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The opportunities a (lorded by automatic writing for communicating with subconscious strata of the personality have been made me of by Pierre Janet and others in cases of hysteroepilepsy. and other forms of dissociation of consciousness. A patient in an attack of hysterical convulsions, to whom oral appeals are made in vain, can sometimes be induced to answer in writing questions addressed to the hand, and thus to reveal the Secret of the malady or to accept therapeutic suggestions.
Sec Edmonds and Dexter, Spiritualism (New York. 1853); Epe« Sargent. Planchcllt. the Despair of Science (Boston, U.S.A., 1869); Mrs de Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London. 1863); W. Stainton Moses, Spirit Teaching! (London, 1881); Proceedings S.P R. passim; Th. Flournoy, Des Indes A la planete Mars (Geneva, tooo); F. Podmore, Modem Spiritualism (London, IOO2)> F. \V. H. Myers, Human Personality (London, 1903); Pierre Janet, L! Automatisms psychologique (2nd cd. Parts. 1894); Morton Prince, The Dissoria* lion of a Personality (London, 1900). (F. P.)
AUTOMATISM. In philosophical terminology this word is used in two Main senses: (i) in ethics, for the view that man t> not responsible for his actions, which have, therefore, no moral value; (-•) in psychology, for all actions which are not the result of conation or conscious endeavour. Certain actions being admittedly automatic, Descartes maintained that, in regard of the lower animals, all action is purely mechanical. The same theory has since been applied to man, with this difference that, accompanying the mechanical phenomena of action, and entirely disconnected with it, are the phenomena of consciousness. Thus certain physical changes in the brain result in a given action; the concomitant mental desire or volition is in no sense causally connected with, or prior to, the physical change. This theory, which has been maintained by T. Huxley (Science and Culture) and Shadworth Hodgson (Mctaphysic oj Experience and Theory of Practice),must be distinguished from that of thepsychophysical parallelism, or the " double aspect theory " according to which both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a co-called " mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause of both.
Automatic acts are of two main kinds. Where the action goes on while the attention is focused on entirely different subjects (e.g. in cycling), it is purely automatic. On the other hand, if the attention is fixed on the end or on any particular part of a given action, and the other component parts Of the action are performed unconsciously, the automatism may be called relative.
See G. F. Stout, Anal. Psych, i. 258 foil.; Win. Jamei, Prlnc. of,Psych, i. chap. 5; also the articles Psychology, Suggestion, &c.
Sensory Automatism is the term given by students of psychical research to a centrally initiated hallucination. Such hallucinations are commonly provoked by crystal-gazing (?.&.), but auditory hallucinations may be caused by the use of a shell (shell-bearing), and the other senses are occasionally affected.
Motor Auli'tntilism, <m the other hand, is a non-reflex movement of a voluntary muscle, executed in the waking state but not controlled by the ordinary waking consciousness. Phenomena of this kind play a large part in primitive ceremonies of divination (g.r.) and in our own day furnish much of the material of Psychical Research. At the lowest level we have vague movenjcnts of large groups of muscles, as in " bter-divin*ation," where the murderer or his residence is inferred from the actions of the bearers; of a similar character but combined with more specialized action are many kinds of witch seeking. These more specialized actions are most typically seen in the Divining Rod (?.c.; see also Tab Ie-Turning), which indicates the presence of water and is used among the uncivilized to trace criminals. At a higher stage still we have the delicate movements necessary for Automatic Writing (?.«.) or Drawing. A parallel case to Automatic Writing is the action of the speech centres, resulting in the production of all kinds of utterances from trance speeches in the ordinary language of the speaker to mere unintelligible babblings. An interesting form of speech automatism is known as Glossolalia; in the typical case of Helcne Smith, Th. Flournoy has shown that these utterances may reach a higher plane and
form a real language, which is, however, bated on one already known to the speaker.
See jt/on (1904), No. 68; Polklort, xiii. 134; Myers In Pr.-:, S.P.R. a. J6, xii. 377. xv. 403: Flournoy, Des Indes a la plantlt Mars and in Arch, it Psycholctie; Myers, Human Pervtality.
IN. W. T.>
AUTOMATON (from afrris.self, and n&.u, to seize), a self-moving machine, or one in which the principle of motion is contained within the mechanism itself. According to this description, clocks, watches and all machines of a similar kind, arc automata, but the word is generally applied to contrivances which simulate for a time the motions of animal life. H the human figure and actions be represented, the automaton has sometimes been called specially an aniroides. We have very early notices of the construction of automata, e.g. the tripods of Vulcan, and the moving figures of Daedalus. In 400 B.c., Archytas of Tarentum is said to have made a wooden pigeon that could fly, and during the middle ages numerous instances of the construction of automata are recorded. Rcgiomontanus is said to have made of iron a fly, which would flutter round the room and return to his hand, and also an eagle, which flew before the emperor Maximilian when he was entering Nuremberg. Roger Bacon is said to have forged a brazen head which spoke, and Albert us Magnus to have had an androidcs, which acted as doorkeeper, and was broken to pieces by Aquinas. Of these, as of some later instances, e.g. the figure constructed by Descartes and the automata exhibited by Dr Camus, not much is accurately known. But in the i8th century, Jacques de Vaucanson, the celebrated mechanician, exhibited three admirable figures,—the flute-player, the tambourine-player, and the duck, which was capable of eating, drinking, and imitating exactly the natural voice of that fowl. The means by whicb these results had been produced were clearly seen, and a great impulse was given to the construction of similar figures. Knauss exhibited at Vienna an automaton which wrtte; a father and son named Droz constructed several ingenious mechanical figures which wrote and played music; Frederick Kaufmann and Leonard Maclzcl made automatic trumpeters who could play several marches. The Swiss have always been celebrated for their mechanical ingenuity, and they construct most of the curious toys, such as flying and singing birds, which are frequently met with in industrial exhibitions. The greatest difficulty has generally been experienced in devising any mechanism which shall successfully simulate the human voice (not to be compared with the gramophone, which rcpro duces mechanically a real voice). No attempt has been thoroughly successful, though many have been made. A figure exhibited by Fabermann of Vienna remains the best. Kcmpclen's famous chess-player for many years astonished and puzzled Europe. This figure, however, was no true automaton, although the mechanical contrivances for concealing the real performer and giving effect to his desired movements were exceedingly ingenious. J. N. Maskelync, in more recent times (1875-1880), has been prominent in exhibiting his automata, Psycho (who played cards) and Zoe (who drew pictures), at the Egyptian Hall, London, but the secret of these contrivances was well kept. (See Conjuring.)
AUTOMORPHISM (from Gr. nfrroi, self, and fiopM, form), the conception and interpretation of other people's habits and ideas on the analogy of one's own.
AUTONOMY (Gr. aWt, self, and ripor, law), in general, freedom from external restraint, self-government. The term is usually coupled with a qualifying adjective. Thus, political autonomy is self-government in its widest sense, independence of all control from without. Local autonomy is a freedom of self-government within a sphere marked out by some superior authority; e.g. municipal corporations in England have their administrative powers marked out for them by acts of parliament, and in so far as they govern themselves within these limits exercise local autonomy. Administrative or constitutional autonomy, such as exists in the British colonies, implies ar extent of self-government which falls short only of romiilcK independence. The term is used loosely even in the case of r r religious bodies, individual churches) and other communiLin which enjoy a measure of self-government in certain specified respects.
In philosophy, the term (with its antithesis " heleronomy ") » as applied by Kant to that aspect of the rational will in which, jxa rational, it is * law to itself, independently alike of any external authority, of the results of experience and of the impulses of pleasure and pain. In the sphere of morals, the ultimate tad only authority which the mind can recognize is the law which emerges from the pure moral consciousness. This is the only sense in which moral freedom can be understood. (See Eimcs, Kant.) Though the term "autonomy" in its fullest sense implies entire freedom from causal necessity, it can also be used even in determinist theories for relative independence of particular conditions, theological or conventional.
AUTOPSY (Gr. niTo?, self, and fyat sight, investigation), a personal examination, specifically a post-mortem (" after death ") examination of a dead body, to ascertain the cause of death, &c. The term "necropsy" (Gr. unpin, corpse) is sometimes used in this sense. (See Cokonek and Medical
AUTRAN. JOSEPH (1813-1877), French poet, was bora at Marseilles on the «Jth of June 1813. In 1832 he addressed an ode to Laraartine, who was then at Marseilles on his way to the F.isl The elder poet persuaded the young man's father to illow him to follow his poetic bent, and Autran remained from that time a faithful disciple of Lamartinc. His best known work is La tier (1835), remodelled in 1853 as Let Palmes de If ma. LvJibria vtnlii (1838) followed, and the success of these 1*0 volume* gained for Autran the librarianship of his native (ctl. His other most important work is his Vie rvrote (1856), > series of pictures of peasant life. The Algerian campaigns iiupired him with verses in honour of the common soldier. tf&dnoA (1841) describes the heroic defence of that town, and in the same vein is his Laboureurs et soldats (1854). Among his other works are the Paroles de Salomon (1868), Epttrcs tustiqucs i(86r), Sonntto capricieux, and a tragedy played with great success at the Odeon in 1848, La FUle i'Eschyle. A definitive edition of his works was brought out between 1875 and 1881. He became a member of the French Academy in 1868, and died at Marseilles on the 6th of March 1877.
A UTUN. a town of east-central France, capital of an arrondissentnt in the department of Saone-et-Loire, 62 m. S.W. of Dijon 011 the Para-Lyon railway to Nevers. Pop. (1906) 11,917. An: un is pleasantly situated on the slope of a hill at the foot of which runs the Arroui. Its former greatness is attested by tuny Roman remains, the chief of which are two well-preserved -.'"iw gateways, the Porte d' Arroui and the Porte St Andr£, both pierced with four archways and surmounted by arcades. There are also remain* of the old ramparts and aqueducts, of a square tower called the Temple of Janus, of a theatre and of an amphitheatre. A pyramid in the neighbouring village of Couhard wa* probably a sepulchral monument. The chapel of St Nicola* (uth century) contains many of the remains discovered at Autun. The cathedral of St Lazare, once the ctupcl attached to the icsidence of the dukes of Burgundy, is in the highest part of the town. It belong* mainly to the nth century, but the Gothic central tower and the chapels were added in the ijtJi century by Nicolas Rolin, chancellor of Burgundy, bom at Autun. The chief artistic feature* of the church are the group of the Last Judgment sculptured on the tympanum above the west door, and the painting by Ingres representing the martyrdom of St Symphorien, which took place at Autun in 179. In the cathedral square stands the fountain of St Laiare, a work of the Renaissance. The hotel Rolin, at house of the 15111 century, contains the collections of the "Aeduan literary and scientific society." The hotel de ville, containing a museum of painting*, the law-court and the theatre are modern building*. Autun is the scat of a bishopric, of tribunals of 6rst instance and of commerce, and has an ecclesiastical seminary, a communal college and a cavalry school. Among the industries of the town are the extraction of oil from the biluminous ichist obtained in the neighbourhood, leather ut >
manufacture, metal-founding, marble-working, and the manufacture of machinery and furniture. Autun is the commercial centre for a large part of the Morvan, and has considerable trade in timber and cattle.
Autun (Augustodmmm) succeeded Bibracte as capital of the Aedui when Gaul was reorganized by Augustus. Under the Romans, it was a flourishing town, covering double its present extent and renowned for its schools of rhetoric. In the succeeding centuries its prosperity drew upon it the attacks of the barbarians, the Saracens and the Normans. The counts of Autun in 880 became dukes of Burgundy, and the town was the residence of the latter till 1376. It was ravaged by the English in 1379, and, in 1591, owing to its support of the League, had to sustain a siege conducted by Marshal Jean d'Aumont, general of Henry IV.
Sec H. de Fontenay, Autun et ses monuments (Autun, 1889).
AUTUNITB, or Calco-cbanite, a mineral which is one of the "uranium micas," differing from the more commonly occurring torbemite 0;.r.) or cupro-uranite in containing calcium in place of copper. It is a hydrous uranium and calcium phosphate, Ca (UOMPOOj+Stor 12)H,O. Though closely resembling the tetragonal torbcrnilc in form, it crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and is optically biaxial. The crystals have the shape of thin plates with very nearly square outline (89° 17' instead of 90°). An important character is the perfect micaceous cleavage parallel to the basal plane, on which plane the lustre is pearly. The colour is sulphur-yellow, and this enables the mineral to be distinguished at a glance from the emerald-green torbcrnite. Hardness 2-2}; specific gravity 3-05-3'19. AutunitA is usually found with pitchblende and other uranium minerals, or with ores of silver, tin and iron; it sometimes coats joint-planes in gneiss and pegmatite. Falkenstein in Saxony, St Symphorien near Autun (hence the name of the species), and St Day in Cornwall are well-known localities for this mineral. (L. J. S.)
AUVERGNE. formerly a province of France, corresponding to the departments of Cantal and Puy-dc-Dome, with the arrondissemcnt of Brioude in Hautc-Loire. It contains many mountains volcanic in origin (Plomb du Cantal, Puy de D6me, Mont Dore), fertile valleys such as that of Limagne, vast pasturelands, and numerous medicinal springs. Up to the present day the population retains strongly-marked Celtic characteristics. In the time of Caesar the Arcerni were a powerful confederation, the Arvernian Vercingetorix being the most famous of the Gallic chieftains who fought against the Romans. Under the empire Antrnia formed part of 1'rima Aqvilonia, and the district shared in the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods. Auvergne was the seat of a separate countship before the end of the 8th century; the first hereditary count was William the Pious (886). By the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry Flantagenet, the countship passed under, the suzerainty of the kings of England, but at the same time it .was divided, William VII., called the Young (i 145-1168), having been despoiled of a portion of his domain by his uncle William VIII.,caUcd the Old.who was supported by Henry II. of England, so that he only retained the region bounded by the Allier and the Coux. It is this district that from the end of the 131(1 century was called the Dauphini d'Auvergne. This family quarrel occasioned the intervention of Philip Augustus, king of France, who succeeded in possessing himself of a large part of the country, which was annexed to the royal domains under the name of Tcrre d'A mergne. As the price of his concurrence with the king in this matter, the bishop of Clermont, Robert I. (1195-1227), was granted the lordship of the town of Clermont, which subsequently became a countship. Such was the origin of the four great historic lordships of Auvergne. The Tcrre d'A utergne was first an appanage of Count Alphonse of Poitiers (1241-1271), and in 1360 was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duche-pairie) by King John II. in favour of his son John, through whose daughter the new title passed In 1416 to the house of Bourbon. The last duke, the celebrated constable Charles of Bourbon, united the domains of the Daufkinl to those of the
duchy, but all were confiscated by the crown in consequence of the sentence which punished the constable's treason in 1527. The countship, however, had passed in 1422 to the house of La Tour, and was not annexed to the domain until 1615. The administration of the royal province of Auvergne was organized under Louis XIV. At the time of the revolution it formed what was caUcda "government," with two divisions: Upper Auvergne (Aurillac), and Lower Auvergne (Clcrmont).
Bibliography.—Ilaluze, Hisloire genealogwue Ac la matson d'Avvergne (1708): Andre Imbcrdis, Huloire gtnf-mlr dr I'Auvergnt (1867); ]. B. M. Bielawski. Histoire de la comic d'Auvergne a de sa capitate Vic-le-Comte (1868); B. Gonot, Catalogue des outrages imprimis ft manuscrits canctrnar.t I'Auvergne (1849). See further Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist., Topobibliographie, s.v.
AUXANOMETER (C'.r. Oj'.'/iya>, to increase, i&rpav, measure), an apparatus for measuring increase or rate of growth in plants.
AUXENTIUS (fl. c. 370), of Cappadocia, an Arian theologian of some eminence (see Asius). When Constantinc deposed the orthodox bishops who resisted, Auxentius was installed into the scat of Dionysius, bishop of Milan, and came to be regarded as the great opponent of the Nicene doctrine in the West. So prominent did he become, that he was specially mentioned by name in the condemnatory decree of the synod which Damasus, bishop of Rome, urged by Athanasius, convened in defence of the Nicene doctrine (a.d. 369). When the orthodox emperor Valentinian ascended the throne, Auxentius was left undisturbed in his diocese, but his theological doctrines were publicly attacked by Hilary of Poitiers.
The chief source of information about him is the Liber contra Auxentium in the Benedictine edition of the works of Hilary.
AUXEHRE, a town of central France, capital of the department of Yoimc, 38 m. S.S.E. of Sens on the Paris-Lyon railway, between Larochc and Nevcrs. Pop. (1006) :6,97r. It is situated on the slopes and the summit of an eminence on the left bank of the Yonne, which is crossed by two bridges leading to suburbs on the right bank. The town is irregularly built and its streets are steep and narrow, but it is surrounded by wide tree-lined boulevards, which have replaced the ancient fortifications, and has some' fine churches, That of St Etienne, formerly the cathedral, is a majestic Gothic building of the i3th to the i6th centuries. It is entered by three richly sculptured portals, over the middle and largest of which is a rose window; over the north portal rises a massive tower, but that which should surmount the south portal is unfinished. The lateral entrances are sheltered by tympana and arches profusely decorated with statuettes. The plan consists of a nave, with aisles and lateral chapels, transept and choir, with a deambulatory at a slightly lower level. Beneath the choir, which is a fine example of early Gothic architecture, extends a crypt of the nth century with mural paintings of the tsth century. The church has some fine stained glass and many pictures and other works of art. The ancient episcopal palace, now used as prefecture, stands behind the cathedral; it preserves a Romanesque gallery of the 12th century. The church of St Eusebe belongs to the 12th, ijth and 16th centuries. Of the abbey church of St Germain, built in the J.;th and i ;th centuries, most of the nave has disappeared, so that its imposing Romanesque tower stands apart from it; crypts of the pth century contain the tombs of bishops of Auxerre, The abbey was once fortified and a high wall and cylindrical tower remain. The buildings (iSth century) are partly occupied by a hospital and a training-college. The church of St Pierre, in the Renaissance style of the i6th and i?th centuries, is conspicuous for the elaborate ornamentation of its west facade. The old law-court contains the museum, with a collection of antiquities and paintings, and a library. In the middle of the town is a gateway surmounted by a belfry, dating from the rsth century. Auxcrre-has statues of Marshal Davout, J. B. J. Fourier and Paul Bert, the two latter natives of the town. The town is the seat of a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, and a branch of the Bank of France. A lycee for girls, a communal college and training colleges are among its educationalestablishments. Manufactures of ochre, of which there are quarries in the vicinity, and of iron goods are carried on. The
canal of NIvcmais reaches as far as Auxerrr, which has a busy port and carries on boat-building. Trade is principally in the choice wine of the surrounding vineyards, and in timber and coal.
Auxerre (Autessiodurum) became the seat of a bishop and a civitas in the 3rd century. Under the Merovingian kings the abbey of St Germain, named after the 6th bishop, was founded, and in the Qth century its schools had made the town a scat of learning. The bishopric was suppressed in 1790.
The countship of Auxerre was granted by King Robert L to his son-in-law Rcnaud, count of Ncvers. It remained in the house of Nevcrs until 1184, when it passed by marriage to that of Courtcnay. Other alliances transferred it successively to the families of Donzy, Chatillon, Bourbon and Burgundy. Alice of Burgundy, countess of Auxcrre, married John of Chilons (d. 1309), and several counts of Auxcrrc belonging to the house of Chalons distinguished themselves in the wars against the English during the I4th century. John II., count of Auxerre, was killed at the battle of Crecy (1346), and his grandson, John IV., sold his countship to King Charles V. in 1370.
AUXILIARY (from Lat. ouxilium, help), that which gives aid or support; the term is used in grammar of a verb which completes the tense, mood or voice of another verb; in engineering, e.g. of the low steam power used to supplement the ssilpower in sailing ships, still occasionally used in yachts, sealers or whalers; and in military use, of foreign or allied troops, more properly of any troops not permanently maintained under arms. In the British army the term " Auxiliary Forces" was employed formerly to include the Militia, the Imperial Yeomanry and the Volunteers.
AUXIMUM (mod. Osirno), an ancient town in Picenum, situated on an isolated hill 8 m. from the Adriatic, on the road from Ancona to Nuceria. It was selected by the Romans as a fortress to protect their settlements in northern Picenum, and strongly fortified in 174 B.C. The walls erected at that period, of large rectangular blocks of stone, still exist in great part. Auximum became a colony at latest in 157 B.c. It often appears in the history of the civil wars, owing to its strong position. Pompey was its patron, and intended that Caesar should find resistance here in 49 B.c. It appears to have been a place of some importance in imperial times, as inscriptions and the monuments of its forum (the present piazza) show. In the 6th century it is called by Procopius the chief town of Picenum, Ancona being spoken of as its harbour. (T. As.)
AUXONNE. a town of eastern France, in the department of Cote d'Or, 19 m. E.S.E. of Dijon on the Paris-Lyon railway to Belfort. Pop. (1906) 2766 (town); 6307 (commune). Auxonne is a quiet town situated in a wide plain on the left bank of the Sa6ne. It preserves remains of ramparts, a stronghold of the i6th century flanked by cylindrical towers, and a sculptured gateway of the i sth century. Vauban restored these works in the la tier half of the i;th century, and built the arsenal now used as a market. The church of Notre-Dame dates from the nth century. Of the two towers surmounting its triple porch only that to the south is finished. A lofty spire rises above a third tower over the crossing. The hotel de ville (i 5th century) and some houses of the Renaissance period are also of architectural interest. A statue of Napoleon I. as a sub-lieutenant commemorates his sojourns in thetownfrom 1788 to 1791. Auxonne has a, tribunal of commerce tnd a communal college. Its industries are unimportant, but it has a large trade in the vegetables produced by the numerous market gardens in the vicinity.
Auxonne, the name of which is derived from its position on the Saone (ad Sonant), was in the middle ages chief place of a countship, which in the first half of the 1310 century passed to the dukes of Burgundy. The town received a charter in 1220 and derived some importance from the mint which the dukes of Burgundy founded in it. It was invested by the allies in 1814, and surrendered to an Austrian force in the following year.
AVA, the ancient capital of the Burman empire, now a subdivision of the Sagaing district in the Sagaing division of Upper Burma. It is situated on the Irrawaddy on the opposite bulk to Sagiing, with which It was Amalgamated in i88g. Amarapura, another ancient capital, lies 5 m. to the north-east ol Avi, and Mandalay, the present capital, 6 m. to the north. The classical name of Ava is Yadtuiapura, " the city of precious gems." It was founded by Thadomin Paya in A.d. 1364 as juccessor to Pa gin, and the religious buildings of Pagan were to a certain extent reproduced here, although on nothing like the tune scale as regard; either size or splendour. It remained the sat of government for about four centuries with a succession of thirty kings. In 1781 a new capital, Amarapura, was founded by Bodaw faya, but was deserted again in favour of Ava by King Baggitlaw in 1813. On his deposition by King Tharawaddi in i3j7, the capital reverted to Amarapura; but finally in 1860 tht last capital of Mandalay was occupied by King Mind6n. for picturesque beauty Ava is unequalled in Burma, but it is now more like a park than the site of an old capital. Traces of the great council chamber and various portions of the royal palace srr sliil visible, but otherwise the secular buildings arc completely destroyed: and most of the religious edifices arc also dilapidated.
AVADANA, the name given to a type of Buddhist romance literature represented by a large number of Sanskrit (Nepalese) collections, of which the chief are the Avadanasataka (Century ot Legends), and the Divyavadana (The Heavenly Legend). Though of later date than most of the canonical Buddhist books, they are held in veneration by the orthodox, and occupy much the same position with regard to Buddhism that the Puranas do towards Brahminism.
AVAHT, the native name of a Malagasy lemur (Avahis laniger) nearly allied to the indri (ff.f.), and the smallest representative ol the subfamily Indrisinat, characterized by its woolly coat, and measuring about 28 in. in length, of which rather more than half is accounted for by the tail. Unlike the other members of the group, the avahi is nocturnal, and docs not associate in small uxops, but is met with cither alone or in pairs. Very slow in it* movements, it rarely descends to the ground, but, when it does, ftjlks upright like the other members of the group. It is found throughout the forests which clothe the mountains on the east coast of Madagascar, and also in a limited district on the northvest coast, the specimens from the latter locality being of smaller are and rather different in colour. The eastern phase is generally ruity red above, with the inner sides of the limbs white; while tin predominant hue in the western form is usually yellowish btown. (See Primates.) (R. L.*)
AVALANCHE (adopted from a French dialectic form, avalance, descent), a mass of snow and ice mingled with earth and stones, »hich rushes down a mountain side, carrying everything before it, and producing a sttong wind which uproots trees on each side ol its course. Where the supply of snow exceeds the loss by evaporation the surplus descends the mountain sides, slowly in tiie form of glaciers, or suddenly in ice-falls or in avalanches. A as;» of tnow may accumulate upon a steep slope and become compacted into ice by pressure, or remain loosely aggregated, ft hen the foundation gives way, owing to the loosening effect d jpnng rains or from any other cause, the whole mass slides •ijflrnward. A very small cause will sometimes set a mass of o\tr'c>&dcd snow in motion. Thunder or even a loud shout is u:d to produce this effect when the mass is just poised, and Swiss guides often enjoin absolute silence when crossing dangerous ipou
AVAUOH, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissencnl in the department of Yonne, 34 ra. S.S.E. of Auxerre on a branch of the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) 5197. The «ran, with wide streets and picturesque promenades, is finely iituaU'd on a promontory, the base of which is washed on the south by the Cousin, on the cast and west by small streams. hs chief building, the church of St Lazarc, dates from the I2th ittitury. The two western portals are adorned with sculpture in the omate Romanesque style; the tower on the left of the facade was rebuilt in the i/th century. The Tour dc L'Horloge, pierced by a gateway through which passes the Grande Rue, is * ijth century structure containing a museum on its second four. Remains of the ancient fortifications, including seven of
the flanking towers, are (till to be seen. Ava'.lon has a statue of Vauban, the military engineer. The public institutions include the subprefecture, a tribunal of first instance, and a communal college. The manufacture of biscuits and gingerbread, and of leather and farm implements is carried on, and there is considerable traffic in wood, wine, and the live-stock and agricultural produce of the surrounding country.
Avallon (Abalto) was in the middle ages the scat of a viscounty dependent on the duchy of Burgundy, and on the death oi Charles the Bold passed under the royal authority.
AVALON (also written Avallon, Avollon, Aviuon and Avelion), in Welsh mythology the kingdom of the dead, afterwards an earthly paradise in the western seas, and finally, in the Arthurian romances, the abode of heroes to which King Arthur was conveyed after his last battle. In Welsh the name is Ynys yr Afallon, usually interpreted " Isle of Apples," but possibly connected with the Celtic tradition of a king over the dead named Avalloc (in Welsh Afallach). If the traditional derivation is correct, the name is derived from the Welsh a/a/, an apple, and, as no other large fruit was well known to the races of northern Europe, is probably intended to symbolize the feasting and enjoyments of clysium. Other forms of the name are Ynysvitrin and Ynysgutrin, " Isle of Glass "—which appear to be identical with Glasberg, the Teutonic kingdom of the dead. Perhaps owing to a confusion between Glasberg or Ynysvitrin and the Anglo-Saxon Glacstinga-burh, Glastonbury, the name " Isle of Avalon " was given to the low ridge in central Somersetshire which culminates in Glastonbury Tor, while Glastonbury itself came to be called Avalon. Attempts have also been made to identify Avalon with other places in England and Wales.
See Studies in the Arthurian Legend, by J. Rhys (Oxford, 1891); also Arthur (KiNG); Atlantis.
AVARAY, a French territorial title belonging to a family some of whose members have been conspicuous in history. The Bearnaisc family named Besiade moved into the province of Orl£anais in the I7th century, and there acquired the estate of Avaray. In 1667 Theophilc de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, obtained the office of grand bailiff of Orleans, which was held by several of his descendants after him. Claude Antoinc dc Besiado, marquis d'Avaray, was deputy for the bailliagc of Orleans in the states-general of 1789, and proposed a Declaration of the Duties of Man as a pendant to the Declaration of the Rights of Man; he subsequently became a lieutenant-general in 1814, a peer of France in 1815, and due d'Avaray in 1618. Antoine Louis Francois, comic d'Avaray, son of the above, distinguished himself during the Revolution by his devotion to the comte de Provence, afterwards Louis XVIII., whose emigration he assisted. Having nominally become king in 1799, that prince created the estate of llc-Jourdain a duchy, under the title of Avaray, in favour of the comtc d'Avaray, whom he termed his "liberator." (M. P.*)
AVARS, or Avahi, an East Caucasian people, the most renowned of the Lcsghian tribes, inhabiting central Daghcstan (see Lesgiiians). They are the only Lesghiah tribe who possess a written language, for which they make use of the Arabic characters. They arc often confused with the Avars whose empire on the Danube was broken by Charlemagne; but Komarov asserts that they are of more recent origin as a tribe, their name being Lowland Turki for "vagrant" or " refugee."
AVATAR, a Sanskrit word meaning "descent," specially used in Hindu mythology (and so in English) to express the incarnation of a deity visiting the earth for any purpose. The ten Avatars of Vishnu are the most famous. The Hindus believe he h-i* appeared (i) as a fish, (2) as a tortoise, (3) as a hog, (4) as a monster, half man half lion, to destroy the giant Iranian, (5) as a dwarf, (6) as Rama, (7) again as Kama for the purpose of killing the thousand-armed giant Cartasuciriargunan, (8) as Krishna, (9) as Buddha. They allege that the tenth Avatar has yet to occur and will be in the form of a white-winged horse (Kalki) who will destroy the earth.
AVEBURY, JOHN LUBBOCK, Ist Baron (1834- ), English banker, politician and naturalist, was born in London on the joth of April 1834, the son of Sir John WilJiam Lubbock, 3rd baronet, himself a highly distinguished man of science. John Lubbock was sent to Eton in 1845; but three years later was taken into his father's bank, and became a partner at twenty-two. In 1865 he succeeded to the baronetcy. His love of science kept pace with his increasing participation in public affairs. He served on commissions upon coinage and other financial questions; and at the same time acted as president of the Entomological Society and of the Anthropological Institute. Early in his career several banking reforms of great importance were due to his initiative, while such works as Prehistoric Times (1865) and The Origin of Civilization (1870) were proceeding from his pen. In 1870, and again in 1874, he was elected a member of parliament for Maidstone. He lost the seat at the election of 1880; but was at once elected member for London University, of which he had been vice-chancellor since 1872. He carried numerous enactments in parliament, including the Bank Holidays Act 1871, and bills dealing with absconding debtors, shop hours regulations, public libraries, open spaces, and the preservation of ancient monuments, and he proved himself an indefatigable and influential member of the Unionist party. A prominent supporter of the Statistical Society, he took an active part in criticizing the encroachment of municipal trading and the increase of the municipal debt. He was elected the first president of the Institute of Bankers in 1879; in 1881 he was president of the British Association, and from 1881 to 1886 president of the Linnaean Society. He received honorary degrees from the universities of Oxford, Cambridge (where he was Rede lecturer in 1886), Edinburgh, Dublin and Wurzburg; and in 1878 was appointed a trustee of the British Museum. From 1888 to 1892 he was president of the London Chamber of Commerce; from 1889 to 1890 vicechairman and from 1800 to 1892 chairman of the London County Council. During the same period he served on royal commissions on education and on gold and silver. In 1800 he was appointed a privy councillor; and was chairman of the committee of design on the new coinage in 1891. In 1900 he was raised to the peerage, under the title of Baron Avcbury, and he continued to play a leading part in public life, not only by the weight of his authority on many subjects, but by the readiness with which he lent his support to movements for tic public benefit. Among other matters he was a prominent advocate of proportional representation. As an original author and a thoughtful popularizer of natural history and philosophy he had few rivals in his day, as is evidenced by the number of editions issued of many of his writings, among which the most widely-read have been: The Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects (1873), British Wild Plovers (1875), Ants, Bees and Wasps (1882), Flowers, Fruit and Leases (1886), The Pleasures of £i/e (1887), The Senses, Instincts and Intelligence, of Animals (1888), The Beauties of Nature (1892), The Use of Life (1894).
AVEBURY, a village in the Devizes parliamentary division of Wiltshire, England, on the river Kcnnet, 8 m. by road from Marlborough. The fine church of St James contains an early font with Norman carving, a rich Norman doorway, a painted reredos, and a beautiful old roodstone in good preservation. Avebury House is Elizabethan, with a curious stone dovecot. The village has encroached upon the remains of a huge stone circle (not quite circular), surrounded by a ditch and rampart of earth, and once approached by two avenues of monoliths. Within the larger circle were two smaller ones, placed not in the axis of the great one but on its north-eastern side, each of which consisted of a double concentric ring of stones; the centre being in one case a menhir or pillar, in the other a dolmen or tablestone resting on two uprights. Few traces remain, as the monoliths have been largely broken up for building purposes. The circle is the largest specimen of primitive stone monuments in Britain, measuring on the average 1200 ft. in diameter. The stones arc all the native Sarsens which occur everywhere in the district, and show no evidence of having been hewn. Those still remaining vary in size from 5 to 20 ft. in height above ground, and from 3 to 11 ft. in breadth. As in the case of Stonehenge,
the purpose for which the Avebury monument w»s erected has been the source of much difference of opinion among antiquaries, Dr Stukcly (Stonehenge a Temple restored to the British Druids, 1740) regarding it as a Druidical temple, while Fergusson (Rude Stone Monuments, 1872) believed that it, as well as Silbury Hilt, marks the site of the graves of those who fell in the last Arthurian battle at Badon Hill (a.d. 520). The majority of antiquaries, however, see no reason for dissociating its chronological horizon from that of the numerous other analogous monuments found in Great Britain, many of which have been shown to b« burial places of the Bronze Age. Excavations were carried out here in 1008, but without throwing any important new light on the monument.
There are many barrows on the neighbouring downs, beside* traces of a double oval of monoliths on Hackpen hill, and the huge mound of Silbury Hill. Waden Hill, to the south, has been, like Badbury, identified with Badon Hill, which was the traditional scene of the twelfth and last great battle of King Arthur in 520. The Roman road from Winchester to Bath skirts the south side of Silbury Hill.
At the time of the Domesday Survey, the church of Avcbury (Avrcberie, Abury), with two hides attached, was held in chief by Rainbold, a priest, and was bestowed by Henry III. on the abbot and monks of Cirencester, who continued to hold it until the reign of Henry VIII. The manor of Avcbury was granted in the reign of Henry I. to the Benedictine monks of St George of Bouchcrville in Normandy, and a cell from that abbey was subsequently established here. In consequence of the war with France in the reign of Edward III., this manor was annexed by the crown, and was conferred on the newly founded college of New College, Oxford, together with all the possessions, spiritual and temporal, of the priory.
AVE1A. an ancient town of the Vcstini, on the Via Claudia Nova, 6 m. S.E. of Aquila, N.E. of the modern village of Fossa. Some remains of ancient buildings still exist, and the name Aveia still clings to the place. The identification was first made by V. M. Giovcnazzi, Delia Cilia di Aveia tie' Veslini (Rome, 1773). Paintings in the church of S. Maria ad Crvptas, of the 12th to isth centuries, are important in the history of art. An inscription of a slationarius of the 3rd century, sent here on special duly (no doubt for the suppression of brigandage), was found herein 1902(A. von Domaszcwski, Horn. Mitt., 1902, 330).
AVEIRO, a seaport, episcopal sec, and the capital of an administrative district, formerly included in the province of Belra, Portugal; on the river Vouga, and the Lisbon-Oporto railway. Pop. (1000) 9979. Avciro is built on the southern shore of a marshy lagoon, containing many small islands, and measuring about 15 m. from north to south, with an average breadth of about i m. The Barra Nova, an artificial canal about 33 ft. deep, was constructed between 1801 and 1808, and gives access to the Atlantic ocean. The local industries include the preparation of sea-salt, the catching and curing of fish, especially sardines and oysters, and the gathering of aquatic plants (mo/K-O. There is also a brisk trade in wine, oil and fruit; while the Aveiro district contains copper and lead mines, besides much good pasture-land.
Aveiro is probably the Roman Talabriga. In the 16th century it was the birthplace of JoSo Affonso, one of the first navigators to visit the fishing-grounds of Newfoundland; and it soon became famous for its fleet of more than sixty vessels, which sailed yearly to that country, and returned laden with dried codfish. During the same century the cathedral was built, and the city was made a duchy. The title " duke of Aveiro " became extinct when its last holder, Doin Josf Mascarenhase Lancaster, was burned alive for high treason, in 1759. The administrative district of Aveiro coincides with the north-western part of the province of Beira; pop. (1900)303,169; area, 1065 sq. m.
AVELLA (anc. AbelSa), a city of Campania, Italy, in the province of Avellino, 23 m. N.E. of Naples by rail. Pop. (loot) 4107. It is finely situated in fertile territory and its nuts (nuctt Abcllanae) and fruit were renowned in Roman days. About i m. to the north-east lies Avella Vecchia, the ancient Abella, regarded