrattas, and through internal dissensions.*
BAHADUR SHAH II., the last of the Mogul emperors of Hindustan, 1837-1857. He was a titular emperor only, since from the time of the defeat of Shah Alam at Buxar in 1764 all real power had resided with the East India Company; but all proclamations were still worded under "The King's Realm and the Company's rule." His sole importance is due to the use made of his name during the Mutiny of '$57. Always feeble in character, he was at that time old, and, from the first, was wholly at the mercy of the mutinous soldiery in Delhi, who were controlled by a council called the Barah Topi, or Twelve Heads. His papers, seized after the fall of Delhi, are full of senile complaint of the disrespect and discourtesy which he suffered from them. At the time of the assault he fled to the Tomb of Humayun, 6 m. from Delhi, where he was captured by Major Hudson. In January 1858 he was brought to trial for rebellion and for complicity in the murder of Europeans. The trial lasted more than two months. The substance of the king's defence was that he had been a mere instrument in the hands of the mutineers. On the 2gth of March he was found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment for life. He was transported to Rangoon, and died there on the 7th of November 1862.
BAHAMAS i/:i,.:>.•'. an archipelago of the British West Indies. It is estimated to consist of 29 islands, 661 cays and 2387 rocks, and extends along a line from Florida on the northwest to Haiti on the south-east, between Cuba and the open Atlantic, over a distance of about 630 m.. from 80° 50' to 72° 50' W., and 22° 25* to 26° 40' N. The total land area is estimated at 5450 sq. m., of which the main islands occupy 4424 sq. m., and the population was 43,521 in 1881 and 53,735 in 1901. Some 12,000 of these are whites, the remainder coloured. The main islands and groups, beginning from the north-west, are as follows: Little and Great Abaco, with Great Bahama to the west; Eleuthcra (a name probably corrupted from the Spanish Isla de Titrra), Cat, Watling, or Guanahani, and Rum Cay on the outer line towards the open ocean, with New Providence, the Exuma chain and Long Island forming an inn- r line to the west, and still farther west Andros (named from Sir Edmund Andros, governor of Massachusetts, &c., at the close of the 17th century; often spoken of as one island, but actually divided into several by narrow straits); and finally the Crooked Islands, Mayaguana and Inagua. The Turks and Caicos islands continue the outer line, and belong geographically to the archipelago, but not politically. The surrounding seas arc shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels—the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-wesfc'in islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a deprussion known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba. The Andros islands have a length of 05 m. and an area of 1600 sq. m.; Great Abaco is 70 m. long and its area la 680 sq. m.; Great Inagua it 34 m. long with an area of 530 sq. m., and Grand Bahama 66 m., with an area of 430 sq. m. But the most important island, as containing the capital, Nassau, is New Providence, which is only 19} m. in length, with an area of 85 sq. m. This island supported a population in loot of 12,534. In point of population the next most important islandisEleuthera (8733)1 followed by the Andros Islands (5347) and Cat Island (4658). The Abaco and Exuma groups and Long Island each support populations exceeding 3000, and there are smaller populations on Grand Bahama, the Crooked Islands, Inagua, Mayaguana, Walling, Rum Cay and the Biminis, though these last, which are two very small north-western islands, arc relatively densely populated with 545 persons.
Physical Geography.—-The islands arc of coral formation and low-lying. The rock on the surface is as hard as flint, but underneath it gradually softens and furnishes an admirable stone for building which can be sawn into blocks of any size, hardening on exposure to the atmosphere. The highest hill in the whole range of the islands (in Cat Island) is only 400 ft. high. It is a remarkable fact that, except in the island of Andros, no streams of running water are to be found in the whole group. The inhabitants derive their water supply from wells. As~ a result of the porosity of the rock, many of the wells feel the influence of the sea and .exhibit an ebb and flow. There is an extensive swampy lagoon in Eleuthera, the water of which is fresh or nearly so; and brackish lagoons also occur, as in Walling Island. An artificial lake in New Providence, constructed for the use of the turtle-catchers, is noted as exhibiting an extraordinary degree of phosphorescence. A remarkable natural phenomenon is that of the so-called " banana holes," which frequently occur in the limestone. Their formation has been attributed to the effect of rotting vegetation on the rock, but without certainty. These holes arc of various depths up to about 40 ft, and of curiously regular form. The Mermaid's Pool in New Providence, which is deeper still, is partly filled with water.
Geology.—The Bahamas consist almost entirely of aeolian deposits (cf. Bermudas) and coral reefs. The aeolian deposits, which forovthe greater part of :he islands, frequently .rise in rounded hills and ridges to a height of 100 or 200 ft., and in Cat Island nearly 400 ft. They vary in texture from a fine-grained compact oolite to a coarse-grained rock composed of angular or rounded fragments, and they commonly exhibit strongly marked false bedding. The material is largely calcareous, and has probably been derived from the disintegration of the reefs, and from the shells of animals living in the shallows. When freshly exposed the rock is soft, but by the action of rain and sea it becomes covered with a hard crust. The surface is often remarkably honeycombed, and the rock weathers into pinnacles, pillars and arches of extraordinary shapes. On the island of Andros there is an extremely fine white marl almost resembling a chalky ooze. The coral reefs arc of especial interest from their bearing on the genera! question of the formation of coral reefs.
Nassau.—The scenery of the islands is picturesque, gaining beauty from the fine colouring of the sea and the rich vegetation. Nassau is a winter health-resort for many visitors from the United States and Canada. The town lies on a safe harbour on the north shore of New Providence, sheltered by the small Hog Island. There is a depth of 14 ft. at low-water spring-tide on the bar. The town extends along the shore, and up a slightly elevated ridge behind it. It contains the principal public buildings, and some interesting old forts, dating from the middle and close of the iSth century, though the subterranean works below Fort Charlotte arc attributed to an earlier period. From the same century dates the octagonal building which, formerly a gaol, now contains a good public library. The sea-bathing is excellent. The months of February and March arc the principal season for visitors. There is direct connexion with New York by steamers, which make the journey in about four days; and there is also connexion with Miami in Florida.
Climate, Flora^ Fauna.—The climate of the Bahamas adds to their attractions.' The mean temperature of the hottest months (June to September) it 88° !•'.. and that of the coldest (January to March ) 66°. In a series of observations of winds about one
half have been found to indicate a direction from north-east or cast. Hurricanes occur from July to October, and May to October are reckoned as the rainy months. The rainfall recorded in 1901 at Nassau amounted to 63*32 in. Where a mantle of soil covers the rock it is general'/ thin but very ferule. A well-defined area in Xcw - Providence is known as the "pine barrens," from the tree which principally grows in this rocky soil. Elsewhere three types of soil are distinguished—a black soil, of decayed vegetable matter, where the land is under forest, a reddish clay, and a white soil occurring along the shores. Andros Island and the Abaco Islands may be specially noted for their profusion of large timber, including mahogany, mastic, lignum vilae, iron and bullet woods, and many others. Unfortunately the want both of labour and of roads renders it impossible to turn much of this valuable timber to useful account, although attempts have been made to work it in Abaco. The fruits and spices of the Bahamas are very numerous, the fruit equalling any in the world. The produce of the islands includes tamarinds, olives, oranges, lemons, limes, citrons, pomegranates, pine-apples, figs, sapodillas, bananas, sour-sops, melons, yams, potatoes, gourds, cucumbers, pepper, cassava, prickly pears, sugar-cane, ginger, cofleer indigo, Guinea corn and pease. Tobacco and xascarilla bark also nourish; and cotton is indigenous and was woven into doth by the aborigines. But although oranges, pine-apples and some other fruits form important articles of commerce, it is only rarely that systematic and thorough methods of cultivation arc prosecuted. Cotton has been found to suffer much from insect pests. Sisal is grown in increasing quantity. The Bahamas arc far poorer in their fauna than in their flora. It is said that the Aborigines had a breed of dogs which did not bark, and a small coney is also mentioned. The guana also is indigenous to the islands. Oxen, sheep, horses and other live-stock introduced from Europe thrive well, but little attention U paid to stock-rearing. There are many varieties of birds to be found in the woods of the Bahamas; they include flamingoes and the beautiful hummingbird, as well as wild geese, ducks, pigeons, hawks, green parrots and doves. -The waters of the Bahamas swarm with fish; the turtle procured here is particularly fine, and the sponge fishery is of importance. In some islands there arc rich salt ponds, but their working has decreased. The portion of Nassau harbour known as the Sea Gardens exhibits an extraordinarily beautiful development of marine organisms.
Government, Trade, &c.—The colony of the Bahamas is under a British governor, who is assisted by an executive council of nine members, partly official, partly unofficial; and by a legislative council of nine members nominated by the crown. There is also a legislative assembly of 29 members, representing 15. electoral districts; the franchise being extended to white and coloured men of 21 years of age at least, resident in the colony for not less than twelve months, and possessing land of a value of £5 or more, or being householders for six months at a rental not less than £2 : i8s. in New Providence, or £i :45. in other islands. The members' qualification is the possession of real or personal estate to the value of £200. The average annual revenue and expenditure may be set down at about £75,000, expenditure somewhat exceeding revenue. There is a public debt of about £105,000. The average annual value of imports is somewhat over £300,000, and of exports £300,000. The average annual tonnage of shipping, entering and clearing, exceeds 1,000,000. The government supports elementary free schools, controlled by a nominated board of education, while committees partly elected exercise local supervision. There are higher schools and a Queen's College in Nassau. . Nassau is I he seat of abishopric of the Church of England crvated in iHfii. The Bahamas are without railways, but there art: good roads in New Providence, and a few elsewhere. A cable connect* Nassau with West Jupiter in Florida.
History,—The story of the Bahamas is a singular one, and bears principally upon the fortunes of New Providence, which, from the fact that it alone possesses a perfectly safe harbour for vessels drawing; more than 9 ft., baa always been the teat oL government when it was not the headquarters of lawlessness. San Salvador, however, claims historical precedence as the landfall of Columbus on his memorable voyage. Cat Island was long supposed to be the island first reached by Columbus (12th October 1492) and named by him San Salvador. Then the distinction was successively transferred to the neighbouring Walling, Great Turk, and Mariguana; but in 1880 the American marine surveyor, G. V. Fox. identified San Salvador, on seemingly good grounds, with Samana (Alwood Cay), which licsabout midway between Watling and Mariguana. The chief difficulty is its size, for, if Samana is the true San Salvador, it must have been considerably larger then than now. Watling Island is generally accepted as the landfall. • .inly part «l the desert beyond this strip of fertility both men and beasts, leaving the beaten path, sink as if in loose snow. Here* too. the sand it raised into ever-changing hills by The force of the wind sweeping over it. In those parts o7 the desert which have a hard level soil of clay, a few stunted mimosas, acacias and other shrubs are produced, together with rue, various bitter and aromatic plants, and occasionally tufts of grass. Much of the soil of the desert appears to be alluvial; there are numerous traces of streams having formerly passed over it, and still, where irrigation is at all practicable, fertility in the clayey tract follows; but the rains are scanty, the wells few and generally loo ft. deep or more,"
Columbus passed through the islands, and in one of his letters to Ferdinand and Isabella he said," This country excels all others as far as the day surpasses the night in splendour; the natives love their neighbours as themselves; their conversation is the sweetest imaginable; their faces always smiling; and so gentle and so affectionate are they, that I swenr to your highness there is not a belter people in the world." But the natives, innocent as they appeared, were doomed to utter destruction. Ovando, the governor of Hispaniola (Haiti), who had exhausted the labour of that island, turned his thoughts to the Bahamas, and in 1509 Ferdinand authorized him to procure labourers from these islands. It is said that reverence and love for their departed relatives was a marked feature in the character of the aborigines, and that the Spaniards made use of this as a bait to trap the unhappy natives. They promised to convey the ignorant savages in their ships to the" heavenly shores " where their departed friends now dwelt, and about 40,000 were transported to Hispaniola to perish miserably in the mines. From that date, until after the colonization of New I'rovidcnce by the British, there is no record of a Spanish visit to the Bahamas, with the exception of the extraordinary cruise of Juan Ponce dc Leon, the conqueror of Porto Rico, who passed months searching the islands for llimini, which was reported to contain the miraculous " Fountain of Youth." This is in South Bimini, and has still a local reputation for healing powers.
It is commonly stated that in 1629 the British formed a settlement in New Providence, which they held till 1641, when the Spaniards expelled them. This, however, refers to the Providence Island off the Mosquito Coast; it was only in 1646 that Elcuthera was colonized, and in 1666 New Providence, by settlers from the Bermudas. In 1670 Charles II. made a grant of the islands to Christopher, duke of Albemarle, and others. Governors were appointed by the lords proprietors, and there are copious records in the state papers of the attempts made to develop the resources of the islands. But the buccaneers or pirates who had made their xetreat here offered heavy opposition; in 1680 there was an attack by the Spaniards, and in July 1703 the French and Spaniards made a descent on New Providence, blew up the fort, spiked the guns, burnt the church and carried off the governor, with the principal inhabitants, to Havana. In October the Spaniards made a second descent and completed the work of destruction. It is said that when the last of the governors appointed by the lords proprietors, in ignorance of the Spanish raid, arrived in New Providence, he found the island without an inhabitant. It again, however, became the resort of pirates, and the names of many of the wont of these ruffians arc associated with New Providence; the notorious Edward Teach, called Blackboard, who was afterwards killed in action against two American ships in 1718, being chief among the number.
At last matters became so intolerable that the merchants of London and Bristol petitioned the crown to take possession and restore order, and Captain Woodcs Rogers was sent out as the first crown governor and arrived at New Providence in 1718. Many families of good character now settled at the Bahamas, and some progress was made in developing the resources of the colony, although this was interrupted by the tyrannical conduct of some of the governors who succeeded Captain Woodrs Rogers. At this time the pine-apple was introduced as an article of cultivation at Eleuthera; and a few years subsequently, during
the American war of independence, colonists arrived in great numbers, bringing with them wealth and also slave labour. Cotton cultivation was now attempted on a large scale. In 1783, at Long Island, 8co slaves were at work, and nearly 4000 acres of land under cultivation. But the usual bad luck of the Bahamas prevailed; the red bug destroyed the cotton crops in 1788 and again in 1794, and by the year i Soo cotton cultivation was almost abandoned. There were also other causes that tended to retard the progress of the colony. In 1776 Commodore Hopkins, of the American navy, took the island of New Providence; he soon, however, abandoned it as untenable, but in 1781 it was retaken by the Spanish governor of Cuba. The Spaniards retained nominal possession of the Bahamas until 1783, but before peace was notified New Providence was recaptured by a loyalist, Lieutenant-Colonel Deveaux, of the South Carolina militia, in June 1783.
In i~&4 and 1786 sums were voted in parliament to indemnify the descendants of the old lords proprietors, and the islands were formally rcconveyed to the crown. The Bahamas began again to make a little progress, until the separation of Turks and Caicos Islands in 1848, which had been hitherto the most productive of the salt-producing islands, unfavourably affected the 6nanccs. Probably the abolition of the slave-trade in 1834 was not without its effect upon the fortunes of the landed proprietors. The next event of importance in the history of the Bahamas was the rise of the blockade-running trade, consequent on the closing of the southern ports of America by the Federals in 1861. At the commencement of 1865 this trade was at its highest point. In January and February 1865 no less than 20 steamers arrived at Nassau, importing 14,182 bales of cotton, valued at £554,675. The extraordinary difference between the normal trade of the islands and that due to blockade-running will be seen by comparing the imports and exports before the closing of the southern ports in 1860 with those of 1864. In the first year the imports were £234,029, and the exports £157,350, while in the second year the imports were £5,346,112, and the exports £4,672,308. The excitement, extravagance and waste existing at Nassau during the days of blockade-running exceed belief. Individuals may have profited largely, but the Bahamas probably benefited little. The government managed to pay its debt amounting to £43,786, but crime increased and sickness became very prevalent. The cessation of the trade was marked, however, by hardly any disturbance; there were no local failures, and in a few months the steamers and their crews departed, and New Providence subsided into its usual state of quietude. This, however, was not fated to last long, for in October 1866 a most violent hurricane passed over the island, injuring the orchards, destroying the fruit-trees, and damaging the sponges, which had proved hitherto a source of profit. The hurricane, too, was followed by repeated droughts, and the inhabitants of the out-islands were reduced to indigence and want, a condition which is still, in some measure, in evidence.
See the valuable General Descriptive Report on the Bahama Islands, by Sir G. T. Carter (governor, 1898^1904), issued in place of the ordinary annual report by the Colonial Office, London, 1902; also Governor K. W. Rawson's Report. 1866; Stark's History and Guide to the Bahama Islands (Boston, Mass., 1891); Bahama Islands (Geog. Soc. of Baltimore), ed. G. B. Shattuck (New York, 1905). For geolojry see A. Agassiz, A Reconnaissance of the Bahamas and of the Elevated ReeJsof Cuba in the steam yacht' Wild Duck,' January to April 1893," Hull. -I/us. Camp. Zoo!. Harvard, vol. xxvi. no. I, 1894.
BAHAWALPUR, or Bhawalpui, a native state of India, within the Punjab, stretching for more than 300 m. along the left bank of the Sutlej, the Punjnud and the Indus. It is bounded on the N. and E. by Sind and the Punjab, and on the S. by the Rajputana desert. It is the principal Mahommedan state in the Punjab, ranking second only to Paliala. Edward Thornton thus described the general aspect of the state:—
"Bahawalpur U a remarkably level country, there being no considerable eminence within itr limits, as the occasional sand-nills,
The area covers 15,918 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 710,877, showing an increase of n % on the previous decade; estimated gross revenue, £146,700; there is no tribute. The chief, whose UUe is nawab, is a Mahommcdan of the Daudputra family from Sind, and claims descent from Abbas, uncle of the Prophet. The dynasty established its independence of the Afghans towards the end of the iSth century, and made a treaty with the British in 1838 to which it has always been loyal The benefits of canal irrigation were introduced in the 'seventies, and the revenue thus doubled. The territory is traversed throughout its length by the North-Wcstcm and Southern Punjab railways. There are an arts college and Anglo-vernacular schools.
The town of Bahawalpur is situated near the left bank of the Sutlej, and has a railway station 65 m. from Mooluin. It has a magnificent palace, which is visible from far across the Bikanir desert; it was built in 1881 by Nawab Sadik Mahommed Khan. Pop. (1901) 18,546.
BAHIA, an Atlantic state of Brazil, bounded N. by the states of Piauhy, Pernambuco and Sergipe, E. by Scrgipe and the Atlantic, S. by Espirito Santo and Minas Geraes, and \V. by Minas Geraes and Goyaz. Its area is 164,650 sq. m., a great part of which is an arid barren ckapada (plateau), traversed from S. to N. and N.E. by the drainage basin of the Sao Francisco river, and having a general elevation of 1000 to 1700 ft. above that river, or 2300 to 3000 ft. above sea-level. On the \V. the chapada, with an elevation of 2300 ft. and a breadth of 60 m., forms the western boundary of the state and the water-parting between the Sao Francisco and the Tocantins. East of the Sao Francisco it may be divided into three distinct regions: a rough limestone plateau rising gradually to the culminating ridges of the Serra da Chapada; a gneissose plateau showing eitensive exposures of bare rock dipping slightly toward the coast; and a narrower plateau covered with a compact sandy soil descending to the coastal plain. The first two have a breadth of about 200 m. each, and are arid, barren and inhospitable, eicept at the dividing ridges where the clouds from the sea are deprived of some of their moisture. The third zone loses its arid character as it approaches the coast, and is better clothed with vegetation. The coastal plain varies in width and character: in some places low and sandy, or swampy, filled with lagoons and intersecting canals; in others more elevated, rolling and very fertile. The climate corresponds closely to these surface features, being hot and dry throughout the interior, hot and humid, in places unhealthy, along the coast. Cattle-raising was once the principal industry in the interior, but has been almost extinguished by the devastating droughts and increasing aridity caused by the custom of annually burning over the campos to improve the grass. In the agricultural regions sugar, cotton, tobacco, cacao, coffee, mandioca and tropical fruits arc produced. The exports also include hides, mangabeira rubber, piassava fibre, diamonds, cabinet woods and rum. The population is largely of a mixed and unprogrcssivc character, and numbered 1,019,802 in 1890. There is but little immigration and the vegetative increase is low. The capital, Sao Salvador or Bahia (?.».), which a one of the principal cities and ports of Brazil, is the export town for the Reconcavo, as the fertile agricultural district surrounding the bay is called. The principal cities of the state are Alagoinhas and Bom Pirn (formerly Villa Nova da Rainba) on the main railway line running N. to the Sao Francisco, Cachoeira and Santo Amaro near the capital in the Reconcavo, Caravellas and Ilheos on the southern coast, with tolerably good harbours, the former being the port for the Bahia t Minas railway, Feira de Santa Anna an the border of the strife ud tang nlebrated lot
its cattle fairs, and Jacobina, an inland town N.W. of the opilal, on the slopes of the Scrra da Chapada, and noted for Us mining industries, cotton and tobacco. The stale ol Bahia includes four of the original captaincies granted by the Portuguese crown —Bahia, Paraguassu, Ilheos and Porto Seguro, all of which reverted to the direct control of that government in 1549. During the war with Holland several efforts were made to conquer this captaincy, but without success. In 1823 Bahia became a province of the empire, and in 1889 a state in the republic. Its government consists of a governor elected for four years, and a general assembly of two chambers, the senators being elected for six years and the deputies for two years. (A. J. L.)
BAHIA, or SXo Salvador, a maritime city of Brazil and capital of the stale of Bahia, situated on the Bay of All Saints (Bahia de Toimos Santos), and on the western side of the peninsula separating that bay from the Atlantic, in 13* S. lat. and 38* 30" W. long. Pop. (1800) 174,412; (est. 1900) 200.00 The commercial section of the city occupies a long, narrow beach between the water-line and bluffs, and contains the arsenal, exchange, custom-house, post-office, railway station, market and principal business houses. It has narrow streets badly paved and drained, and made still more dirty and offensive by the surface drainage of the upper town. Communication with the upper town is effected by means of two elevators, a. circular tramway, and steep zigzag roads. The upper town is built on the western slope of a low ridge, the backbone of the peninsula, and rises from the edge of the bluffs to altitudes of 200 to 260 ft. above the sea-level, affording magnificent views of the bay and its islands. There are wider streets, comfortable residences, and attractive gardens in this part of the city. Here also are to be found the churches, schools, theatres, asylums, and hospitals, academies of law and medicine, governor's palace, public library, and museum, and an interesting pubb'c garden on the edge of the bluff, overlooking the bay. The city is served by four street-car lines, connecting the suburbs with both the tipper and lower towns. In 1906 contracts were made to reconstruct some of these lines for electric traction. The railways radiating from the city to inland points are the Bahia & Alagoinhas which is under construction to Joozeiro, on the Sao Francisco river, a short line to Santo Amaro, and two lines—the Bahia Central and the Nazareth tramway— extending inland from points on the opposite side of the bay. The port of Bahia, which has one of the best and most accessible harbours on the east coast of South America, has a large coastwise and foreign trade, and is also used as a port of call by most of the steamship b'nes trading between Eurojx: and that con linen t. llulna was founded in 1549 by Thome de Souza, the first Portuguese governor-general of Brazil, and was the seat of colonial administration down to 1763. It was made the seal of a bishopric in 1551, and of an archbishopric in 1676, and unlil 1905 was Ihe melropolis of the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil. The city was captured in 1624 by Ihe Dutch, who held it only a few months. Always conservative in character, the city hesitated in adhering to the declaration of independence In 1822, and also to the declaration of the republic in 1889. Much of its commercial and political importance has been lost, also, through the decay of industrial activity in the state, and through the more vigorous competition of the agricultural states of the south. (A. J. L.)
BAHIA BLANCA, a city and port of Argentina, on the Naposta river, 3 m. from its outlet into a deep, well-sheltered bay of the same name. Pop. (est. 1903) 11,600. It is situated in the extreme southern part of the province of Buenos Aires and is 447 m. by rail S.W. of the national capital. The opening to settlement of the national territories of La Pampa and Ncuquen has contributed largely to the growth and importance of Bahia Blanca. It is the natural shipping-port for these territories and for the southern districts of the province of Buenos Aires, from which great quantities of wheat and wool are exported. The bay has long been recognized as one of the best on Ihe Argentine coast, and when the channel is properly dredged, will admit steamers of 30 ft. draught at low-water. The Argentine government has located its principal naval station here, at the