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Gill-flits.—The possession of gill-slits is as interesting a feature in the organization of Balanoglossus as is the presence of tracheae in Peripalus. These gill-slits occupy a variable extent of the anterior portion of the trunk, commencing immediately behind the collartrunk septum. The branchial bars which constitute the borders of the clefts arc of two kinds:—(i) Septal bars between two contiguous clefts, corresponding to the primary bars inAmphioxus; (2) Tonguebars. The chief resemblances fa* between Balanoglossus and fa" Amphioxus in respect of '*"• the gill-slits may be stated briefly as follows:—(a) the presence of two kinds of branchial bars in alt species and also of small crossbars (synapticula) in many species; (ff) numerous gillslits, from forty to more than a hundred pairs; (t) the addition of new gill-slits by fresh perforation at the posterior end of thepharynx throughout life. The chief differences arc, that (a) the .,.j— Vy. tongue-bar is the essential

vm organ °f tnc fciH-s'it 'n

Balanoglossus, and exceeds Fic. 2.—Structure of branchial region, the sepfal bars in bulk, be, coelom. gp, gill-pore. while \n Amphioxus the

tb, tongue-bars. dn, dorsal nerve, reverse is the case; (ft) the ds, mesentery. dv, vessel. tongue-bar contains a arge

pr. ridge. *. oesophagus, coefomic space in oalano

vo. vessel. w. mesentery. tf««". but is solid in Am

v». ventral nerve, pkioxtts: («) the skeleta

rods in the tongue-bars of

Balanoglossus are double; (</) the tongue-bar in Balanoglossus docs not fuse with the ventral border of the cleft, but ends freely below, thus producing a continuous U-shaped cleft. The meaning of this singular contrast between the two animals may be that we have here an instance of an interesting gradation in evolution. From serving primitively as the essential organ of the cleft the tongue-bar may have undergone reduction and modification, becoming a secondary bar in Amphioxus, subordinate to the primary bars in size, vascularity and development; finally, in the craniate vertebrates it would then have completed its involution, the suggestion having been made that the tongue-bars are represented by the thymusprimordta.

GUI-poaches and Gill-pores.—Only rarely do the gill-slits open freely and directly to the exterior (fig. i). Inmost species of Balanoglossus each gill-slit may be said to open into its own atria! chamber or gill-pouch; this in its turn opens to the exterior by a minute gill-pore. There are, therefore, as many gill-pouches as there are gill-slits and as many gill-pores as pouches. The gill-pores occur on each side of the dorsal aspect of the worm in a longitudinal series at the base of a shallow groove, the branchial groove. The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Ampkioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.

Excretory and Vascular Systems.—It seems likely that the coelomic pore-canals were originally excretory organs, but in the existing Entcropneusta the pore-canals (especially the collar canals) have, as we have seen, acquired new functions or become vestigial, and the function of excretion is now mainly accomplished by a structure peculiar to the Enteropncusta called the glomcrulus, a vascular complex placed on either side of the anterior portion of thestomochord, projecting into the proboscis-coelom. The vascular system itself is quite peculiar, consisting of lacunae and channels destitute of endotnelium, situated within the thickness of the basementmembrane of the body-wall, of the gut-wall and of the mesenteries. The blood, which is a non-corpuscular fluid, is propelled forwards by the contractile dorsal vessel and collected into the central bloodsinus; this lies over the stomochord, and is surrounded on three sides by a closed vesicle, with contractile walls, called the pericardium (Hrrsblase). By the pulsation of the pericardia! vesicle (best observed |n the larva) the blood is driven into the glomerulus, from which it issues by efferent vessels which effect a junction with the ventral (sub-intestinal) vessel in the trunk. The vascular system docs not readily lend itself to morphological comparison between such widely different animals as Balanoglossus and Amphioxus, and the reader is therefore referred to the memoirs cited at the end of this article for further details.

Reproductive System.—The sexes are separate, and when mature are sometimes distinguished by small differences of colour in the genital region. Both male ana female gonads consist of more or less lobulated hollow sacs connected with the epidermis by short ducts. In their disposition they are either uniscrial, biserial or multiserial. They occur in the branchial region, and also extend to a variable distance behind it. In exceptional cases they arc either confined to the branchial region or excluded from it. when

they are arranged in uniscrial or biserial rows the (renital duett open into or near the branchial grooves in the region pi the pharynx and in a corresponding position in the post-branchial region. An important feature is the occurrence in some species (Ptyckodcridae) of paired longitudinal pleural or lateral folds of the body which are mobile, and can be approximated at their free edges so as to close in the dorsal surface, embracing both the median dorsal nerve-tract and the branchial grooves with the gill-pores, so a* to form a temporary peri-branchial and medullary tube, open behind where the folds cease. On the other hand, they can be spread out horizontally so as to expose their own upper side as well a» the dorsal surface

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a, Arrow from proboscis-cavity (fie) passing to left of pericardium (per) and out through proboscis pore-canal.

i1, arrow from central canal of neurochord (c«r) passed out through anterior ncuropore.

61, ditto,through posterior ncuropore.

f, arrow intended to pass from 1st gill-pouch through collar pore-canal into collar*coclom

cts, posterior limit of collar.
dv, dorsal vessel pacing into

central sinun (fr>).
ev, efferent vessel passing into

ventral vessel (ro).
tpr, cptphysial tubes.
st, stomochord.

(••-, ventral septum of proboscis.
sk, body of nuchal skeleton,
m, mouth.
!''-•. throat.
."'. tongue-bars.
t<. trunk coelom.

of the body (fie. !). These fold* arc called the genital pleurae because they contain the bulk of the gonads. Correlated \*ith the presence of the genital pleurae there isa pair of vascular folds of the basement membrane proceeding from the dorsal wall of the gut in the postbranchial portion of the branchio-genital region, and from the dorsal angles made by the pleural folds with the body-wall in the pharyn... -1 region; they pass, in their most fully developed condition, to the tree border of the genital pleurae. These vascular membranes are called the lateral septa. Since there arc many specie* which do not possess thoee genital pleurae, the question arises as to whether their presence or their absence is the more primitive condition. Without attempting to answer this question categorically, it may be pointed out that within the limits of the family (Ptychod*ria<u) which is especially characterized by thtir presence there are some tpecMe in

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Development.—The development of Baianoglosius takes place according to two different schemes, known as direct and indirect, correlated with the occurrence in the group of two kinds of ova. large and small. Direct development, in which the adult form is achieved without striking metamorphosis by a gradual succession of stages, seems to.be confined to the family BoJanoflossidae. The remaining two families of Enterupneusta,/>O«J!K*/<Tw[ar and Spcngtlidae, contain species of which probably all pursue an indirect course of development, culminating in a metamorphosis by which the adult form is attained. In those cases the larva, called Tomaria, is pelagic and Transparent, and possesses a complicated ciliated scam, the longitudinal ciliated band, often drawn out into convoluted bays and lappets. In addition to this ciliated band the form of the Tornaria is quite characteristic and unlike the adult. The Tornaria larva offer* a certain similarity to larvae of Echinoderms (sea-urchins, star-fishes, and sea-cue umbers), and when first discovered was n described. It is within the bounds of possibility that Tornaria actually does indicate a remote atTmity on the part of the Entcropneusta to the Echinoderms, not only on account of its external form, out also by reason of the possession of a dorsal water-pore communicating with the anterior body-cavity. In the direct development Bateson showed that the three divisions of the coelom arise aa pouches constricted off from the archentcron or primitive gut, thus resembling ihc development of the mesoblastic somites of A mphioxus. It would appear that while the direct development throws light upon the special plan of organization of the Entcropncusta, the indirect development affords a clue to their possible derivation. However this may be, it U sufficiently remarkable that a small and circumscribed group like the Entcropneusta, which presents such a comparatively uniform plan of composition and of external form, should foflow two such diverse methods of development.

Distribution.—Some thirty sprcies of Balanaglostus are known, distributed among all the principal marine provinces from Green* land to New Zealand. The specie* which occurs in the English Channel is Ptychodera sarntensis. The Plychoderida* and Spengelidat are predominantly tropical and subtropical, while the BaJanofltafidat are predominantly arctic and temperate in their distribution. One of the most singular facts concerning the geographical distribution of Entcropoeusta has recently been brought to fight by Ben ham, who founn a aperies of Batanoglos$us, sens* ttricto, on the coast of New Zealand hardly distinguishable from one occurring, off Japan. Finally. Gtandlceps abysncola (Spfnettidae) was drooped during the " Challenger" expedition in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa at a depth of 2500 fathoms.

Authorities.—XV. Datcson, " Memoirs on the Direct Development of Balanoglossus," Quart. Jovm. After. Sci. (vols. Muv.-xxvi.. 1884-1886); XV. B. Hen ham. " Balanogtossus otagocnsis, n. sp,' 0. J. M. S, (vol. xtti. p. 407, 1899); Yves Dclageand Ed. Herouard. TraiU df wlogie concrete (t. vin.), "Lcs Procordes" (1808); S. F. Harmer, Note on the Name Balanoglossus," Proc. Comb. Phil. Soc. Cx. p. 190, 1000); T. H. Morgan, Memoirs on the Indirect Development of Balanoglossus," Journ. Morph. (vol. v., 1891, and vol. ix.. 1894); W, E. Ritter, "Harrimania maculosa. a new Genus and Species of Entcropneusta from Alaska," Papers from the Harriirun Alaska Exhibition (ii.), Proc. Washington Ac. (ii. p. ill, 1900); J- VV. Spengcl. " Die Enteropneustcn," Eighteenth Monograph on the Fauna und Flora des Golfet von Weapel (1893); A. XVilley, "Entcropncusta from the South Pacific, with Notes on the XVest Indan Species." Zool. Retuitt (Willey). part iil, 1899; sec also Q J M. S. (vol. xlii. p. 233. 1809); J. P. Hill. " The Enteropneusta of Funafuti, Mem. Austral. Mus. (ill., I&97-1&Q.8); M. Caullery and F Mesnil. " Balanoglossus Kochleri, n. sp. English Channel, C R. Soe. Biol. lii. p. 256 (1900). (A. W.')

BALARD, ANTOINE JER&ME (1802-1876), French chemist, was born at Montpcllier on the joth of September 1802. He started as an apothecary, but taking up teaching he acted as chemical assistant at the faculty of sciences of his native town, and then became professor of chemistry at the royal college and school of pharmacy and at the faculty of sciences. In 1826 he discovered in sea-water a substance which he recognized as a previously unknown element and named bromine. The reputation brought him by this achievement secured his election as successor to L. J. The'nard in the chair of chemistry at the faculty of sciences in Paris, and in 1851 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the College de France, where he had M. P. E. Berlhelot first as pupil, then as assistant and finally as colleague. He died in Paris on the 3oth of April 1876. While the discovery of bromine and the preparation of many of its compounds was his most conspicuous piece of work, Balard was an industrious chemist on both the pure and applied sides. In his researches on the bleaching compounds of chlorine he was the first to advance the view that bleaciting-powder is u double compound of calcium

chloride and hypochlorite; and he devoted much time to the problem of economically obtaining soda and potash from seawater, though here his efforts were nullified by the discovery of the much richer sources of supply afforded by the Stassfurt deposits. In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalatc, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether.

BALA SERIES, in geology, a series of dark slates and sandstones with beds of limestone which occurs in the neighbourhood of Bala, Merionethshire, North Wales. It was first described by A.Scdgwick, who considered it to be the upper part of Ms Cambrian System. The series is now placed at the top of the Ordovician System, above the Llandeilo beds. The Bala limestone is from 20 to 40 ft. thick, and is recognizable over most of North XVales; it is regarded as the equivalent of the Coniston limestone of the Lake District. The scries in the type area consists of the Hirnant limestone, a thin inconstant bed, which is separated by 1400 ft. of slates from the Bala limestone, below this arc more slates and volcanic rocks. The latter are represented by large contemporaneous deposits of turf and fclsitic lava which in the Snowdon District are several thousand feet thick. In South Wales the Bala Series contains the following beds in descending order:—the TrinucUus setieornis beds (Slade beds, Rcdhill shales and Sholes- . hook limestone), the Robeston XVathcn beds, and the Dicranograpttts shales. The typical graptolitcs are, in the upper part, Dicellograpttts anccps and D. complanatus\ Sn the lower part, Pleurograptus Untarts and Dicranograplus CHngani. In Shropshire this series is represented by the Caradoc and Chirbury Scries; in southern Scotland by the Hartfell and Ardmillan Scries, and by similar rocks in Ireland. See Caradoc Series and Ordovician System.

BALASH (in the Greek authors, Balas; the later form of the name Vologaeses), Sassanian king in A.d. 484-488, was the brother and successor of Peroz, who had died in a battle against the Hcphthalites (White Huns) who invaded Persia from the east. He put down the rebellion of his brother Zareh, and is praised as a mild and generous monarch, who made concessions to the Christians. But as he did nothing against his enemies, he was, after a reign of four years, deposed and blinded, and his nephew, Kavadh I., raised to the throne. (Eo. M.)

BALASORE, a town and district of British India, in the Orissa division of Bengal. The town is the principal one and the administrative headquarters of the district, and is situated on the right bank of the river Burabalang, about 7 m. from the sea-coast as the crow flies and 16 m. by the river. There isa station on the East Coast railway. The English settlement of Balasorc, formed in 1642, and that of Pippli in its neighbourhood seven years earlier, became the basis of the future greatness of the British in India. The servants of the East India Company here fortified themselves in a strong position, and carried on a brisk investment in country goods, chiefly cottons and muslins. They flourished in spite of the oppressions of the Mahommedan governors, and when needful asserted their claims to respect by arms. In 1688, affairs having come to a crisis, Captain William Heath, commander of the company's ships, bombarded the town. IntheiSth century Balasore rapidly declined in importance, on account of a dangerous bar which formed across the mouth of the river. At present the bar has 12 to 15 ft. of water at springtides, but no.t more than 2 or 3 ft. at low water in the dry season. Large ships have to anchor outside in the open roadstead. The town still possesses a large maritime trade, despite the silting-up of the river mouth. Pop. (1001) 20,880.

The district forms a strip of alluvial land between the hills and the sea, varying from about 9 to 34 m. in breadth; area, 2085 sq. m. The hill country rises from the western boundary line. The district naturally divides itself into three well-defined tracts —(i) The salt tract, along the coast; (2) The arable tract, or rice country; and (3) The submontane tract, or jungle lands. The salt tract runs the whole way down the coast, and forms a desolate strip a few miles broad. Towards the beach U rises into sandy ridges, from 50 to 80 ft, high, sloping inland and covered with a vegetation of low scrub jungle. Sluggish brackish streams creep along between banks of fetid black mud. The sandhills on the verge of the ocean are carpeted with creepers and the wild convolvulus. Inland, it spreads out into prairies of coarse long grass and scrub jungle, which harbour wild animals in plenty; but throughout this vast region there is scarcely a hamlet, and only patches of rice cultivation at long intervals. From any part of the salt tract one may see the boundary of the inner arable part of the district fringed with long lines of trees, from which every morning the villagers drive their cattle out into the saliferous plains to graze. The salt tract is purely alluvial, and appears to be of recent date. Towards the coast the soil has a distinctly saline taste.


Salt used to be largely manufactured in the district by evaporation, but the industry is now extinct. The arable tract lies beyond the salt lands, and embraces the chief part of the district. It is a long dead-level of rich fields, with a soil lighter in colour than that of Bengal or Behar; much more friable, and apt to split up into small cubes with a rectangular cleavage. A peculiar feature of the arable tract is the Pats (literally cups) or depressed lands near the river-banks. They were probably marshes that have partially silted up by the yearly overflow of the streams. These psts bear the finest crops. As a whole, the arable tract is a treeless region, except around the villages, which are encircled by fine mango, pipot, banyan and tamarind trees, and intersected wiUi green shady lanes of bamboo. A few palmyras, date-palms and screw-pines (a sort of aloe, whose leaves are armed with formidable triple rows of hook-shaped thorns) dot the expanse or run in straight lines between the fields. The submontane tract is an undulating country with a red soil, much broken up into ravines along the foot of the hills. Masses of latctite, buried in hard ferruginous clay, crop up as rocks or slabs. At Kopari, in Kila Ambohata, about 2 sq. m. are almost paved with such slabs, dark-red in colour, perfectly flat and polished like plates of iron. A thousand mountain torrents have scooped out for themselves picturesque ravines, clothed with an ever-fresh verdure of prickly thorns, stunted gnarled shrubs, and here and there a noble forest tree. Large tracts arc covered with sal jungle, which nowhere, however, attains to any groat height.

Balasore district is watered by six distinct river systems: those of the Subanrckha, the Burabalang, the Jamka, the Kansbans and the Dhamra.

The climate greatly varies according to the seasons of the year. The hot season lasts from March to June, but is tempered by cool sea-breezes; from June to September the weather is close and oppressive; and from October to February the cold season brings the north-easterly winds, with cool mornings and evenings.

Almost the only crop grown is rice, which is largely exported by sea. The country is exposed to destructive floods from the hill-rivers and also from cyclonic storm-waves. The district is traversed throughout its entire length by the navigable Orissa coast canal, and also by the East Coast railway from Calcutta to'Madras. The seaports of Balasore, Chandbali and Dhamra conduct a very large coasting trade. The exports are almost confined to rice, which is sent to Ceylon, the Maldives and Mauritius. The imports consist of cotton twist and piece goods, mineral oils, metals, betel-nuts and salt. In 1901 the population was 1,071,197, an increase of 9 % in the decade.

BALASSA, BALI NT. Baron or Kkkko and Gyauut (15511594), Magyar lyric poet, was bom at Keklco, and educated by the reformer, Peter Bornemissza, and by his mother, the highly gifted Protestant zealot, Anna Sulyok. His first work was a translation of Michael Bock's Wtirlzgertlcin far dit krancken Seelen, to comfort his father while in prison (1570-1572) for some political offence. On his father's release, Balint accompanied him to court, and was also present at the coronation diet of Pressburg in 1572. He then joined the army and led a merry life at the fortress of Eger. Here he fell violently in love with Anna Losonczi, the daughter of the hero of Temesvar, and evidently, from his verses, his love was not unrequited. But a new mistress speedily dragged the ever mercurial youth away from her,

and deeply wounded, she give her land to Krisztof tfngnad. Naturally Balassa only began to realize how much he loved Anna when he had lost her. He pursued her with gifts and verses, but she remained true to her pique and to her marriage vows, and he could only enshrine her memory in immortal verse. In 1574 Balint was sent to the camp of Caspar Bckcsy to assist him against Stephen Bathory; but his troops were encountered and scattered on the way thither, and ho himself was sevcrly wounded and taken, prisoner. His not very rigorous captivity lasted for two years, and he then disappears from sight. We next hear of him in 1584 as the wooer and winner of Christina Dobo, the daughter of the valiant commandant of Eger. What led him to this step we know not, but it was the cause of all his subsequent misfortunes. His wife's greedy relatives nearly ruined him by legal processes, and when in 1586 he turned Catholic to escape their persecutions they declared that he and his son had become Turks. His simultaneous desertion of his wife led to his expulsion from Hungary, and from 1589 to 1594 he led a vagabond life in Poland, sweetened by innumerable amours with damsels of every degree from cithara players to princesses. The Turkish war of 1594 recalled him to Hungary, and he died of his wounds at the siege of Esztergom the same year. Balassa's poems fall into four divisions: religious hymns, patriotic and martial songs, original love poems, and adaptations from the Latin and German. They are all most original, exceedingly objective and so excellent in point of style that it is difficult even to imagine him a contemporary of Sebastian Tinodi and Peter Ilosvay. But his erotics are his best productions. They circulated in MS. for generations and were never printed till 1874, when Farkas Dealt discovered a perfect copy of them in the Radvanyi library. For beauty, feeling and transporting passion there is nothing like them in Magyar literature till we come to the age of Michael Csokonai and Alexander Pctofi. Balassa was also the inventor of the strophe which goes by his name. It consists of nine lines— aabccbddb, or three rhyming pairs alternating with the rhyming third, sixth and ninth lines.

• See Aron Szilaily, Biliitt Balasta't Fixms (Hunt.) Budapest, 1879- (R. N. ft)

BALATON (PiATTENSEi:), the largest lake of middle Europe, in the south-west of Hungary, situated between the counties of Veszprem, Zala and Somogy. Its length is 48 m., average breadth 3) to 4} m., greatest breadth 7} m., least breadth a little less than i m. It covers 966 sq. m. and has an extreme depth of 149 ft. Its northern shores are bordered by the beautiful basaltic cones of the Bakony mountains, the volcanic soil of which produces grapes yielding excellent wine; the southern consist partly of a manJiy plain, partly of downs. The most beautiful point of the lake is that where the peninsula of Tihany projects in the waters. An ancient church of the Benedictines is here situated on the top of a hill. In a tomb therein is buried Andrew I. (d. 1061), a king of the Hungarian Arpadian dynasty. The temperature of the lake varies greatly, in a manner resembling that of the sea, and many connect its origin with a sea of the Miocene period, the waters of which are said to have covered the Hungarian plain. About fifty streams flow into the lake, which drains into the Danube and is well stocked with fish. It often freezes in winter. Lake Balaton is of growing importance as a bathing resort.

BALAYAN. a town and port of entry of the province of Batanga!, Luzon, Philippine Islands, at the head of the Gulf of Balayan, about 55 m. S. by W. of Manila. Pop. (1903) 8493. Subsequently in October 1903, Calatagan (pop. 3654) and Tuy (pop. 1430) were annexed. Balayan has a healthful climate, and is in the midst of a fertile district (with a volcanic soil), which produces rice, cane-sugar, cacao, coffee, pepper, cotton, Indian com, fruit (oranges, bananas, mangoes, &c.) and native dyes. Horses and cattle are raised for market in considerable numbers. The fisheries are,important. The native language is Tagalog.

BALBI. ADRIAN (1787-1848), Italian geographer, was bom at Venice on the »slh o( April 1782. The publication of bis PrtifcUo folitUo-ttopafico dtUo itait alttieie M.fbb (Venice, 1808) obtained his election to the chair of professor of geography at the college of San Michelc at Murano; in t8iz-i8i3 he was professor of physics at the Lyceum of Fermo, and afterwards became attached to the customs office at his native city. In 1820 he visited Portugal, and there collected materials for his Etsoi ttatistiqtu tttr U toyaumt dt Portugal el d'Algone, published in 1812 it Paris, where the author resided from 1821 until 18.1 -•. This was followed by VoritUs pMliqtut ct slaluliqucs de la monarchic porlugaise, which contains some curious observations respecting that country under the Roman sway. In 1826 he published the first volume ol his Alias clknograpliique du globe, on classification des peuples ancicns el modemes d'aprcs tears latguts, a work of great erudition. In 1832 appeared the A brcge de Gtographie, which, in an enlarged form, was translated into the principal languages of Europe. Balbi retired to Padua and there died on the n' h of March 1848. His son, Eugcnio Balbi (1812-1884), followed a similar career, being professor of geography at Pavia, and publishing his father's Srritli Gcogrofici {Turin, 1841), and original works in Cca, oaia la terra (Trieste, 1854-1867) and Saggio di gcografa (Milan, 1868).

BALBO, CESARE, Count (1789-1853), Italian writer and statesman, was born at Turin on the 2ist of November 1789. His father, Prospero Balbo, who belonged to a noble Piedmontesc family, held a high position in the Sardinian court, and at the time of Cesarc's birth was mayor of the capital. His mother, a member of the Azcglio family, died when he was three years old; and he was brought up in the house of his great-grandmother, the countess of Bugino. In 1798 he joined his father at Paris. From 1808 to 1814 Balbo served in various capacities under the Napoleonic empire at Florence, Rome, Paris and in Illyria. On the fall of Napoleon he entered the service of his native country. While his father was appointed minister of the interior, he entered the army, and undertook political missions to Paris and London. On the outbreak of the revolution of 1821, of which he disapproved, although he was suspected of sympathizing with it, he was forced into exile; and though not long after he was allowed to return to Piedmont, all public service was denied him. Reluctantly, and with frequent endeavours to obtain some appointment, he gave himself up to literature as the only means left him to influence the destinies of his country. This accounts for the fitfulncss and incompleteness of so much of his literary work, and for the practical, and in many cases temporary, rlemcnt which runs through even his most elaborate productions. The great object of his labours was to help in securing the independence of Italy from foreign control. Of true Italian unity he had no expectation and no desire, but he was devoted to the house of Savoy, which he foresaw was destined to change the fate of Italy. A confederation of separate states under the supremacy of the pope was the genuine ideal of Balbo, as it was the ostensible one of Giobcrti. But Cioberti, in his Primato, seemed to him to neglect the first essential of independence, which he accordingly inculcated in his Sperame or Hopes of Italy, in which he suggests that Austria should seek compensation in the Balkans for the inevitable loss of her Italian provinces. Preparation, both military and moral, alertness and patience were his consUnt theme. He did not desire revolution, but reform; and thus he became the leader of a moderate party, and the steady opponent not only of despotism but of democracy. At last in 1848 his hopes were to some extent satisfied by the constitution granted by the king. He -was appointed a member of the commission on the electoral law, and became first constitutional prime-minister of Piedmont, but only held office a few months. With the ministry of d'Azeglio, which soon after got into power, he was on friendly terms, and his pen continued the active defence of his political principles till his death on the 3rd of June 1853. The most important of his writings are historico-political, and derive at once their majesty and their weakness from his theocratic theory of Christianity. His style is clear and vigorous, and not unfrequently terse and epigrammatic. He published Quatlro Nnette in 1829; Storia f Italia i Dim «' Durban in 1830; Vita at Dante, 1839; Uedilanmi Storickt, 1841-1845; Lt Sferanu d'I (alia, 1844; Ptiuuri « 5

,i Storia d'ltatia, 1858; Delia Monarchia rappresentaliva in Italia (Florence, 1857).

See E. Ricotti, Delia Vila e degli Scritti di Cesare Balbo (1856); A. Vismara. Bibliograjia di Cesare Balbo (Milan, 1882).

BALBOA, VASCO NUNEZ DE (,-. 1475-1517), the discoverer of the Pacific, a leading figure among the Spanish explorers'and conquerors of America, was bom at Jerez de los Caballcros, in Estrernadura, about 1475. Though poor, he was by birth a gentleman (hidalgo). Little is known of his life till 1501, when he followed Rodrigo de Bastidas in his voyage of discovery to the western seas. He appears to have settled in Hispaniola, and took to cultivating land in the neighbourhood of Salvatierra, but with no great success, as his debts soon became oppressive. In 1509 the famous Ojeda (Hojeda) sailed from San Domingo with an expedition and founded the settlement of San Sebastian. He had left orders with Enciso, an adventurous lawyer of the town, to fit out two ships and convey provisions to the new settlement. Enciso set sail in 1510, and Balboa, whose debts made the town unpleasant to him, managed to accompany him by concealing himself, it is said, in a cask of " victuals for the voyage," which was conveyed from his farm to the ship. The expedition reached San Sebastian to find Ojeda gone and the settlement in ruins. While Enciso was undecided how to act, Balboa proposed that they should sail for Darien, on the Golf of Uraba, where he had touched when with Bastidas. His proposal was accepted and a new town was founded, named Sta Maria de la Antigua del Darien; but quarrels soon broke out among the adventurers, and Enciso was deposed, thrown into prison and finally sent o0 to Spain with Balboa's ally, the alcalde Zamudio. Being thus left in authority, Balboa began to conquer the surrounding country, and by his bravery, courtesy, kindness of heart and just dealing gained the friendship of several native chiefs. On one of these excursions he heard for the first time, from the cacique Comogre, of the ocean on the other side of the mountains and of the gold of Peru. Soon after his return to* Daricn he received letters from Zamudio, informing him that Enciso had complained to the king, and had obtained a sentence condemning Balboa and summoning him to Spain. In Us despair at this message Vasco Nunez resolved to attempt some great enterprise, the success of which he trusted would conciliate his sovereign. On the ist of September 1513 he set out with one hundred and ninety Spaniards (Francisco Pizarro among them) and one thousand natives; on the 25th or 26th of September he reached the summit of the range, and sighted the Pacific. Pizarro and two others were sent on to reconnoitre; one of these scouts, Alonzo Martin, was the first European actually to embark upon the new-found ocean, in St Michael's Gulf. On the 291)1 of September Balboa himself arrived upon the shore, and formally took possession of the " Great South Sea " in the name of the Spanish monarch. He remained on the coast for some time, heard again of Peru, visited the Pearl Islands, and thence returned to Darien, which he entered in triumph with a great booty on the i8th of January 1514. He at once sent messengers to Spain bearing presents, to give an account of his discoveries; and the king, Ferdinand the Catholic, partly reconciled to his daring subject, named him Adclanlado o/ the South Sea, or admiral of the Pacific, and governor of Panama and Coyba. None the less an expedition sailed from Spain under Don Pedro Arias de Avila (generally called Pedrarias Davila) to replace Balboa in the government of the Darien colony itself. Meanwhile the latter had crossed the isthmus and revisited the Pacific several (some say more'than twenty) times; plans of the conquest of Peru and of the exploration of the western ocean began to shape themselves in his mind; and with a view to these projects, materials for shipbuilding were gathered together upon the Pacific coast, and two light brigantines were built, launched and armed. With these Vasco Nunez now took possession of the Pearl Islands, and, had it not been for the weather, would have reached the coast of Peru. But his career was stopped by the jealousy of Pedrarias, who pretended that Balboa proposed to throw off his allegia'nce, and enticed him to Acla, near Darien, by a crafty message. Aa aoon ai he had him in his power, he threw


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