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W.T. Ca. wo o'cD.Sc., o 1 h
stant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History M - - . . Barnacle.
Authorof" co: "in Lankester's Treatise on goom South Kensington {
W.T.T.-D. Sir William TuRNER Thuselton-Dyer, F.R.S., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.Sc. LL.D.,
Ph.D., F.L.S.
Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botani
1885-1 Botanical Adviser to Secret of š. for ::::::::::::::: Bentham, George,
so r of Flora of Middlesex. Editor of Flora Capenses and Flora of Tropical
See the biographical article: WAllAce, William (1844-1897). Avicenna.
W. We. Rev., WENTwoRTH WEbster (d. 1906). Basque Provinces;
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W. Wr. Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the cow-(no. Leonard.
gational Churches in the United States; The Reformation; John Calvin; &c.
W.R.S. W. Robertson SMITH, LL.D. {hul
See the biographical article: SM1th, William Robertson.
W.W.R.4 WILLIAM WAlker Rockwell, Ltc.Theol.
Assistant. Professor of Church. History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. {*aximizular.
Author of Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen.
Azo Compounds. Barnes, William. Belfort: Town. Bermudas.
Azoimide. Barometer. Bell, Sir Charles. Bernhardt, Sarah.
Azores Barrister. Belladonna. Bernoulli.
Baader, F. X. Barrow, Isaac. Bellarmine. Berthelot.
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Ballet. Baiting. bury). Bichromates and Chromates.
Ballot. Beaton. Bentley, Richard. Bidder.
Balneotherapeutics. Beaufort: Family, Benton. Bigamy.
Bamboo. Beaufort, Henry. Benzaldehyde. Bijapur.
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Barley. Belfast: Ireland. Bermondsey. Biscay (Wizcaya).




AUSTRIA. LOWER (Gcr. Niederisterrekh or Oilareich unler ia Emu, " Austria below the river Enns "), an archduchy and crownland of Austria, bounded E. by Hungary, N. by Bohemia ud Monvia, W. by Bohemia and Upper Austria, and S. by Styria. It hat an area of 7654 sq. m. and is divided into two parts by the Danube, which enters at its most westerly point, ind leaves it at its eastern extremity, near Pressburg. North J this line is the low hilly country, known as the Waldncrlel, which lies at the foot and forma the continuation of the Bohemian ind Moravian plateau. Towards the W. it attains in the Weinsbcrger Wald, of which the highest point is the Peilstein, an altitude of 3478 ft., and descends towards the valley of the Danube through the Gfohler Wald (2368 ft.) and the Manhartsgebirge (1758 ft.). Its most south-easterly offshoots are formed by the Buimbcrg (1180 ft.), near Vienna, just opposite the Kahlcnberg. The southern division of the province is, in the main, mountainous ud hilly, and ia occupied by the Lower Austrian Alps and their c.S Jiooti. The principal groups are: the Voralpe (5801 ft.), the Dorrcnstein (6156 ft.), the Otscher (6205 ft.), the Raxalpc (6589 ft.) and the Schnctberg (6806 ft.), which is the highest summit in the whole province. To the E. of the famous ridge (>f Semmering are the groups of the Wechsel (5700 ft.) and the Uithigrbirge (1674 ft.). The offshoots of the Alpine group ire formed by the Wiener Wald, which attains an altitude of >9ig ft. in the Schopfl and ends N.W. of Vienna in the Kahlcnberg (1404 ft.) and Leopoldsberg (t380 ft.).

Lower Austria belongs to the watershed of the Danube, which •ith the- exception of the LainsiU, which is a tributary of the Hoi dau, receives all the other rivers of the province. Its principal iffluentt on the right are: the Enns, Ybbt, Erlauf, Pielach, Traiten, Wien, Schwechat, Fischa and Lei t ha; on the left the byer, Know, Kunp, Gollenau and the March. Besides the

Danube, only the Enns and the March are navigable rivers. Amongst the small Alpine lakes, the Erlaufsee and the Lunzer See are worth mentioning. Of its mineral springs, the best known are the sulphur springs of Baden, the iodine springs of Deutsch-Altenburg, the iron springs of Pyrawarth, and the thermal springs of Vdslau. In general the climate, which varies with the configuration of the surface, is moderate and healthy, although subject to rapid changes of temperature. Although 43'4%of the total area is arable land, the soil is only of moderate fertility and docs not satisfy the wants of this thickly-populated province. Woods occupy 34-2%, gardens and meadows i.j-i % and pastures 3'i%. Vineyards occupy j% of the total area and produce a good wine, specially those on the sunny slopes of the Wiener Wald. Cattle-rearing is not well developed, but game and fish are plentiful. Mining is only of slight importance, small quantities of coal and iron-ore being extracted in the Alpine foothill region; graphite is found near Muhldorf. From an industrial point of view, Lower Austria stands, together with Bohemia and Moravia, in the front rank amongst the Austrian provinces. The centre of its great industrial activity is the capital, Vienna (f.p.); but in the region of the Wiener Wald up to the Semmering, owing to its many waters, which can be transformed into motive power, many factories are spread. The principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, leather and silk; cloth, objelt ii line and millinery; physical and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and foodstuffs. The very extensive commerce of the province has also its centre in Vienna. The population of Lower Austria in 1000 was 3,100,403, which corresponds to 405 inhabitants per sq. m. It is, therefore, the most densely populated province of Austria. According to the language in common use, 95 % of the populal ion


was German, 4-66 % was Czech, and the remainder was composed of Poles, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians and Italians. According to religion 92*47 % of the inhabitants were Roman Catholics; 5-07% were Jews; 1-11% were Protestants and the remainder belonged to the Greek church. In the matter of education. Lower Austria is one of the most advanced provinces of Austria, and 99-8',; of the children of school-going age attended school regularly in 1900. The local diet is composed of 78 members, of which the archbishop of Vienna, the bishop of St Pollen and the rector of the Vienna University are members ex offifio. Lower Austria sends 64 members to the Imperial Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 22 districts and three towns with autonomous municipalities: Vienna (1,662,269), the capital (since 1905 including Floridsdorf, 36,599), Wicner-Neustadt (28,438) and Waidhofen on the Ybbs (4447). Other principal towns are: Badend 2,447), Bruck on the Leitha (5134), Schwechat (8241), Korneuburg (8298), Stokerau (10,213), Krems (12,657), Modling (15,304), Reichenau (7457), Neunkirchcn (10,831), St Pfilten (14,510) and Klosterneuburg (11,595).

The original archduchy, which included Upper Austria, is the nucleus of the Austrian empire, and the oldest possession of the house of Habsburg in its present dominions.

Sec F. Umlauft, Das Erxkeneitum Osterreitk ttnttr der Enns, vol. i. of the collection Die Lander Osterreich- Unfarns in Wort und KM (Vienna, 1881-1889, '5 vol>.); Die tsterreickiscli-untarixke Monarchic in Worl und Bild, vol. 4 (Vienna. 1886-1902, 14 vols.); M. Vansca. Cesch. Nieder- u. Obtr-Oslerreicks (in Heeren's Stoolengtuh.. Gotha, 1905).

AUSTRIA. U.PPER (Ger. Oberoslerrcich or OOcmuk ob der Enns, "Austria above the river Enns "), an archduchy and crown-land of Austria, bounded N. by Bohemia, W. by Bavaria, S. by Salzburg and Styria, and E. by Lower Austria. It has an area of 4631 sq. m. Upper Austria is divided by the Danube into two unequal parts. Its smaller northern part is a prolongation of the southern angle of the Bohemian forest and contains as culminating points the Plocklstein (4510 ft.) and the Sternstein (3600 ft.). The southern part belongs to the region of the Eastern Alps, containing the Salzkammergutand Upper Austrian Alps, which are found principally in the district of Salzka mmergut (?.v.). To the north of these mountains, stretching towards the Danube, is the Alpine foothill region, composed partly of terraces and partly of swelling undulations, of which the most important is the Hausruckwald. This is a wooded chain of mountains, with many branches, rich in brown coal and culminating in the GSblberg (2950 ft.). Upper Austria belongs to the watershed of the Danube, which flows through it from west to east, and receives here on the right the Inn with the Salzach, the Traun, the Enns with the Stcyr and on its left the Great and Little Muhl rivers. The Schwarzenberg canal between the Great Muhl and the Moldau establishes a direct navigable route between the Danube and the Elbe. The climate of Upper Austria, which varies according to the altitude, is on the whole moderate; it is somewhat severe in the north, but is mild in Salzkammergut. The population of the duchy in looo was 809,918, which is equivalent to 174-8 inhabitants per sq. m. It has the greatest density of population of any of the Alpine provinces. The inhabitants are almost exclusively of German stock and Roman Catholics. For administrative purposes, Upper Austria is divided into two autonomous municipalities, Lin-. (58,778) the capital, and Stcyr (17,592) and n districts. Other principal towns are Wels (12,187), IscM (0646) and Gmundcn(7iz6). The local diet, of which the bishop of Linz is a member ex oJTuio, is composed of 50 members and the duchy sends 22 members to the Reichsrat at Vienna. The soil in the valleys and on the lower slopes of the hills is fertile, indeed 35-08% of the whole area is arable. Agriculture is -well developed and relatively large quantities of the principal cereals arc produced. Upper Austria has the largest proportion of meadows in all Austria, i8-54%, while 2-49% is lowland and Alpine pasturage. Of the remainder, woods occupy 34-02 %, gardens 1-99% and 4-93 % is unproductive. Cattle-breeding is also in a very advanced stage and together with the timber-trade forms a considerable resource

of the province. The principal mineral wealth of Upper Austria is salt, of which it extracts nearly 50% of the total Austrian production. Other important products are lignite, gypsum and a variety of valuable stones and clays. There are about thirty mineral springs, the best known being the salt balhi of Ischl and the iodine waters at Hall. The principal industries are the iron and metal manufactures, chiefly centred at Steyr. Next in importance are the machine, linen, cotton and paper manufactures, the milling, brewing and distilling industries and shipbuilding. The principal articles of export are salt, stone, timber, live-stock, woollen and iron wares and paper.

See Edlbacher. Landeskunde ton Obtrosltrrtick (Linz, 2nd ed.c 1883): Vansca, oft. cit. in the preceding article.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, or the AusiRO-HoNCAUAN Monarchy (Ger. Osterreickisch-ungarische Monarchit or Oiterrcichtschvntarisdies Reich), the official name of t country situated in central Europe, bounded E. by Russia and Rumania, S. by Rumania, Servia, Turkey and Montenegro, W. by the Adriatic Sea, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the German Empire, and N. by the German Empire and Russia. It occupies about the sixteenth part of the total area of Europe, with an area (i 0,05) °f '39.977 «)• m '''"' monarchy consists of two independent states: the kingdoms and lands represented in the council of the empire (Keichsral), unofficially called Austria (q.t.) or Cisleithania; and the "lands of St Stephen's Crown," unofficially called Hungary (q v.) or Translcithania. U received its actual name by the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph 1. of the i ;i li of November 1868, replacing the name of the Austrian Empire under which the dominions under his sceptre were formerly known. The Auslro-Hungarian monarchy is very often called unofficially the Dual Monarchy. It had in 1901 a population of 45,405,267 inhabitants, comprising therefore within its borders, about one-eighth of the total population of Europe. By the Berlin Treaty of 1878 the principalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina with an area of 19,702 sq. m., and a population (1895) of 1,591,036 inhabitants, owning Turkey as suzerain, were placed under the administration of AustriaHungary, and their annexation in 1908 was recognized by the Powers in 1909, so that they became part of the dominions of the monarchy.

Government.—The present constitution of the Auslro-Hungarian monarchy (sec Austria) is based on (he Pragmatic Sanction of the emperor Charles VI., first promulgated on the iqth of April 1713, whereby the succession to the throne is settled in the dynasty of Habsburg-Lorrainr, descending by right of primogeniture and lineal succession to male heirs, and, in case of their extinction, to the female lint, and whereby the indisputability and indivisibility of the monarchy are determined; Is based, further, on the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph I. of the 2oth of October 1860, whereby the constitutional form of government is introduced; and, lastly, on the so-Called Austfticto or "Compromise," concluded on the Slh of February 1867, whereby the relations between Austria and Hungary were regulated.

The two separate states—Austria and Hungary—are completely independent of each other, and ench has its own parliament and its own government. The unity of the monarchy is expressed in the common head of the state, who bears (he title Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary, and in the common administration of a series of affairs, which affect both halves of the Dual Monarchy. These are: (i) foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; (2) the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance in so far as it concerns joint expenditure.

For the administration of these common affairs there are three joint ministries: the ministry of foreign affairs and of the imperial and royal house, the ministry of war, and the ministry of finance. It must be noted that the authority of the joint ministers is restricted to common affairs, and that they are not allowed to direct or exercise any influence*on affairs of government affecting separately one of the halve* ol the monarchy. "The minister of foreign affairs conducts the international relations of the Dual Monarchy, and can conclude international treaties. But commercial treaties, and such state treaties as impose burdens on the state, or parts of the state, or involve a change of territory, require the parliamentary assent of both slates. The minister of war is the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landxvttr and of the Hungarian Honveds, which arc committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states. But the supreme command of the army is vested in the monarch, who has the power to take all measures regarding the whole army. It follows, therefore, that the total armed power of the Dual Monarchy forms a whole under the supreme command of the sovereign. The minister of finance has charge of the finances of common affairs, prepares the joint budget, and administers the joint state debt. (Till Iooq the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were also administered by the joint minister of finance, excepting matters exclusively dependent on the minister of war.) For the control of the common finances, there is appointed a joint supreme court of accounts, which audits the accounts of the joint ministries.

t. — Side by tide with the budget of each state of the Dual Monarchy, there is a common budget, which comprises the expenditure necruary for the common affairs, namely lor the conduct of foreign affair*, for the army, and for the ministry of finance. The revenues of the joint budget consist of the revenues of the joint cirunries, the net proceeds of the cu&toms, and the quota, or the proportional contributions of the two states. This quota is fixed for a period of years, and generally coincides with the duration of it* custom* and commercial treaty. 'Until 1897 Austria contrtbatttl 70%. and Hungary 30% of the joint expenditure, remaining after deduction of the common revenue. It was then decided that Ti 1897 to July 1907 the quota should be 66j; for Ausiri*. and ') for Hungary. In 1907 Hungary's contribution was raised to 36-4%. Of the total charges r <; t* first of all debited to Hungary «> account of the incorporation with this state of the former military frwirier.

The Budget estimates for the common administration were as fellow* in 1905:—

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Delegations.—The constitutional right of voting money applicable to the common affairs and of its political control is exercised by the Delegations, which consist each of sixty members, chosen for one year, one-third of them by the Austrian Hcrrenhaus (Upper House) and the HungarianTablc of Magnates (Upper House), and two-thirds of them by the Austrian and the Hungarian Houses of Representatives. The delegations are annually summoned by the monarch alternately to Vienna and to Budapest. Each delegation has its separate sittings, both alike public. Their decisions are reciprocally communicated in writing, and, in case of non-agreement, their deliberations are renewed. Should three such interchanges be made without agreement, a common plenary sitting is held of an equal number of both delegations; and these collectively, without discussion, decide the question by common vote. The common decisions of both houses require for their validity the sanction of the monarch. Each delegation has the right to formulate resolutions independently, and to call to account and arraign the common ministers. In the exercise of their office the members of both delegations are irresponsible, enjoying constitutional immunity.

Army.—The military system of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy is similar in both states, and rests since 1868 upon the principle of the universal and personal obligation of the citizen to bear arms. Its military force is composed of the common army (K. und K.); the special armies, namely the Austrian (K.K.) Londuvhr, a'nd the Hungarian Hontfds, which are separate national institutions, and the Land slur m or levy-inmass. As stated above, the common army stands under the administration ol the joint minister of war, while the special armies are under the administration of the respective ministries of national defence. The yearly contingent of recruits for the army is fixed by the military bills voted Ly the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, and is generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns. It amounted in 1005 to 103,100 men, of which Austria furnished 59,211 men, and Hungary 43,880. Besides 10,000 men are annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the Hungarian Honvcds. The term of service is 2 years (3 years in the cavalry) with the colours, 7 or 8 in the reserve and 2 in the Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army the same total period of service i*.'spent in various special reserves.

For the military and administrative service of the army the Ddal Monarchy is divided into 16 military territorial districts (15 of which correspond to the 15 army corps) and 108 supplementary di«rirt« (105 for the army, and 3 lor the navy)- In 1902, since which year no material change wai made in the formal organization of the army, there were 5 cavalry divisions and 31 infantry divisions, formed in 15 army corps, which are located as follows:—I. Cracow. 11. Vienna. III. Crai. IV. Budapest. V. I'retsburg. VI. Kaschau. VII. Tcmesvar. VIII. Prague. IX. Joscfsladt. X. Przemyil. XI. Lembcrg, XII. Herrmannstadt, XIII. Agram, XIV. Innsbruck, XV. Serajewo. in addition there is the military district of Zara. The usual strength of the corps is, 2 infantry divi

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-i<»ns 14 brigades, 8 or 9 regiments, 32 or 36 battalions), i cavalry brigade (18 squadrons), and I artillery brigade (16-18 batteries or 128-144 field-guns), besides technical and departmental units and in some cases fortress artillery regiments. The infantry is organized into line regiments, jager and Tirolese regiments, the cavalry into dragoons, lancers. Uhlans and hussars, the artillery into regiments. The Austrian Landwhr (which retains the old designation A'.A'., formerly applied to the Austrian regular army) is organized in 8 divisions of varying strength, the " Royal Hungarian' Landwchr or Honveds in 7 divisions, both Austrian and Hungarian Landwehr having in addition cavalry (Uhlans and hussars) and artillery. It is probable that a Landwchr or Honveds division will, in war, form part of each army corps except in the case of the Vienna corps, which has 3 divisions in peace. The remaining men of military age (up to 42) as usual form the Landsturm. It is to be noted that this Landeturm comprises many men who would elsewhere be classed as Land weh r.

The strength of the Austro-Hungarian army on a peace footing was as follows in 1905:—


The troops stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1905 (376 officers and 6372 men) are included in the total for the common army.

The peace strength of the active army in combatants is thus about 450,000 officers and men, inclusive of the two Landwehrs and of the Austrian " K.K." guards, the Hungarian crown guards, the gendarmerie, &c- The numbers of the Landsturm and the war strength of the whole armed forces are not published. It is estimated that the first line army in war would consist of 460,000 infantry, 49,000 cavalry, 78,000 artillery, 2 \ ,000 engineers, &c., beside train and noncombatant soldiers. The Landwehr and Honved would yield 219,000 infantry-ami 18,000 cavalry, and other reserves 223,000 men., These figures give an approximate total strength of 1,147,000, not inclusive of La ndst Li r in.

Fortifications.—The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary are: Cracow and Prtemysl in Galicia; Komarom.the centre ofthc inland fortifications, Petervarad. O-Arad and Temesvarin Hungary; Serajewo, Mostar and Bilek in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Alpine frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfe&te; while all the military' roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong defensive works.asat Malborgeth, Prcdil Pass.&c. The two capitals, Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified. On the Adriatic coast, the naval harbour of Pola is strongly fortified with sea and land defence*; then conic Trieste, and several places in Dalmatia, notably Zara and Cattaro.

Wavy.—The Austro-Hungarian navy is mainly a coast defence force, and includes also a flotilla of monitors for the Danube. It is administered by the naval department of the ministry of war. It consisted in 1905 of 9 modern battleships, 3 armoured cruisers, 5 cruisers, 4 torpedo gunboats, 20 destroyers and 36 torpedo boats. There was in hand at the same time a naval programme to build 12 armourclads, 5 second-class cruisers, 6 third-class cruisers, and a number of torpedo boats. The headquarters of the fleet arc at Pola, which is the principal naval arsenal and harbour of Austria; while another great naval station is Trieste.

Trade.—On the basis of the customs and commercial agreement between Austria and Hungary, concluded in 1867 and renewable every ten years, the following affairs, in addition to the common affairs of the monarchy, are in both states treated according to the same principles:—Commercial affairs, including customs legislation; legislation on the duties closely connected with industrial production —on beer, brandy, sugar and mineral oils; determination of legal tender and coinage, as also of the principles regulating the AustroHungarian Bank; ordinances in respect of such railways as affect the interests of both states. In conformity with the customs and commercial compact between the two states, renewed In 1899, the monarchy constitutes one identical customs and commercial territory, inclusive of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the principality of Liechtenstein.

The foreign trade of the Aunro-Hungarian monarchy is shown in the following table: —

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The most important place of derivation and of destination for the Auslro-Hunganan trade in the German empire with about 40% of the imports, and about 60 % of the exports. Next in importance comes Great Britain, afterwards India, Italy, the United States of America, Russia, France. Switzerland, Rumania, the Balkan states and South America in about the order named. The principal articles of import arc cotton and cotton goods, wool and woollen goods, tilk and Mlk goods, cut fee, tobacco and metals. The principal article;' export are wood, ;ugar, cattle, glass and glassware, iron and ir ware, cRes, cereals, millinery, fancy goods, earthenware and pott* and leather goods.


The Austro-Hungarian Bank.—Common to the two states of

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and had the title of the Austrian National Bank until 1878, whet received its actual name. In virtue of the new bank statute of t year 1899 the bank is a joint-stock company, with a stock £8.780,000. The bank's notes of issue must be covered to the extt of two-fifths by legal specie (gold and current silver) in rescn the rest ot the paper circulation, according to bark usage. 7 state, under certain conditions, takes a portion of the clear profits the bank. The management of the bankandihcsupcrvisioncxcrrU over it by the state are established on a footing of equality, bo slates having each the same influence. The accounts of the bank the end of 1900 were as follows: capital, £8,750,000; reserve fun £428,250; note circulation. £62,251,000; cash. £50,754,000. 1907 the reserve fund was £548,041; note circulation, £84,501,00 cash, £60.036,625. The charter of the bank, which expired m 169 was renewed until the end of 1910. In the Hungarian minister} crisis of 1909 the question of the renewal of the charter played conspicuous part, the more extreme members of the Independent party demanding the establishment of separate banks for Austr and Hungary with, at most, common superintendence (sec llistor below). LO. Br.)


I. The Whole Monarchy.

The empire of Austria, as the official designation of th territories ruled by the Habsburg monarchy, dates back only U 1804, when Francis II., the last of the Holy Roman 7Ae fttf, emperors, proclaimed himself emperor of Austria as ''&apenr Francis I. His motive in doing so was lo guard °* against the great house of Habsburg being relegated *******•'* to a position inferior to the parvenus Bonapartes. in the event of the final collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, or of the possible election of Napoleon as his own successor on the throne of Charlemagne. The tide-emperor of Austria, (hen, replaced that of " Imperator Romanorum semper Augustus " when the Holy Empire came to an end in 1806. From the first, however, It was no more than a title, which represented but ill the actual relation of the Habsburg sovereign* to their several

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