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Curiously enough, the Rabbinical (Yalkut) identification of Balaam with Laban, Jacob's father-in-law, has been revived, from a very different standpoint, by a modern critic,1
The Mahommedans, also, have various fables concerning Balaam. He was one of the Anakim, or giants of Palestine; he read the books of Abraham, where he got the name Yahwch, by virtue of which he predicted the future, and got from God whatever he asked. It has been conjectured lh.it the Arabic wise man, commonly called Luqman (q.v.), is identical wiih Balaam. The names of (heir fathers are alike, and "Luqman" means devourer, rwattovrer, a meaning which might be got out of Balaam by a popular etymology.
If we might accept the various theories mentioned above, Balaam would appear in one source of J as an Kdomitc, in another is an Ammonite; in E as a native of the south of Jutlah or possibly as an Aramaean; in the tradition followed by the Priestly Code probably as a Midianite. All these peoples either belong to the Hebrew stock or arc closely connected with it. We may conclude that Balaam was an ancient figure of traditions originally common to all the Hebrews and their allies, and afterwards appropriated by individual tribes; much as there are various St Georges.
The chief significance of the Balaam narratives for the history of the religion of Israel is the recognition by J and E of the genuine inspiration of a non Hebrew prophet. Yahwch is as much the God of Balaam as he is of Mosrs. Probably the original tradition goes back to a time when Yahwrh was recognized as a deity of a circle of connected tribes of which the Israelite tribes formed a part. But the retention of the story without modification may imply a continuous recognition through some centuries of the Idea that Yahwch revealed his will to nations other than Israel.
Apparently the Priestly Code ignored this feature of the story.
Taking the narratives as we now have them, Balaam is a companion figure to Jon.ih, the prophet who wanted to go where he was not sent, over against the prophet who ran away from the mission to which he was called.
Bibliography.—Ewald. Geseftirtitf dts Volkts Tsrael*, Bd. il. p. 298; Hcngstcnbcrg's Die Gfschtchte Bilcams vnd seine Wtistagunffn (1843); the cammcn(nri< » on_ the scriptural passages, especially G. B. Gray on Numbers xxii.-xxiv.; and the articles on " Balaam " f Rik-.-im) in Hamburger's Rfalcncyfppwlie filr Bibel vnd Talmud, Hastings' Bible Did., Black and Cheyne'e Kncvclop&cdia Biblica, Herozog-Hauck's Rvatewyklopadie* For the analysis inio earlier documents, see-also the Oxford Hcxateuclt, Em lin Carpenter and Harford-BattcMby. (W. II. lie.)
BALADHUHl (AoO-L-'ABDAs Ahmad Idn Yahy* nw Jabir AL-BAtAoiiURi), Arabian historian, wasa Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have been strongly with the Arabs, for Mas'Qdl refers to one of his works in which he refuted the Shu'Qbiies (see Abu 'udaida). He lived at the court of the caliphs al-Mutawakkil and al-Muste'In and was tutor to the son of al-Mu'tazz. He died in 892 as the result of a drug called falddkttr (hence his name). The work by which he is best known is the Fut&Ii ul-Butddn (Conquests of Lands), edited by M. J. de Gocje as Liber cxpugnationis rcgionum (Leiden, 1870 ; Cairo, 1901). This work is a digest of a larger one, which is now lost. It contains an account of the early conquests of Mahomet and the early caliphs. Buladhuri is said to have spared no trouble- in collecting traditions, and to have visited various parts of north Syria and Mesopotamia for this purpose. Anothcrgrcat historical .work of his was the A nsdb ul-Ashraf (Genealogies of the Nobles), of which he is said to have written forty parts when he died. Of this work the eleventh book has been published by W. Ahlwardt (Grcifswald, iSSj), and another part is known in manuscript (sec Journal of tfie German Oriental Society, vol. xxxviii. pp. 382-406). He also made some translations from Persian into Arabic. (G. W. T.)
BALAGHAT (»".«. " above the ghatt or passes," the highlands), a district of British India in the Nagpur division of the Central Provinces. The administrative headquarters are at the town of Burha. The district con tains an area of 3132 sq. m. It forms the eastern portion of the central plateau which divides the
1 T Steucrnagcl, Einvanderung der israelitischcn Stammt (1901).
province from east to west. These highlands, formerly known as the Raigarh Bichhia tract, remained desolate and neglected until 1866, when the district of Balaghat was formed, and the country opened to the industrious and enterprising peasantry of the Wainganga valley. Geographically the district is divided into three distinct parts :—(i) The southern lowlands, a slightly undulating plain, comparatively well cultivated and drained by the Wainganga, Bagh, Deo, Ghisri and Son rivers, (2) The long narrow valley known as the Mau Taluka, lying between the hills and the Wainganga river, and comprising a long, narrow, irregular-shaped lowland tract, intersected by hill ranges and peaks covered with dense jungle, and running generally from north to south. (3) The lofty plateau, in which is situated the Raigarh Bichhia tract, comprising irregular ranges of hills, broken into numerous valleys, and generally running from cast to west. The highest points in the hills of the district are as follows:—Peaks above Lanji, 2300 or 2500 feet; Tepagarh hill, about 2600 ft.; and Bhainsaghat range, about 3000 ft. above the sea. The principal rivers in the district are the Wainganga,. and its tributaries, the Bagh, Nahra and Uskal; a few smaller streams, such as the Masmar, the Mahkara, &c.; and the Banjar, Halon and Jnmunia, tributaries of theNcrbudda, which drain a portion of the upper plateau. In the middle of the iglh century ihe upper part of the district was an impenetrable waste. About that time one Lachhman Naik established the first villages on the Paraswara plateau. But a handsome Buddhist temple of cut stone, belonging to some remote period, Is suggestive of a civilization which had disappeared before historic times. The population in 1001 was 326,521, showing a decrease of 15% in the decade,due to the effects of famine. A large part of the area is stilt covered with forest, the most valuable timber-tree being sal. There are few good roads. The Gondia* Jubbulpore line of the Bcngal-Nagpur railway traverses the Wainganga valley in the west of the district. The district suffered very severely from the famine of 1806-1897. It suffered again in 1000, when in April the number of persons relieved rose above 100,000.
BALAGUER, VICTOR (1824-1901), Spanish politician and author, was born at Barcelona on the nth of December 1824, and was educated at the university of his native town. His precocity was remarkable; his first dramatic essay, Pepirt eljorobado, was placed on the Barcelona stage when he was fourteen years of age, and lit nineteen he was publicly " crowned " after the production of his second play, Don Enrique d Dadivoso. From 1843 to 1868 he was the chief of the Liberal party in Barcelona, and as proprietor and editor of El Consctlcr did much to promote the growth of local patriotism in Catalonia. But it was not till 1857 that he wrote his first poem in Catalan—a copy of verses to the Virgin of Montserrat. Henceforward he frequently adopted the pseudonym of" loTrovador dc Montserrat"; in 1850 he helped to restore the " Juegos Florales," and in 1861 was proclaimed mestrt de gay saber. He was removed to Madrid, took a prominent part in political life, and in 1867 emigrated to Provence. On the expulsion of Queen Isabella, he relumed to Spain, represented Manresa in the Cortes, and in 1871-1872 was successively minister of the colonies and of finance He resigned office at the restoration, but finally followed his party in rallying to the dynasty; he was appointed vice-president of congress, and was subsequently a senator. He died at Madrid on the i^th of January Iqoi. Long before his death he had become alienated from the advanced school of Catalan nationalists, and endeavoured to explain away the severe criticism,of Castile in which his Hisloria de CataluAa y de la Corona de Aragon (1860-1863) abounds. This work, like his Historic politico y littraria dc los trovadorcs (1878-1870), is inaccurate, partial and unscientific; but both books arc attractively written and have done great service to the cause which Balaguer once upheld. As a poet he is imitative: reminiscences of Quintana are noticeable in his patriotic songs, of Zorrilla in his historical ballads, of Byron in his lyrical poems. He wrote too hastily to satisfy artistic canons; but if he has the faults he has also the merits of a pioneer, and in Catalonia his name will endure.;
BALAKIREV, MILI AtBXEIVICH (1836- ), Russian musical composer, was born at N1jni-Novgorod on the jilt of December 1836. He had the advantage as a boy of living with Oulibichev, author of a Lijf of Mozart, who had a private band, and from whom Balakircv obtained a valuable education in music. At eighteen! after a university course in mathematics, Re went to St Petersburg, full of national ardour, and there made the acquaintance of Glinka. Round him gathered C£sar Cui (b. 1835), and others, and in 1862 the Free School of Music was established, by which, and by Balakircv's personal zeal, the modern school of Russian music was largely stimulated. In 1869 Balakirev was appointed director of the imperial chapel and conductor of the Imperial Musical Society. His influence as a conductor, and as an organizer of Russian music, give him the place of a founder of a new movement, apart even from his own compositions, which though few in number are remarkable in themselves. His works consist largely of songs and collections of folk-songs, but include a symphony (first played in England in 1001), two symphonic poems (" Russia " and " Tamara "), and four overtures, besides pianoforte pieces. His orchestral works arc of the " programme-music " order, but all arc brilliant examples of the highly coloured, elaborate style characteristic of modern Russian composers, and developed by Balakirev's disciples, such as Borodin and Rimsky-Korsakov.
BALAKLAVA, a village in the Crimea, east of Sevastopol, famous Tor a battle in the Crimean War. The action of Balaklava (October 251)1, 1854) was brought about by the advance of a Russian field army under General Liprandi to attack the allied English, French and Turkish forces besieging Sevastopol. The ground on which the engagement took place was the Vorontsov ridge (see Crimean War), and the valleys on either side of it. Liprandi's corps formed near Traktir Bridge, and early on the 25th of October its advanced guard moved southward to attack the ridge, which was weakly occupied by Turkish battalions behind slight entrenchments. The two nearest British divisions were put into motion as soon as the firing became serious, but were prevented by their orders from descending at once into the plain, and i hu Turks had to meet the assault of greatly superior numbers. They made a gallant resistance, but the Russians quickly cleared the ridge, capturing several guns, and their first line was followed by a heavy mass of cavalry which crossed the ridge and descended into the Balaklava plain. At this moment the British cavalry division under the carl of Lucan was in the plain, but their commander was prevented from engaging the Russians by the tenor of his orders. One of his brigades, the Heavy (4lh and 5th Dragoon Guards, ist, 2nd and 6th Dragoons) under Brigadier-General J. Y. Scarlett, was in the Balaklava plain; the other, the Light Brigade under Lord Cardigan (4th and i ith Light Dragoons now Hussars, 8th and nth Hussars and Jjth Lancers) in the ;valley to the north of the Vorontsov ridge. All these regiments were very weak in numbers. The Russian cavalry mass, after crossing the ridge, moved towards Balaklava; a few shots were fired into it by a Turki&h battery and a moment later the Heavy Brigade charged. The attack was impeded at first by obstacles of ground, but in the m&Ue the weight of the British troopers gradually broke up the enemy, and the charge of the 4th Dragoon Guards, delivered against the flank of the Russian mass, was decisive. The whole of the Russian cavalry broke and fled to the ridge. This famous charge occupied less than five minutes from first to last, and at the same time some of the Russian squadrons, attempting to charge the 93rd Highlanders (who were near Balaklava) were met by the steady volleys of the " thin red line," and fled with the rest. The defeated troops retreated past the still inactive Light Briga'dc, on whose left a French cavalry brigade was now posted. The Russians were at this juncture reinforced by a mixed force on the Fedukhine heights; Liprandi's infantry occupied the captured ridge, and manned the guns taken from the Turks. The cavalry defeated by the Heavy Brigade was re-formed in the northern valley behind the field guns, and infantry, cavalry and artillery were on both the Fedukhine and the Vorontsov heights. Thus, in front of the Light Brigade wae a valley over a mile long, at the end of which
was the enemy's cavalry and twelve guns, and on the ridges oo cither side there were in all twenty-two guns, with cavalry and infantry. It was under these circumstances that an order wat given by the British headquartcrj, which led to the churge lot which above all Balaklava is remembered. It was carried I* Lord Lucan by Captain L. £. Kotan, 15th Hussars, and ran at follows:—" Lord Raglan wishes the cavalry to advance rapidly to the front and try to prevent the enemy carrying away the gun* . . . French cavalry is on your left." Lucan, seeing no attempt on the part of the enemy to move guns, questioned Nolan, who is said to have pointed down the valley to the artillery on the plain; whereupon Lucan rode to Lord Cardigan, the commander of the Light Brigade, and repealed Lord Raglan's order and Nolan's explanation. The Light Brigade then advanced straight to ill front, and soon came under fire from the guns on both Banks. Nolan was killed as he rode across the front of the brigade, perhaps with the Intention of changing its direction to ihe Vorontsov ridge. Five minutes later the guns in front began to fire with telling effect. The pace was increased, though the "charge " was r\ot sounded, ami Cardigan and those of his men who remained mounted, rode up to and through the Russian line of guns. Small parties even charged the Russian cavalry in rear and on cither flank. The French 4th Chasseurs d'AJrique made a dashing charge which drove the Russians off the Fedukhine heights, though at considerable loss. Lucan had meanwhile called up the Heavy Brigade to support the Light, but it lost many men and horses and was quickly withdrawn. Only two formed bodicsoftheLightBrigadefoundthcir way back. Thcijth Light Dragoons mustered but ten mounted men at the evening parade ; the brigade as a whole had lost 247 men and 407 horses out of a total strength of 673 engaged in the charge, which lasted twenty minutes from first to last. The two infantry divisions which now approached the field were again halted, and Liprandi was left undisturbed on the Vorontsov ridge and in possession of the captured guns. The result of the day was thus unfavourable to the allies, but the three chief incidents of the engagement —the two cavalry charges and the fight of the 9jrd Highlander*, —gave to it all the prestige of a victory. The impression created by the conduct of the Light Brigade was forcibly expressed In Tennyson's well-known ballad, and in spite of the equally celebrated remark of the French general Bosquet, C'est wagnijique mais ce n'cst pas la guerre, it may be questioned whether the moral effect of the charge did not outweigh the very serious loss in trained men and horses involved.
BALALAIKA, a stringed instrument said to have retained its primitive form unchanged, very popular in Russia among the peasants, more especially in Ukraine. The instrument has a triangular soundboard to which is glued a vaulted back, forming a body having a triangular base, enabling it to stand upright. To the body is added a fretted neck strung with two, three or four strings, generally so tuned as to produce a minor chord when sounded together. The strings are generally plucked with the fingers, but the peasants obtain charming " glissando " effects by sweeping the strings lightly one after the other with the fingers or side of the hand. The Balalaika is common to the Slav races, who use it to accompany their folk-songs and dances. It is also to be seen in the hands of gipsies at rural festivities and fairs.
BALANCE (derived through the Frl from the Late Lat. bilanlia, an apparatus for weighing, from bi, two, and lanx, a dish or scale), a term originally used for the ordinary beam balance or weighing machine with two scale pans, but extended to include (with or without adjectival qualification) other apparatus for measuring and comparing weights and forces. In addition to beam and spring balances (see Weighing Machines), apparatus termed "torsion balances," in which forces arc measured or compared by their twisting moment on a wire, are used, especially in gravitational, electrostatic and magnetic experiments (see Gravitation and Electrouetfr). The term also connotes the idea of equality or equalization; e.g. in the following expressions: "balance." in bookkeeping, the amount which equalizes the debit and credit accounts; " balance wheel," in horology, • device for equalizing the relaxing of a watch or clock spring (see Clock); the " balancing of engines," the art of minimizing the total vibrations of engines when running, and consisting generally in the introduction of masses which induce vibrations opposed to the vibrations of the essential parts of the engine.
BALANCE OP POWER, a phrase in international law for such a "just equilibrium " between the members of the family of nations as should prevent any one of them from becoming sufficiently strong to enforce its will upon the rest. The principle involved in this, as Hume pointed out in his Essay on the Balance of Power, is as old as history, and was perfectly familiar to the ancients both as political theorists and as practical statesmen. In its-essence it is no more than a precept of commonsense born of experience and the instinct of self-preservation: for, a* I'olybius very clearly puts it (lib. i. cap. 83): " Nor is such a principle to be despised, nor should so great a power be allowed to any one as to make it impossible for you afterwards to dispute with him on equal terms concerning your manifest rights." Ii was not, however, till the beginning of the i-th century, when the science of international law took shape at the hands of Crotius and his successors, that the theory of the balance of power was formulated .is a fundamental principle of diplomacy. According to this the European states formed a sort of federal community, the fundamental condition of which was the preservation of the balance of power, i.e. such a disposition of things that no one slate or potentate should be able absolutely to predominate and prescribe laws to the rest; and, since all were equally interested in this settlement, it was held to be the interest, the right and the dirty of every power to interfere, even by force of arms, when any of the conditions of this settlement were infringed or assailed by any other member of the community.1 This principle, once formulated, became an axiom of political science. It was impressed as such by Fenelon, in his Instructions, on the young duke of Burgundy; it was proclaimed to the world by Frederick the Great in his Anti-AfacMatel; it was re-stated with admirable clearness in 1806 by Friedrich von Gcntz in his Fragments on the Balance of Power. It formed the basis of the coalitions against Louis XIV. and Napoleon, and the occasion, or (he excuse, for most of the wars which desolated Europe between the congress of Munstcr in 1648 and that of Vienna in 1814. During the greater part of the ipth century it was obscured by the series of national upheavals which have remodelled the map of Europe; yet it underlay all the efforts of diplomacy to stay or to direct the elemental forces let loose by the Revolution, and with the restoration of comparative calm it has once more emerged as the motive for the various political alliances of which the ostensible object is the preservation of peace (sec Eusope: History).
An equilibrium between the various powers which form the family of nations is, in fact,—as Professor L. Oppcnheim (internal. Law, I. 73) justly points out—essential to the very existence of any international law. In the absence of any central authority, the only sanction behind the code of rules established by custom or defined in treaties, known as "international law," is the capacity of the powers to hold each other in check. Were this to fail, nothing could prevent any state sufficiently powerful from ignoring the law and acting solely according to its convenience and its interests.
See. besides the works quoted in the article, the standard books on International Law (q.v.). (W. A. P.)
BALANCE OF TRADE, a term in economics belonging originally to the period when the " mercantile theory" prevailed, but still in use, though not quite perhaps in the same way as at its origin. The " balance of trade" was then identified with the sum of the precious metals which a country received in the course of its trading with other countries or with particular countries. There was no doubt an idea that somehow or other the amount of the precious metals received represented profit on the trading, And each country desired as much profit as possible. Princes tad sovereigns, however, with political aims in view, were not < Emtrich de Valid, Lt Drtil its fens (Leiden, 1738).
close students of mercantile profits, and would probably have urged the acquisition of the precious metals as an object of trade even U they had realized that the country as a whole was exporting " money's worth " in order to buy the precious metals which were desired for political objects. The "mercantile theory" was exploded by Adam Smith's demonstration that gold and silver were only commodities like others with no special virtue in them, and that they would come into a country when there was a demand for them, according to the amount, in proportion to other demands, which the country could afford to pay; but the ideas in which the theory itself has originated have not died out, and the idea especially of a " balance of trade" to which the rulers of a country should give attention is to be found in popular discussions of business topics and in politics, the general notion being that a nation is prosperous when statistics show a " trade balance " in its favour and unprospcrous when the reverse is shown. In modern times the excess of imports over exports or of exports over imports, shown in the statistics of foreign trade, has also come to be identified in popular speech with the " balance of trade," and many minds are no doubt imbued with the ideas (i) that an excess of imports over exports is bad, and (2) an excess of exports over imports is the reverse, because the former indicates an " unfavourable " and the latter a " favourable" trade balance. In the former case it is urged that a nation so circumstanced is living on its capital. Exact remedies are not suggested, although the idea of preventing or hampering foreign imports as a means of developing home trade and of thus altering the supposed disastrous trade balance is obviously the logical inference from the arguments. A consideration of these ideas and of recent discussions about imports and exports, appears accordingly to be needed, although the "mercantile theory " is itself exploded.
The phrase " balance of trade," then, appears to be an application of a trader's language in his own business to the larger affairs of nations or rather of the aggregate of individuals in a nation engaged in foreign trade. A trader in his own books sets his sales against his purchases, and the amount by which the former exceed the latter is his trade balance or profit. What is true of the individual, it is assumed, must be true of a nation or of the aggregate of individual traders in a nation engaged in the foreign trade. If their collective sales amount to more than their collective purchases the trade balance will be in their favour, and they will have money to receive. Contrariwise, if their purchases amount to more than their sales, they will have to pay money, and they will presumably be living on their capital. The argument fails, however, in many ways. Even as regards the experience of the individual trader, it is to be observed that he may or may not receive his profit, if any, in money. As a rule he does not do so. As the profit accrues he may invest it cither by employing labour to add to his machinery or warehouses, or by increasing his stock-in-trade, or by adding to his book debts, or by a purchase, of stocks or shares outside his regular business. At the end of a given period he may or may not have an increased cash balance to show as the result of his profitable trading. Even if he has an increased cash balance, according to the modern system of business, this might be a balance at his bankers', and they in turn may have invested the amount so that there is no stock of the precious metals, of " hard money," anywhere to represent it. And the argument fails still further when applied to the transactions between nations, or rather, to use the phrase already employed, between the aggregate of individuals in nations engaged in the foreign trade. It is quite clear that if a nation, or the individuals of a nation, do make profit in their foreign trading, the amount may be invested as it accrues—in machinery, or warehouses, or stock-in-trade, or book debts, or stocks and shares purchased abroad, so that there may be no corresponding " balance of trade" to bring home. There is no doubt also that what may be is in reality what largely happens. A prosperous foreign trade carried on by any country implies a continuous investment by that country either abroad or at home, and there may or may not be a balance receivable in actual gold and silver.
In another particular the argument also fails. In the aggregate of individual trading with various countries, there may sometimes be purchases and sales as far as the individuals are concerned, but not purchases and sales as between the nations. For example, goods are exported from the United Kingdom, ammunition and stores and ships, which appear in the British returns as exports, and which have really been sold by individual British traders to individuals abroad; but these sales are not set off by any purchases on the other side which come into the international account, as the set-off is a loan by the people of one country to the people or government of another. The same with the export of railway and other material when goods are exported for the purpose of constructing railways or other works abroad. The sales are made by individuals in the United Kingdom to individuals abroad; but there is no set-off of purchases on the other side. Afulalis mutandis the same explanation applies to the remittance of goods by one country to another, or by individuals in one country to individuals in another to pay the interest or repay the capital of loans which have been received in former times. These, are all cases of the movement of goods irrespective of international sales and purchases, though the movements themselves appear in the international records of imports and exports, and therefore it seems to be assumed, though without any warrant, in the international records of the balance of trade. There is-yet another failure in the comparison. The individual trader would include in his sales and purchases services such as repairs performed by him for others, and similar services which others doJor himself; but no similar accounts are kept of the corresponding portions of international trade such as the earning of freights and commissions, although in strictness, it is obvious, they belong as much to international trade as the imports and exports themselves which cannot therefore show a complete " balance of trade."
The illusions which may result then from the confusion of ideas between a balance of trade or profit, and a balance of cash paid or received, and from the identification of an excess of imports over exports or of exports over imports with the balance of trade itself, though they arc not the same things, hardly need description. The believers in such illusions are not entitled to any hearing as economists, however, much they may be accepted in the market-place or among politicians.
The " balance of trade" and "the excess of imports over exports" are thus simply pitfalls for the amateur and the unwary. On the statistical side, moreover, there is a good deal more to be urged in order to impress the student with care and attention. The records of imports and exports themselves may vary from the actual facts of international purchases and sales. The actual values of the goods imported and paid for by the nation may vary from the published returns of imports, which are, by the necessity of the case, only estimated values. And so with the exports. The actual purchases and sales may be something very different. A so-called sale may prove abortive through its not being paid for at all, the debtor failing altogether. In any case the purchases of a year may not be paid for by the sales of the year, and the " squaring " of the account may take a long time. Still more the estimates of value may be so taken as not to give even an approximately correct account as far as the records go.' Thus in the plan followed in the United Kingdom imports are valued as at the port where they arrive and exports at the port where they are despatched from—a plan which so far places them on an equal footing for the purpose of striking a balance of trade. But in the import and export records of the United States a different plan is followed. The imports are no longer valued as at the port of arrival with the freight and other charges included, but as at the port of shipment. The results on the balance of trade drawn out must accordingly be quite different in the two cases. With other countries similar differences arise. To deduce then from records of imports and exports any conclusions as to the excess of imports or exports at different limes is a work of enormous statistical difficulty. Excellent illustrations will be found in J. Holt Schooling's .British Trade Book (1908).
The country which presents the most interesting questions in connexion with the study is the United Kingdom, with its largely preponderating foreign trade. Us annual imports and exports, excluding bullion, exceed 800 millions sterling, and the bullion one year wi th another is i c-o millions more. Its excess of imports, moreover, between the middle and end of the iglh century gradually rose from a small figure to 180 millions sterling annually, and occasioned the popular discussion referred to respecting an "adverse " balance of trade, and particularly the belief existing in many quarters that the nation is living on its capital. The result has been a new investigation of the subject, so as to bring out and present the credits to which the country is entitled in its trade as a shipowner and commission merchant, and to exhibit at the same time the magnitude of British foreign investments, which cannot be less than 2000 millions sterling and must bring in an enormous annual income. Other countries such as France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, are in the same condition, though their foreign trade is not on the same scale, and similar rules apply to the reading of their import and export accounts. The United Stales is a conspicuous instance of a country which in the first decade of the 2olh century was still in the position of a borrower and had a large excess of exports, though there were signs of a change in the opposite direction. New countries generally, such as Canada, Australia and the South American countries, resemble the United States. Comparisons arc made difficult by the want of uniformity in the methods of stating the figures, but that different countries have to be grouped according as they arc indebted or creditor countries is undeniable, and no study of the trade statistics is possible without recognition of the underlying economic circumstances.
In conclusion it may be useful to repeat the main propositions laid down as to the balance of trade, (i) A " balance of trade" to the individual trader, from whose experience the phrase comes, is not necessarily, as is supposed, a balance received or receivable in the precious metals. It may be invested as it accrues—in machinery, or warehouses, or slock-in-trarlc, or in book debts, or in slocks and shares or other property outside the trader's business, as well as in cash. (2) What is true of the individual trader is also true of the aggregate of individuals engaged in the foreign trade of a country. Cash is only one of the forms in which they may elect to be paid. 0) The imports and exports recorded in the statistical returns of a country do not correspond with the purchases and sales of individual traders, as the sales especially may be set off by loans, while the so-called imports may include remittances of interest and of capita] repaid. (4) When capital is repaid the country receiving il need not be living on it, but may be in vesting it at home. (5) The foreign trading of countries may also comprise many transactions, such as the earning of freights and commissions, which ought to appear in a proper account showing a balance of trade, as similar transactions appear in an individual trader's account, but which are not treated as imports or exports in the statistical returns of & nation's foreign trade. (6) Import and export returns themselves arc not the same as accounts of purchases and sales; the values are only estimates, and must not be relied on literally without study of the actual facts. (7) Import and export returns in different countries arc not in all cases taken at the same point, there being important variations, for instance, in this respect between the returns of two great countries, the United Kingdom and the United States, which arc often compared, but arc really most difficult to compare. (8) The United Kingdom is a conspicuous instance of a country which hns a great excess of imports over exports in consequence of its large lending abroad in former times; while its accounts are specially aflccud by the magnitude of its services as a trading nation carrying passengers and goods all over the world, which do not result, however, in so-called "exports." The United States, on the other hand, is a conspicuous instance of an indebted nation, which has or bad until lately few or no sums to its credit in foreign trade except the visible exports, (o) The various countries of the world naturally fall into groups. The nations of western Europe, such as France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Sweden and Norway, fall into a group with Great Britain as creditor nations, while Canada, Australasia and the South American countries fall into a group with the United States as undeveloped and indebted countries, So also of other countries, each belong* naturally to one group or another, (ro) The excess of imports or exports may vary indefinitely at different times according as a creditor country is receiving or lending at the lime, or according as a debtor country is borrow ing or paying off its debts at the time, but the permanent tharacteristics arc always to be considered. (R.GN.)
BALANOGLOSSUS. the general name given to certain peculiar, opaque, worm-like animals which live an obscure life under stones, and burrow in the sand from between tide-marks down to the abyssal regions of the sen. Their colour is usually some tone of yellow with dashes of red, brown and green, and they frequently emit a pungent odour. The name has reference to the tongue-shaped muscular proboscis by which the animal wt)rks its way through the sand. The proboscis js not the only organ of locomotion, being assisted by the succeeding segment of the body, the buccal segment or collar. By the waves of contraction executed by the proboscis accompanied by inflation of the collar, progression is effected, sometimes with marvellous rapidity. The third body region or trunk may attain a great length, one or two feet, or even more, and is also muscular, but the truncal muscles are of subordinate importance in locomotion, serving principally to promote the peristaltic contractions of the body by which the food is carried through the gut. The function of alimentation is closely associated with that of locomotion, somewhat as in the burrowing earthworm; in the excavation of its burrows the sand is passed through the body, and any nutrient matter that may adhere to it is extracted during its passage through the intestine, the exhausted sand being finally ejected through the vent at the orifice of the burrow and appearing at low
M W ft! tide as a worm casting. In accord
(Xcw Caledonia), from , ., . , . ..
above; about life &Ue. ancc Wlth th|s wanner of feeding, the mouth is kept permanently
open and prevented from collapsing by a pair of skeletal <ornua belonging to a sustentacular apparatus (the nuchal skeleton), the body of which lies within the narrow neck of the proboscis; the latter is inserted into the collar and surrounded by the anterior free flap of this segment of the body.
When first discovered by J. F. Eschscholtz at the Marshall Islands in 1825, Balanoglossus was described as a worm-like animal belonging to the Echinoderm order of Holothurians or sea-cucumbers. In 1865 Kowalevsky discovered that the organs of respiration consist of numerous pairs of gill-slits leading from the digestive canal through the thickness of the body-wall to the exterior. On this account the animal was subsequently placed by Gcgenbaur in a special class of Vermes, the Enteropneusta. In 1883-1886 Bateson showed by his embryological researches that the EnteropncusU exhibit chordate (vertebrate) affinities in respect of the cocloiru'c, skeletal and nervous systems ts well as In regard to the respiratory system, and, further, that the gill-slits arc formed upon a plan similar to that of the gillslits of Amphioxus, being subdivided by tongue-bars which depend from the dorsal borders of the slits.
Coelom and Pore-canals.—In correspondence with the tri-regional differentiation of the body in ita cxtern.il configuration, the coelom (body-cavity, perivisccral cavity^ i% divided into three portions completely separated from one another by septa.—(i) proboscis-coelom, or first bo4y-cavity; (a) the collar-codura, or second body-cavity;
(3) truncal eoelom, or third body-cavity. Of these divisions of tho coelom the first two communicate with the exterior by means of a pair of ciliated pore-canals placed at the posterior end of their respective segments. The proboscis-pores are highly variable, and frequently only one is present, thai on the left side; sometimes the pore-canals of the proboscis unite to open by a common median orifice, and sometimes their communication with the probosciscoelom appears to be occluded, and finally the pore-canals may be quite vestigial. The collar-pores arc remarkable for their constancy; this is probably owing to the fact that they have become adapted to a special function, the inhalation of water to render the collar turgid during progression. There an? reasons for supposing that the truncal coelom w;is at one time provided with pore-canals, but supposed vestiges of these structures have only been described for one genus, ':• .' ,m v. I i, ii they lie near the anterior end of the truncal coelom.
Enltron.—-Not only is the coelom thus subdivided, but the entcron (gut, alimentary canal, digestive tube) itself shows indications of three main subsections in continuity with one another:—(i) proboscis-cut (Eichfldorm, stomochoru, vide infra); (2) collar-gut (buccal cavity, throat); (3) truncal gut extending from the collar to the vent.
Slomochord.—The proboscis-gut occurs as an outgrowth from the anterior dorsal wall of the collar-gut, and extends forward into the basal (posterior) region of the proboscis, through the neck into the proboscis-coelorn, ending blindly in front. Although an integral portion of the gut, it has ceased to assist in alimentation, its epithelium undergoes vacuolar differentiation and hypertrophy, and its lumen becomes more or less vestigial. It has, in fact, become metamorphosed into a resistant supporting structure resembling in some respects the notochord of the true Chordata, but probably not directly comparable with the latter structure, being related to it solely by way of substitution. On account of the presence and mode of origin (from the gut-wall) of this organ Bateson introduced the term hemichorda as a phylctic name for the class Enteropncusta. As the proboscis-gut appears to have undoubtedly skeletal properties, and as it also has topographical relations with the mouth, it has been designated in English by the non-committal term stomochord. It is not a simple divcrticulum of the collar-gut, but a complex structure possessing paired lateral pouches and a ventral convexity (ventral caecum) which rests in a concavity at the front end of the body of the nuchal skeleton (fig. 3). In some species (Sfrengelidac} there is a long capillary vermiform extension of the stomochord in front. The nuchal skeleton is a non-cellular laminated thickening of basement-membrane underlying that portion of the stomochord which lies between the above-mentioned pouches and the orifice into the throat. At the point where the stomochord opens into the buccal cavity the nuchal skeleton bifurcates, and the two cornua thus produced pass obliquely backwards and downwards embedded in the wall of the throat, often giving rise to projecting ridges that bound a dorsal groove of the collar-gut which is in continuity with the wall of the stomochord (fig. 3)
Nervous System.—At the base of the epidermis (which is in general ciliated) there is over the entire surface of the body a layer 01neryefibres, occurring immediately outside the basement-membrane which separates the epidermis from the subjacent musculature. The nervous system is thus essentially epidermal in position and diffuse in distribution; but an interesting concentration of nerve-cells and fibres has taken place in the collar-region, where a medullary tube, closed in from the outside, opens in front and behind by anterior and posterior neuropores. This is the collar nerve-tube. Sometimes the central canal is wide and uninterrupted between the two neuroporcs; in other cases it becomes broken up into a large number of small closed medullary cavities, and in others again it is obsolete. In one family, the Ptychideridat, the medullary tube of the collar is connected at intermediate points with the epidermis by means of a variable number of unpaired outgrowths from its dorsal wall, generally containing an axial lumen derived from and in continuity with the central canal. These hollow roots terminate blindly in the dorsal epidermis of the collar, and place the nervous layer of the latter in direct connexion with the fibres of the nerve-tube. The exact significance of these roots is a matter for speculation, but it seems possible that they are epiphystal structures remotely comparable with the cpiphysial (pineal) complex of the craniate vertebrates. In accordance with this view there would be also some probability in favour of regarding the collar nerve-tube of the Enteropncusta as the equivalent of the cerebral vesicle only of Ampkioxus and the A&cidian tadpole, and also of the primary forebrain of vertebrates.
Special thickenings of the diffuse nervous layer of the epidermis occur in certain regions and along certain lines. In the neck of the proboscis the fibrous layer is greatly thickened, and other intensifications of this layer occur in the dorsal and ventral middle lines of the trunk extending to the posterior end of the body. The dorsal epidermal nerve-tract is continued in front into the ventral wall of trie collar nerve-tube, and at the point of junction there is a circular commissural thickening following the posterior rim of the collar ami affording a special connexion between the dorsal and ventral nervetracts. From the ventral surface of the collar nerve-tube numerous motor fibres may be seen passing to the subjacent musculature. These fibres are not aggregated into roots.