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Distance from Quetta. No part of Baluchistan is beyond the reach of the political officer, but there are many parts where he is not often teen. The climate of British Baluchistan is dry and bracing— even exhilarating — but the extremes of temperature lead to the development of fever in very wiverc forma. On the whole it is favourable to European existence.

South-west of the dividing railway lies the great block of Southern Baluchistan. Within this area the drainage generally trends south Sonthtra. *°d west, either to the Arabian Sea or to the central fiu Amp* of Lor* and Mashkcl. The Hab river, which forms the boundary west of Karachi; the Purali (the ancient A r abut), Which drains the low-lying flats of Las Bela; the Hingol (the ancient Tomer us) and the Dasht, which drain Makran, arc all considerable streams, draining into the Arabian Sea and forming important arteries in the network of interim! communication. An exception to the general rule is found in the MuIL, which carries the floods of the Kaiat highlands into the Gandiva basin and forms one of the most important of the ancient highway* from the Indus plains to Kandahar. The fortress of Kalat Ik nituated about midway between tin- v;urLr , . ,( the Bolan and the Mulla, near a small tributary of the Lora (.the river of I-'iohm and Quetta), about 6800 ft. above sea-level, on the western edgv of a cultivated plain in the very midst of hills. (See Kalat.) To the north arc the long sweeping tines of the Sara wan ridges, enclosing narrow fertile valleys, end passing away to the south-wot to the edge of the K ha ran desert- East and south arc the ''

.r' • •; I,' .-. • i. amongst which the Mujla rises, and through which it btraks in a writ* of magnificent defiles in order to reach the Gantlava plain. Routes which converge on Kalat from the south pass for the most part through narrow wooded valleys, enclosed between steep ridgw of denuded hills, and, following the general strike of these ridges, they run from valley to valley with easy grades. Kalat is the " hut) " or centre, from which radiate the Bolan, the Mulla and the southern Lora affluents; but the Lora drains also the I i 'mi valley on the north ; thu two systems uniting in Shorawak, to lit^o themselves in the desert and swamps to the west of NuRhki, on the road to ••• i r.m. Sixty mile-* south of Kalat, and beyond the Mulla sources, commences another remarkable hydrographic system which Includes .ill southern and south-western Baluchistan. To the west lir-t the K ha ran desert, with intermittent river channels enclosed and often lo*t in •anit-wuvcs ere they reach the Mashkcl swamps on the far borders of Persia. To the south-west are the long sweeping v.illrys of Raksnan and Panjyur, which, curving northwards, likewise discharge their drainage into the MashkcK Directly south are the beginnines of the meridional arteries, the Hab, the Purali and the Hingol, which end in the Arabian Sea, leaving a Rpace of mountainous seaboard (Makvan) south of the Panjpur and west of the Hingol, which is watered (so far as it is watered at all) by the long lateral Kej river and several smaller mountain stream*. Thus southern Baluchistan comprises four hydrographies! section*. First is the Ion* extension from Kalat, southward*, of that inconceivably wilil highland country which Uccs the desert of Sind, the foot of which forms the Indian frontier. This is the land of the Brahui, and the flat wall of its frontier limestone barrier i • one of the most remarkable features in the configuration of the whole line of IndLin borderland. For the first 60 m. Irom the sea near Karachi the I lab river in the boundary of Sind, and here, acrou the enclosing desolation of outcropping ridges and intervening sand, a road may be found Into Makran. But from the point whore the boundary leaves the Hab to follow the Kirthar range not a break occurs (save one) in 150 m. of solid rock wall, rising many thousands of feet straight from the sandy plain. The one break, or gorge, which allow* the Krj waters to pass, only forms a fecal gateway into a masa of impracticable hills. Secondly, to the west of this mountain wildcrne*», stretching upwards from the sea in a wedge form between the Brahui highlands and the group of towering peaks which enclose the Hingol river and abut on the sea at Ma tan, are the alluvial (lots and delta of the Purali, forming the little province of Las Ucla, theTiome of the Las Rajput. In this hot and thirsty corner of Baluchistan, ruled by the Jam or Cham, there fa a fairly wide stretch of cultivation, nourished by the alluvial detritus of the Pur.il! and well irrigated. In a little garden to the •oath of the modern town' of Beta (the ancient Armaba) U the tomb of Sir Robert Sandeman, who spent the best part of zn energetic and Active life in the making of Baluchistan.

The boundary between Baluchistan and Afghanistan, starting from Nufihki, cuts across the Lora hamun, leaving the frontier post .., of Chagat to Baluchistan, and from this point to the

SiHHtSey. Malik Siah Koh it is based partly on the central mountainous water-divide already referred to, and partly runs In straight lines through the desert south of the salt swamns of the Gaud-i-^irreh. It thus s ,• • - 50 m. to the south of the Hclmund. entirely shutting off that valley and the approach to Scistan between the Uclmund and the Gaud-i-Zirreh (the, only approach from the east in seasons of flood) from Baluchistan. But it leaves a connected line *jt desert route between Nushki and Scfctan, which is open in all ordinary seasons, to the south, and this rt'ute has been largely de»•>•.••' | i or - f .1 -, having been established at intervajs and *'-ll • having been dug. Theft is already a promising khafila traffic *tang K and the railway has been extended from Quetta to

-The mountain ranges of Baluchistan consist chiefly

of Cretaceous and Tertiary beds, which are thrown into a series of folds running approximately parallel to the mountain ridges. The folds arc part of an extensive system arranged as if in a festoon hanging southwards between Peshawar and Mount Ararat, but with the outer folds looped up at Sibi so as to form the subsidiary festoon of the Suliman and Bugti Hills. Outside the folds lit- the horizontal deposits of the Makran coast, and within them lies the stony desert of north-western Baluchistan. In the broader depressions between the mountain ridges the beds arc said to be but little disturbed. Besides the Cretaceous and Tertiary beds, Jurassic rocks arc known to take a considerable part in the formation of the hills of British Baluchistan. Triassic beds lie along the south side of the upper Zhob, and Fusidina limestone has also been found there. With the exception of the later Tertiary beds the deposits are mostly marine. But in the upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary, especially in north-western Baluchistan, there is an extensive development of volcanic tuffs and conglomerates, which arc probably contemporaneous with the Dcccan Traps of India. Great masses of syenite and diorite were intruded during the Tertiary period, and within the curve ot the folded belt a line of recent volcanic cones stretches from western Baluchistan into eastern Persia. In Baluchistan these volcanoes appear to be extinct; though the Koh-i-Tafdan, beyond the Persian frontier, still emits vapours at frequent intervals. The lavas and ashes which form these cones arc mostly andesitic. Mud " volcanoes " occur upon the Makran coast, but it is doubtful whether these are in any way connected with true volcanic agencies.

So far as is known, the mineral wealth of Baluchistan is inconsiderable. Coal has been worked In the Tertiary beds along the Harnai route to puctta, but the seams are thin and the quality poor. A somewhat thick and viscid form of mineral oil is met with at Khattan in the Marri country; and petroleum of excellent quality has been found in the Sherani hills and probably occurs in other portions of the Suliman Range. Sulphur has long been worked on a small scale in the Koh-i-Sult-in, the largest of the volcanoes of western Baluchistan.

Races.—Within the Baluchistan half of the desert are to fee found scattered tribes of nomads, called Rckis (or desert people), the Mohamadani being the most numerous. They arc probably of Arab origin. This central desert is the Kir, Kej, Katz or Kash Kaian of Arabic medieval geography and a part of the ancient Kaiani kingdom; the prefix Kcj or Kach always denoting lowlevel flats or valleys, In contradistinction to mountains or hills. The Mohamadani nomads occupy the central mountain region, to the south of which He the Mashkcl and Kharan deserts, inhabited by a people of quite different origin, who possess something approaching to historical records. These are the Naushirwanis, a purely Persian race, who passed into Baluchistan within historic times, although the exact date is uncertain. The Naushirwanis appear to be identical with the Tahuki or Tahukani who arc found in Pcrso-Baluchistan. (A place Taocc is mentioned by Ncarchus, by Strabo and by Ptolemy.) They are a fine manly race of people, in many respects superior to their modern compatriots of Iran. Between the Naushirwanis of the Kharan desert and Mashkel, and the fish-eating population of the coast, enclosed in the narrow valleys of the Rakshan and Kcj tributaries, or about the sources of the Hingol, arc tribes innumerable, remnants of races which may be recognized in the works of Herodotus, or may be traced in the records of recent immigration. Equally scattered through the whole country, and almost everywhere recognizable, is the underlying Persian population (Tajik), which is sometimes represented by a locally dominant tribe, but more frequently by the agricultural slave and bondsman of the general community. Such arc the DehwarsorDchkans, and the Durzadas (Derusiafiot Herod.i. 125), who extend all through Makran, and, as slaves,are called Nakibs. The Arabs have naturally left their mark most strongly impressed on the ethnography of Baluchistan. All Rind tribes claim to be of Arab origin and of Koraish extraction. As the Arabs occupied all southern Baluchistan and Scktan from a very early date, and finally spread through the Sind valley, where they remained till the iath century, their genealogical records have become much obscured and it is probable that there is not

1 See W. T. Blanford. "Geological Notes on the Hiils in the neighbourhood of the Sind and Punjab Frontier between Quotta


(1901); E. Vredcnburg, " On the Occurrence of a Species of HalorItes in the Trias of Baluchistan," Rec. Ceol. Surv. India, vol. xxxi (1904), pp. 162-166, pk. 17, is


Baluchi language belongs to the Iranian branch of the Aryan subfamily of the Indo-European family. It is divided into two main dialects which are so different that speakers of the one are almost unintelligible to speakers of the other. These two dialects arc separated by the belt of Brahui and Sindht speakers who occupy the Sara wan and Jalawan hills, and Las Beta. Owing probably to the fact that Makran was for many generations under the rule of the Persian kings, the Baluchi spoken on the west of the province, which b also called Makrani, is more largely impregnated with Persian words and expressions than the Eastern dialect. In the latter the words in use for common objects and acts are nearly all pure Baluchi, the remainder of the language being borrowed from Persian, Sindht and Panjabi. There is no indigenous literature,' but many specimens of poetry exist in which heroes and brave deeds are commemorated, anu a y;<>o<I many of these have been collected from time to time. The philological classification of the Brahui dialect has been much disputed, but the latest enquiries, conducted by Dr G. A. Grienon, have resulted In hlv placing it among the Dravjdtan languages. It is remarkable to and in Baluchistan a Dravidian tongue, surrounded on all sides by Aryan languages, and with the next nearest branch of the same family located so far away as the Gond hills of central India. Brahui has no literature of its own, and such knowledge as we possess of It is due to European scholars, such as Bcncw, Trumpjp and Caldwell. Numerically the Brabui»arcthc»trongcst race in Baluchistan. They number nearly 300,000 souls. Next to them and numbering nearly 200,000 arc Fathans. After this there Es a drop to 80.000 mixed Baluchis and less than 40,000 Lasts (Lumtr*) of Las Beta. There are thirteen indigenous tribes of Pathnn origin, of which the Kakars (?.v.) are by far the most important, numbering more than 100,000 souls. They are to be found in the largest numbers in Zhob, Quctta, Pishin and Thal-CholiaU, but there are a few of them in Kalat and Chagai also. The most important B,ilitch tribesarethc Marris. the Bughtis, the Boledis, the Domkis, the Magasstsand the Rinds. Owing partly to the tribal system, and partly to the levelling effect of Islam, nothing similar to the Brahma nical system of social precedent is to be found iu Baluchistan.

History—Of the early history of this portion of the Asiatic continent lillle or nothing is known. The poverty and natural strength of the country, combined with the ferocious habits of the natives, seem to have equally repelled the friendly visits of inquisitive strangers and the hostile incursions of invading armies. The first distinct account which we nave is from Arrian, who, with his usual brevity and severe veracity, narrates the march of Alexander through this region, which he calls the country of the Oreitae and Gadrosii.1 He gives a very accurate account of this forlorn tract, its general aridity and the necessity of obtaining water by digging in the beds of torrents; describes the food of the inhabitants as dates and fish; and adverts to the occasional occurrence of fertile spots, the abundance of aromatic and thorny shrubs and fragrant plants, and the violence of the monsoon in the western part of Makran. He notices clso the Impossibility of supporting a large army, and the consequent destruction of the greater part of the men and beasts which accompanied the expedition of Alexander. In the 8th century this country was traversed by an army of the Caliphate.

The precise period at which the Brahuis gained the mastery cannot be accurately ascertained; but it was probably about two and a half centuries ago. The last raja of the Hindu dynasty found himself compelled to call for the assistance of the mountain shepherds, with their leader, Kambar, in order to check the encroachments of a horde of depredators, headed by an Afghan chief, who infested the country and even threatened to attack the seat of government. Kambar successfully performed the service for which he had been engaged; but having in a few years quelled the robbers against whom he had been called in, and finding himself at the head of the only military tribe in the country, he formally deposed the raja and assumed the government.

The history of the country after the accession of Kambar is as obscure as during the Hirfuu dynasty. It would appear, however, that the sceptre was quietly transmitted to Abdulla Khan, th« fourth in descent from Kambar, who, being an intrepid and ambitious soldier, turned his thoughts towards the conquest of Kacb Gandava, then held by different petty chiefs under the authority of the nawabs of Sind

After various success, the Kambaranis at length possessed themselves of the sovereignty of a considerable portion of that

1 See V. A. Smhh, Barjy flirt tf India (cd 1908), p 103 seq.

fruitful plain, including the chief town, Gandava. It was during this contest that the famous Nadir Shah advanced from Persia to the invasion of Hindustan; and while at Kandahar he despatched several detachments into Baluchistan and established his authority in that province. Abdulla Khan, however, was continued in the government of the country by Nadir's orders; but he was soon after killed in a battle with the forces of the nawabs of Sind. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Haji Mahommcd Khan, who abandoned himself to the most tyrannical and licentious way of life and alienated his subjects by oppressive taxation. In these circumstances Nasir Khan, the second son of Abdulla Khan, who had accompanied ths victorious Nadir to Delhi, and acquired the favour and confidence of that monarch, returned to Kalat and was hailed by the whole population as their deliverer. Finding that expostulation had no effect upon his brother, he one day entered his apartment and stabbed him to the heart. As soon as the tyrant was dead, Nasir Khan mounted the musnud amidst the universal joy of his subjects; and immediately transmitted a report of the events which had taken place to Nadir Shah, who was then encamped near Kandahar. The shah received the intelligence with satisfaction, and despatched a firman, by return of the messenger, appointing Nasir Khan beglar bcgi (prince of princes) of all Baluchistan. This event took place in the year 1739.

Nasir Khan proved an active, politic and warlike prince. He took great pains to re-establish the internal government of all the provinces in his dominions, and improved and fortified the city of Kalat. On the death of Nadir Shah in 1747, he acknowledged the title of the king of Kabul, Ahmad Shah (Durani). In 1758 he declared himself entirely independent; upon which Ahmad Shah despatched a force against him und<r one of his ministers. The khan, however, raised an army and totally routed the Afghan army. On receiving intelligence of this discomfiture, the king himself marched with strong reinforcements, and a pitched battle was fought in which Nasir Khan was worsted. He retired in good order to Kalat, whither he was followed by the victor, who invested the place with his whole army. The khan made a vigorous defence; and, after the royal troops had been foiled in their attempts to take the city by storm or surprise, a negotiation was proposed by the king which terminated in a treaty of peace. By this treaty it was stipulated that the king was to receive the cousin of Nasir Khan in marriage; and that the khan was to pay no tribute, but only, when called upon, to furnish troops to assist the armies, for which he was to receive an allowance in cash equal to half their pay. The khan frequently distinguished himself in the subsequent wars of Kabul; and, as a reward for his services, the king bestowed upon him several districts in perpetual and entire sovereignty. Having succeeded in quelling a dangerous rebellion headed by his cousin Behram Khan, this able prince at length died in extreme old age in the month of June 1795, leaving three sons and five daughters. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Mahmud Khan, then a boy of about fourteen years. During the reign of this prince, who has been described as a very humane and indolent man, the country was distracted by sanguinary broils; the governors of several provinces and districts withdrew their allegiance; and the dominions of the khans of Kalat gradually so diminished that they now comprehend only a small portion of the provinces formerly subject to Nasir Khan.

In 1839, when the British army advanced through the Bolan Pass towards Afghanistan, the conduct of Mclirab Khan, the ruler of Baluchistan, was considered so treacherous and dangerous as to require " the exaction of retribution from that chieftain," and " the execution of such arrangements as would establish future security in that quarter." General Willshire was accordingly detached from the army of the Indus with 1050 men to assault Kalat. A gate was knocked in by the field-pieces, and the town and citadel were stormed in a few minutes. Above 400 Baluchcs were slain, among them Mehrab Khan himself, and rooo prisoners were taken. Subsequent inquiries have, however, proved that the treachery towards the British was nol independent Baluchistan, N. by Seistan and the central Persian desert, and \V. by Kerraan. The country has little water and only a small part of it is undet cultivation, the remainder being composed of arid, waterless plains, deserts—some stony, others with moving s»nd»—barren hills and mountains. The principal rivers are the Mashkid and that of Bampur which flow away from the sea and are lost in depressions called kamum. The riven which flow Into the sea are unimportant and dry during the greater part of the year. Persian Baluchistan forms an administrative division of the province of Kerman and is subdivided into the following twenty districts:—(i) Bampur; (0 Serhad; (3) Dizck; (4) Jalk; (s) Sib; (6) Irafshan; (7) Magas; (8) Scrbaz; (9) Lashar; (to) Champ; (n) Fannuj; (u) Bazman; (13) Aptar; (14) Daman; (15) Aprandagan; (16) Asfchgch; (i;) Surmij; (18) Meskutan; (19) Pushteh; (»o) Makran, the country of the Ichthyophagi, with the subdistricts Kawkand, Gch, Bint, Dasht, Kucheh and Bahu. The total population of Baluchistan is under 700,000. The province was practically independent until the occupation of Bampur by Persian troops in 1840, and over some of the extreme eastern districts Persinn supremacy was not recognized until 1872.


BALUE, JEAN <f. 1421-1401), French cardinal and minister of Louis XI., was bom of very humble parentage at Angle in Poitou. and was first patronized by the bishop of Poitiers. In 1461 he became vicar-general of the bishop of Angers. His activity, cunning and mastery of intrigue gained him the appreciation of Louis XI., who made him his almoner. In a snort time Baluc became a considerable personage. In 1465 he received the bishopric of Evrcux; the king made him It premier dtt grant conscil, and, in spite of his dissolute life, obtained for him a cardinalatc (1468). But in that year Balue was compromised in the king's humiliation by Charles the Bold at Pcionne and excluded from the council. He then intrigued with Charles against his master: their secret correspondence was intercepted, and on the 5jrd of April 1460 Balue was thrown into prison, where he remained eleven years, but not, as has been alleged, in an iron cage. In 1480, through the intervention of Pope Sixtus IV., he was set at liberty, and from that time lived in high favour at the court of Rome. He received the bishopric of Albano and afterwards that of Palcstrina. In 1484 he was even sent to France as legate a lalere. He died at Ancona in 1491.

Sec Henri Forfeot. "Jean Balue, cardinal d'Angers" (1895), in the Bibliotlteque At I'holt de! ka*tel Hudrt.

BALUSTER (through the Fr. from the Ital. baloaitro, socalled from a supposed likeness to the flower of the ^aXa6<rno», or wild pomegranate; the word has been corrupted in English into " banister "). a small moulded shaft, square or circular, in stone or wood and sometimes in metal, supporting the coping of a parapet or the nil of a staircase, an assemblage of them being known as a balustrade. The earliest examples are those shown In the bas-rclicfs representing the Assyrian palaces, where they were employed as window balustrades and apparently had Ionic capitals. They do not seem to have been known to either the Greeks or the Romans, but early examples arc found in the balconies in the palaces at Vcniceand Verona. In the hands of the Italian revivalists they became features of the greatest importance, and were largely employed for window balconies and roof parapets.

The term " baluster shaft " is given to the shaft dividing a window In Saxon architecture. In the south transept of the abbey at St Albans, England, are some of these shafts, supposed to have been taken from the old Saxon church. Norman bases and capitals have been added, together with plain cylindrical Norman shafts.

BALUSTRADE, a parapet or low screen consisting of a coping or rail supported on balusters (17.9.). Sometimes it is employed purely as a decorative feature beneath the sill of a window which was not carried down to the ground. Sometimes flowing foliage takes the place of the parapet, and sometimes so-called balustrades arc formed of vertical slabs of stone, pierced as in the C»' d'oro at Venice and the balconies of the minarets it Cairo.

BALUZE, ETTENNE (1630-1718), French scholar, was bom at Tulle on the 24th of November 1630. He was educated at his native town and took minor orders. As secretary to Pierre de Marca, archbishop of Toulouse, he won the appreciation of that learned prelate to such a degree that at his death Marca left him all his papers. Thus it came about that Baluzc produced the first complete edition of Marca's treatise Dc Hbcrtalibiu Ecclesiae Callicanae (1663), and brought out his Marta hispaniea (1688 f.). About 1667 Baluzc entered Colbert's service, and until 1700 was in charge of the invaluable library belonging to that minister and to his son the marquis dc Seignelai. lie enriched it prodigiously (see the history of the Colbcrtinc library in the Cabinet des Afanuscrils by M. Leopold Dclisle, vol. i.), and Colbert rewarded him by obtaining various benefices for him, and the post of king's almoner (1679). Subsequently Baluzc was appointed professor of Canon law at the College dc France on the 3ist of December 1680, and directed that great institution from 1707 to 1710.

The works which place him In the first rank of the scholars of his time arc the Capitularia Regum Francorum (1674; new edition enlarged and corrected in 1780); the Nova Collcclio Conciliorun (4 vols., 1677); the Miscellanea (7 vols., 1678-1715; new edition revised by Mansi, 4 vols. f., 1761-1764); the Letters of Pope Innocent 111. (1682); and, finally, the Vitae, Fafarum Arcnionensium, 1305-1394 (1693). But he was unfortunate enough to take up the history of Auvcrgnc just at the time when the cardinal dc Bouillon, inheritor of the rights, and above all of the ambitious pretensions of the La Tour family, was endeavouring to prove the descent of that house in the direct line from the ancient hereditary counts of Auvcrgnc of the gth century.

As authentic documents in support of these pretensions could not be found, false ones were fabricated. The production of spurious genealogies had already been begun in the Hisloirc de la maism d'Autergne published by Christophc Justcl in 1643; and Chorier, the historbn of Dauphiny, had included in the second volume of his history (1671) a forged deed which connected the La Tours of Dauphiny with the La Tours of Auvcrgne. Next a regular manufactory of forged documents was organized by a certain Jean dc Bar, an intimate companion of the cardinal. These rogues were skilful enough, for they succeeded in duping the most illustrious scholars; Dom Jean Mabillon, the founder of Diplomatics, Dom Thierry Ruinart and Baluzc himself, called as experts, made a unanimously favourable report on the 23rd of July 1695. But cardinal dc Bouillon had many enemies, and a war of pamphlets began. In March 1698 Baluze in reply wrote a Letter which proved nothing. Two years later, in 1700, Jean dc Bar and his accomplices were arrested, and after a long and searching inquiry were declared guilty in 1704. Baluze, nevertheless, was obstinate in his opinion. He was' convinced that the incriminated documents were genuine and proposed to do Justcl's work anew. Encouraged and financially supported by the cardinal dc Bouillon, he first produced a Table gtntaltigiquc m 1705, and then in 1709 a Hisloire g{nlalogsqve de la naison <f Auvcrgne, with "Proofs," among which, unfortunately, we find all the deeds which had been pronounced spurious. In the following year he was suddenly engulfed in the disgrace which overtook his intriguing patron: deprived of his appointments, pensions and benefices, he was exiled far from Paris. None the less he continued to work, and in 1717 published a history of his native town, Historiae Tvtelcnsis libri tres. Before his death he succeeded in returning to Paris, where he died unconvinced of his errors on the 28th of July 1718. WaS he dupe or accomplice? The study of his correspondence with the cardinal gives the impression that he was the victim of clever cheats.

The history of the forgeries committed in the interests of the house of Bouillon forms a curious and instructive episode in the history of French scholarship in the time of Loui* X 1V. It is to be found in the Manuel de diplomatique by A. Giry; and above all in a note to the (Euvres de Saint-Simon by M. dc Boislisle (vol. xiv. PP- 533-558). The bibliography of Baluze's researches has been made by M. Rene Fage (1882, 1884) and hit Life told by M. Emile Page (1899). To these we muatadd an amusing book by G. ClementSiroon, La CaitU it Batiatj tocununU bwfraphiatici it IMrairu

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