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The best edition Is in Che Monumcnta Germanise historica. Striftora, Bd. vii. (Hanover and Berlin, 1816-1893), which contains an introduction by L. C. Bcthmann.
See Hiitoin liuiraindt la France, tome viii. (Paris, 1865-1869).
BALDI, BERNARDINO (1533-1617), Italian mathematician and miscellaneous writer, was descended of a noble family at Urbino, in which city he was born on the 6th of June 1533. He pursued his studies at Padua with extraordinary zeal and success, and is said to have acquired, during the course of his life, no fewer than sixteen languages, though according to Tiraboschi the inscription on his tomb limits the number to twelve.' The appearance of the plague at Fadua obliged him to retire to his Dative city, whence he was, shortly afterwards, called to act as tutor to Fcrrante (Ferdinand) Gonzaga, from whom he received the rich abbey of GuastaUa. He held office as abbot for twentyfive years, and then retired to his native town. In 1612 he was employed by the duke as his envoy to Venice, where he distinguished himself by the congratulatory oration he delivered before the Venetian senate on the election of the new doge, Andrea Memmo, Baldi died at Urbino on the 12th of October 1617. He was, perhaps, the most universal genius of his age, and is said to have written upwards of a hundred different works, the chief part of which have remained unpublished. His various works give satisfactory evidence of his abilities as a theologian, mathematician, geographer, antiquary, historian nnd poet. The Cronica dei Malcmalici (published at Urbino in 1707) is an abridgment of a larger work, on which he had bestowed twelve years of labour, and which was intended to contain the lives of more than two hundred mathematicians. His life has been written by Affd, Mazzuchclli and others.
BALDINGER, ERNST GOTTFRIED (1738-1804), German physician, was born near Erfurt on the nth of May 1738. He studied medicine at Erfurt, Halle and Jena, and in 1761 was entrusted with the superintendence of the military hospitals connected with the Prussian encampment near Torgau. He published in 1765 a treatise De Afilitutrt Morblsi which met with a favourable reception. In 1768 he became professor of medicine at Jena, whence he removed in 1773 to Cottingcn, and in 1783 to Marburg, where he died of apoplexy on the 2ist of January 1804. Among his pupils were S. T. Sflmmerring and J. F. Blumenbach. Some eighty-four separate treatises are mentioned as having proceeded from his pen. in addition t6 numerous papers scattered through various collections and journals.
BALDINUCCI, FTUPPO (1624-1696), Italian writer on the history of the arts, was born at Florence. His chief work is entitled Nolizie de'Profcssori del Discgno da Cimabiic . . . (dal 1260 sine a! 1670), and was first published in six vols. 410, 16811728. The capital defect of this work is the attempt to derive all Italian art from the schools of Florence. A good edition is that by Ranalli (5 vols. Svo, Florence, 1845-1847). Baldinucci's whole works were published in fourteen vols. at Milan, 1808-1812.
BALDNESS' (technically alopecia, from 4X<iir>;$, a fox, foxes often having bald patches on their coals), the result of loss of hair, particularly on the human scalp. So far as remediable alopecia is concerned, two forms may be distinguished: one the premature baldness so commonly seen in young men, due to alopecia seborrhoica, the olher alopecia arcata, now regarded as an epidemic disease.
Alopecia seborrhoica is th»t premature baldness so constantly Been, in which the condition steadily advances from the forehead backwards, until only a fringe of hair is left on the head. It is always due to the underlying disease seborrhoca, and though it progresses steadily if neglected, is yet very amenable to treatment. The two drugs of greatest value in this trouble are sulphur and salicylic acid, some eighteen grains of each added to au ounce of vaseline making a good application. This should be rubbed well into the scalp daily for a prolonged period. Where the greasiness is objected to, the following salicylic lotion may be substituted,
1 The adjective " bald " M. E. " bailed " is usually explained as literally " round and smooth like a ball," but it may be tcmnrcti-d with a nem tal, white or shining. The Greek *oXa«»«ii certainly suggests some such derivation.
though the vaseline application has probably the greater value: —3 Ac. salicyl. 3i—iv; Ol. ricini 3»—vi; Ol. ros. geran. HI x; Spt. vini ad Jvi. The head must be frequently cleansed, and in very mild cases a daily washing with soap spirit will at times effect a cure unaided.
Alopecia areata is characterized by the development of round patches more or less completely denuded of hair. It is most commonly observed on the scalp, though it may occur on any part of the body where hair is naturally present. The patches are rounded, smooth and somewhat depressed owing to the loss of a large proportion of the follicles. At the margin of the patches short broken hairs arc usually to be seen. Clinical evidence is steadily accumulating to show that this disease may be transmitted. Organisms are invariably present, in some cases few in number, but in others very abundant and forming a continuous sheath round the hair. They were first described by Dr George Thin, who gave them the name of Bacterium dccalvens. The disease must be distinguished from ringworm—especially the bald variety; but though tlus is at times somewhat difficult clinically, the use of the microscope leaves no room for doubt. It must be remembered that for patients under forty years Of age, time alone will generally bring about the desired end, though treatment undoubtedly hastens recovery. After forty every year added to the patient's age makes the prognosis less good. The general hygiene and mode of life of the sufferer must be very carefully attended to-, and any weakness suitably treated. Thr following lotion should be applied daily to the affected parts, at first cautiously, later more vigorously, and in stronger solution:— H Acidi lactic! 3i—Si; 01. ricini 3«; Spt. vini ad 3iv.
The loss of hair following acute fevers must be treated by keeping the hair short, applying stimulating lotions to the scalp, and attending to the general hygiene of the patient.
BALDOVINETTI, ALESSIO i- ; -y .,••••'. Florentine painter, was bom on the 14th of October 1427, and died on the 2oth oft August 1409. He was a follower of die group- of scientific realists and naturalists in art which included Andrea del Castagno, Paolo Ueccllo and Domem'co Vcneziano, the influence of the last-named master being particularly manifest in his work. Tradition, probable in itself though not attested by contemporary records, says that he assisted in the decorations of the chapel of S. Egidio in Santa Maria Nuova, carried out during the years 1441-1451 by Domenico Vcneziano and in conjunction with Andrea del Castagno. That he was commissioned to complete the scries at a later date (1460) is certain. In 1462 Alcssio was employed to paint the great fresco of the Annunciation in the cloister of the Annunziata, which still exists in ruined condition. The remains as we see them give evidence of the artist's power both of imitating natural detail with minute fidelity and of spacing his figures in a landscape with a large sense of air and distance; and they amply verify two separate statements of Vasari concerning him: that" he delighted in dra \ving landscapes from nature exactly as they are, whence we sec in his paintings rivers, bridges, rocks, plants, fruits, roads, fields, cities, exercisegrounds, and an infinity of other such things," and that he was an inveterate experimentalist in technical matters. His favourite method in wall-painting was to lay in his compositions in fresco and finish them a sccco with a mixture of yolk of egg and liquid varnish. This, says Vasari, was with the view of protecting the painting from damp; but in course of time the parts executed with this vehicle scaled away, so that the great secret he hoped to have discovered turned out a failure. In 1463 he furnished a cartoon of the Nativity, which was executed in tarsia by Giuliano do Maiano in the sacristy of the cathedral and still exists.. From 1466 date the groups of four Evangelists and four Fathers of the Church in fresco, together with the Annunciation on an oblong panel, which still decorate the Portuguese chapel in the church of S. Miniato, and are given in error by Vasari to Pict'ro Pollaiuolo. A fresco of the risen Christ between angels inside a Holy Sepulchre in the chapel of the Ruccllai family, also still existing, belongs to 1467. In 1471 Alessio undertook important works for the church of Sta Trinita on the commission of Bougianni Gianfigliazzi. First, to paint an altar-piece nf the Virgin and Child with six saints; this was finished in 1477 and is now in the Academy at Florence: next, a scries of frescoes from the Old Testament which was to be completed according to contract within five years, but actually remained 6n hand for fully sixteen. In 1497 the finished scries, which contained many portraitsof leading Florentine citizens, was valued ata thousand gold florins by a committee consisting of Cosimo Rossclti, Bcnozzo Gozzoli, Pcrugino and Filippino Lippi; only some defaced fragments of it now remain. Meanwhile Alcssio had been much occupied with other technical pursuits and researches apart from painting. He was regarded by his contemporaries as the one craftsman who had rediscovered and fully understood the long disused art of mosaic, and was employed accordingly between 1481 and 1483 to repair the mosaics over the door of the church of S. Minialo, as well as several of those both within and without the baptistery of the cathedral. Jfl law, and ready to discuss points of dogma. In an excellent sketch of Baldwin's character (xvi. cii.), William of Tyre tells us that he spent his spare time in reading and had a particular affection for history; that he was well skilled in the jut amttuludinarium of the kingdom (afterwards recorded by lawyers like John of Ibelin and Philip of Novara as "the assizes of Jerusalem "); and that he had the royal faculty for remembering (tees, and could generally be trusted to address by name anybody whom he had once met, so that he was more popular with high and low than any of his predecessors. He had, William also reports, a gift of impromptu eloquence, and a faculty both for saying witty things pleasantly at other people's expense and for listening placidly to witticisms directed against himself; while he was generous to excess without needing to make exactions in order to support his generosity, and always respected the Church. If in his youth he had been prone to gambling, and before his marriage with Theodora had been somewhat lax in his morals, when he became a man he put away childish things; his married life was a shining example to his people and he was abstemious both in food and drink, holding that "excess in titiicr was an incentive to the worst of crimes." Even his enemy, Nurcddin,. said of him, when he died—" the Franks have lost such a prince that the world has not now his like."
These are the recorded and datable works of the master; others attributed to him on good and sufficient internal evidences are as follows:—A small panel in the Florence Academy, with the three subjects of the Baptism, the Marriage of Cana and the Transfiguration; this was long attributed to Fra Angelico, but is to all appearance early work of Baldovinctti: an Annunciation in the Ufiizi, formerly in the church of S. Giorgio; unmistakably by the master's hand though given by Vasari to Peselino: several Madonnas of peculiarly fine and characteristic quality; one in the collection of Madame Andr6 at Paris acquired direct from the descendants of the painter, a second, formerly in the Duchatel collection and now in the Louvre, a third in the possession of Mr Bcrenson at Florence. All these are executed with the determined patience and precision characteristic of Baldovinetti; two, those at the Louvre and in the Andre collection, arc distinguished by beautiful landscape backgrounds; and all, but especially the example in the Louvre, add a peculiar and delicate charm to the quality of grave majesty which Alessio's works share with those of Piero della Francesca and others of Domenico Vcncziano's following. They probably belong to the years 1460-1465. In the later of his preserved works, while there is no abatement of precise and laborious finish, we find beginning to prevail a certain harshness and commonness of type, and a lack of care for beauty in composition, the technical and scientific searcher seeming more and more to predominate over the artist.
Sec also Vasari. ed. Mitanesi, vol. ii.; Crowe-Cavalcaselle. Hiit. of Painting in Italy, vol. ii.; Ucrnhard Bcrcnson, Study and Criticism of Italian Art, 2nd scries. (S. C.)
BALDRIC (from O. Fr. baudrci. O. Gcr. baldcrick, of doubtful origin; cognate with English "belt "), a belt worn over one shoulder, passing diagonally across the body and under the other arm, cither as an ornament or a support for a sword, bugle, &c.
BALDU1NUS. JACOBUS, Italian jurist of the ijih century, was by birth a Bolognesc, and is reputed to have been of a noble family. He was a pupil of Azo, and the master of Odofrcdus, of Hostiensis, and of Jacobus de Ravanis, the last of whom has the reputation of having first applied dialectical forms to legal science. His great fame as a professor of civil law at the university of Bologna caused Balduinus to be elected podtsta of the city of Genoa, where he was entrusted with the reforms of the law of Ihc republic. He died at Bologna in 1225, and has left behind him some treatises on procedure, the earliest of their kind.
BALDUS DE UBALDIS, PETRUS (1327-1406), Italian jurist, a member of the noble family of the Ubaldi (Baldcschi), was born at Perugia in 1327, and studied civil law there under Bartolus, being admitted to the degree of doctor of civil law at the early age of seventeen. Fcdericus Petrucius ot Siena is said to have been the master under whom he studied canon law. Upon his promotion to the doctorate he at once proceeded to Bologna, where h*. taught law for three years; after which he was advanced to a professorship at Perugia, where he remained for thirty-three years. He taught law subsequently at Pisa, at Florence, at Padua and at Pavia, at a time when the schools of law in those universities disputed the palm with the school of Bologna. He died at Pavia on the iSth of April 1406. The extant works of Baldus hardly bear out the great reputation which he acquired
Literature.—William of Tyre is the great primary authority for hia reign; Cinnamus and Ibn-aj-athir (sec Bibliography to the article Crusadks) give the Byzantine and Mahommcdan point of view. His reign is dcicrilxxi by R. Kohricht, Geslkuklr del Konifnichs Jerusalem (Innsbruck, 1698), C. xiii.-xvi (E. Bx.)
BALDWIN IV.. the son of Amalric I. by his first wife Agnes, ruled in Jerusalem from 1174 to 1183, when he had his nephew Baldwin crowned in his stead- Educated by William of Tyre, Baldwin IV. came to the throne at the early age of thirteen; and thus the kingdom came under the regency of Raymund II. of Tripoli. Happily for the kingdom whose king was a child and a leper, the attention of Saladin was distracted for several years by an attempt to wrest from the sons of Nureddin the inheritance of their father—an attempt partially successful in 1174, but only finally realized in r 183. The problems of the reign of Baldwin IV. may be said to have been two—his sister Sibylla and the fiery Raynald of Chatillon, once prince of Antioch through marriage to Constance (1153-1159), then a captive for many years in the hand of the Mahommcdans, and since i r 76 lord of Krak (Kerak), to the east of the Dead Sea. Sibylla was the heiress of the kingdom; the problem of her marriage was important. Married first to William of Montfcrrat, to whom she bore a son, Baldwin, she was again married in nSo to Guy of Lusignan; and dissen•fons between Sibylla and her husband on the one side, and Baldwin IV. on the other, troubled the latter years of Us reign. Meanwhile Raynald of Krak took advantage of the position of his fortress, which lay on the great route of trade from Damascus and Egypt, to plunder the caravans (1182), and thus helped to precipitate the inevitable attack by Saltdin. When the attack came, Guy of Lusignan was made regent by Baldwin IV., but he declined battle and he was consequently deposed both from his regency and from his right of succession, while Sibylla's ion by her first husband was crowned king as Baldwin V. in 1183. For a time Baldwin IV. still continued to be active; but In 1184 he handed over the regency to Raymund of Tripoli, and in 1185 he died.
Literature.—Tho narrative of William of Tyre concludes with Baldwin IV.'• transfer of the regency to Ravmund of Tripoli. R. Rohricht describe* the reign of Baldwin iV., Gesthichte da Konigrnckt Jerusalem (Innsbruck, 1898). C. xix.-xxi. (E. J'.k ) _
BALDWIN V., the son of Sibylla (daughter of Amalric I.) by her first husband, William of Montferrat, was the nominal king of Jerusalem from 1183 to 1186, under the regency of Raymund of Tripoli. His reign is marked by the advance of Saladin and by dissensions between the government and Guy of Lusignan.
BALDWIN, JAMES MARK (1861- ), American philosopher, was bom at Columbia, S.C., and educated at Princeton and several German universities. He was professor of philosophy in the university of Toronto (i8$g). of psychology at Princeton . and subsequently (1003) of philosophy and psychology in
Johns Hopkins University. Prominent among experimental psychologists, he was one of the founders of the Psychological Review. In 1891 he was vice-president of the International Congress of Psychology held in London, and in 1897-1898 president of the American Psychological Association; he received a gold medal from the Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences of Denmark (1807), was honorary president of the International Congress of Criminal Anthropology held in Geneva in 1896, and was made an honorary D.Sc. of Oxford University. Apart from articles in the Psychological Rnicai, he has written:— Handbook of Psychology (1890); translation of Ribot's German Psychology of To-day (1886); Elements of Psychology (1893); Social and Ethical Interpretations in Mental Development (1898); Story of the Mind (1898); Mental Development in the Child and Uk Race (1896); Thought and Things (London and New York, vol. i., 1906)* He also contributed largely to the Dictionary of P/iilosophy and Psychology (1901-1905), of which he was editorin-chief.
BALDWIN, ROBERT (1804-1858), Canadian statesman, was born at York (now Toronto) on the I2th of May 1804. His father, William Warren Baldwin (d. 1844), went to Canada from Ireland in 1798; though a man of wealth and good family and a devoted member of the Church of England, he opposed the religious and political oligarchy which was then at the head of Canadian affairs, and brought up his son in the same principles. Robert Baldwin was called to the Bar in 1825, and entered into partnership with his father. In 1829 he was elected a member of the parliament of Upper Canada for the town of York, but was defeated in the following year and retired for a time into private life. During the next six years, he so constantly advocated a responsible executive as the one cure for the political and economic evils of the time that he was known as" the man of one idea." In 1836 he was called by Sir Francis Bond Head. (17931875), the lieutenant-governor, to the executive council, but finding himself without influence, and compelled to countenance measures to which he was opposed, he resigned within a month. Though a reformer, he strongly disapproved of the rebellion of 1837-1838. On the union of the two Canadas he became (1841) a member of the executive council under Lord Sydenham, but soon resigned on the question of responsible government. In 1843 he formed the first Liberal administration, in connexion with Mr (afterwards Sir) L. H. Lafontaine, but resigned the next year, after a quarrel with the governor-general, Sir Charles Metcalfe, on a question of patronage, in which he felt that of responsible government to be involved. At the general election which followed, the governor-general was sustained by a narrow majority, but in 1848 the Liberals were again returned to power, and he and Mr Lafontaine formed their second administration under Lord Elgin and carried numerous important reforms, including the freeing from sectarian control of the Provincial University and the introduction into Upper Canada of an important municipal system.
Internal dissensions soon began to appear in the Liberal party, and in 1851 Mr Baldwin resigned. The special struggle leading to his resignation was an attempt to abolish the court of chancery of Upper Canada, whose constitution was due to a measure introduced by Baldwin in 1849. The attempt, though defeated, had been supported by a majority of the representatives from Upper Canada, and Baldwin's fastidious conscience took it as a vote of want of confidence. A deeper reason was his inability to approve of the advanced views of the Radicals, or "Clear Grits," as they came to be called. On seeking re-election in York, he declined to give any pledge on the burning question of the Clergy Reserves and was defeated. In 1858 the LiberalConservative party, formed in 1854 by a coalition, attempted to bring him out as a candidate for the upper bouse, which was at this date elective, but though he had broken with the advanced reformers, he could not approve of the tactics of their opponents, and refused to stand. He died on the 9th of December 1858. Even those who most bitterly attacked his measures admitted the purity and unselfishness of his motives. After the concession of responsible government, he devoted himself to bringing about