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the subject insured; in fact, the payment has been for averting such a loss. And it suggests that the insurer is not liable for salvage where the policy is free of particular average, which docs not accord with practice.
An important question as to an insurer's liability for G.A. arose in the case of the Brigclla (1893, P. 189), where a shipowner had incurred expenses which would have been the subject of C.A. contributions, but that he alone was interested in the voyage. There were no contributories. He claimed from the insurers of the ship what would have been the ship's G.A. contribution had there been other persons to contribute in respect of freight or cargo. The claim was disallowed on the ground that there could be no G.A. in such circumstances, and therefore no basis for a claim against the insurer. The liability of the insurer was thus made to depend, not upon the character of the loss, but upon the fact or possibility of contribution. But this was not followed in .Montgomery v. Indemnity Mutual M. I. Co. (1901, i K.B. 14?). There ship, freight and cargo all belonged to the same person. He had insured the cargo but not the ship. The cargo underwriters were held liable to pay a contribution to damage done to the ship by cutting away masts for the general safety. The loss was in theory spread over all the interests at risk, and they had undertaken to bear the cargo's share of such losses. Their Lability did not depend upon the accident of whether the interests all belonged to one person or not. This agrees with the view taken in the United States.
As to Particular Average, sec under Insurance: Marine.
Authorities.—Lowndcs on General Average (4th ed., London, 1888); Abbott's Merchant Shift and Seamen (14th cd., London, mill); Arnould's Marine Insurance (7th ed., London, 1901); Carver's Carriage by Sea (4th ed., London, 1905). (T. G. C.)
A VERSUS, a lake of Campania, Italy, about ij m. N. of Baiae. It is an old volcanic crater, nearly a m. in circumference, now, as in Roman times, filled with water. Its depth is 213 ft., and its height above sea-level 3} ft.; it has no natural outlet. In ancient times it was surrounded by dense forests, and was the centre of many legends. It was represented as the entrance by which both Odysseus and Aeneas descended to the infernal regions, and as the abode of the Cimmcrii. Its Greek name, "Aopra, was explained to mean that no bird could fly across it. Hannibal made a pilgrimage to it in 214 B.c. Agrippa in 37 B.C. converted it into a naval harbour, the Porlus lulius; joining it to the Lacus Lucrinus by a canal, and connecting the latter with the sea, he reduced the distance to Cumae by boring a tunnel over j m. in length, now called Grotta dclla Pace, through the hill on the north-west side of Lake Avcrnus. After Scxtus Pompeius had been subdued, the chief naval harbour was transferred to Misenum. Nero's works for his proposed canal from Baiae to the Tiber (a.d. 64) seem to have begun near Lake Avcraus; indeed, according to one theory, the Grotta della Pace would be a portion of this canal. On the cast side of the lake are remains of baths, including a great octagonal hall known as the Temple of Apollo, built of brickwork, and belonging to the ist century. The so-called Grotto of the Cumacan Sibyl, on the south side, is a rock-cut passage, ventilated by vertical apertures, possibly a part of the works connected with the naval harbour. To the south-east of the lake is the Monte Nuovo, a volcanic hill upheaved in i $38, with a deep extinct crater in the centre. To the south is the Lacus Lucrinus.
See J. Beloch, Campanim (2nd ed., Breslau, 1890), pp. 168 •eq.' (T. As.)
AVERROES [Abfil-Walld Muhammad ibn-Ahmad IbnMuhammad ibn-Rushd] (1126-1198), Arabian philosopher, was born at Cordova. His early life was occupied in mastering the curriculum of theology, jurisprudence, mathematics, medicine and philosophy, under the approved teachers of the time. The years of his prime fell during the last period of Mahommcdan rule in Spain under the Almohades (q.v.). It was Ibn-Tufail (Abubacer), the philosophic vizier of Yusef, who introduced Averroes to that prince, and Avenzoar (Ibn-Zuhr), the greatest of Moslem physicians, was his friend. Averroes, who was versed in the Malekite system of law, was made cadi of Seville (1169), and in similar appointments_the nut twenty-five years
of his life were passed. We find him at different periods in Seville, Cordova and Morocco, probably as physician to Yusef al-Mansur, who took pleasure in engaging him in discussions on the theories of philosophy and their bearings on the faith of Islam. But science and free thought then, a* now, in Islam, depended almost solely on the tastes of the wealthy and the favour of the monarch. The ignorant fanaticism of the multitude viewed speculative studies with deep dislike and distrust, and deemed any one a Zcndik (infidel) who did not rest content with the natural science of the Koran. These smouldering hatreds burst into open flame about the year 1195. Averroes was accused of heretical opinions and pursuits, stripped of his honours, and banished to a place near Cordova, where his actions were closely watched. At the same time efforts were made to stamp out all liberal culture in Andalusia, so far as it went beyond the little medicine, arithmetic and astronomy required for practical life. But the storm soon passed. Averroes was recalled to Morocco when the transient passion of the people had been satisfied, and for a brief period survived his restoration to honour. He died in the year before his patron, al-Mansur, with whom (in nog) the political power of the Moslems came to an end, as did the culture of liberal science with Averroes. The philosopher left several sons, some of whom became' jurists like his own grandfather. One of them has left an essay, expounding his father's theory of the intellect The personal character of Averroes is known to us only in a general way, and as we can gather it from his writings. His dear, exhaustive and dignified style of treatment evidences the rectitude and nobility of the man. In the histories of his own nation he has little place; the renown which spread in hit lifetime to the East ceased with his death, and he left no school. Yet, from a note in a manuscript, we know that he had intelligent readers in Spain more than a century afterwards. His historic fame came from the Christian Schoolmen, whom he almost initiated into the system of Aristotle, and who, but vaguely discerning the expositors who preceded, admired in his commentaries the accumulated results of two centuries of labours.
The literary works of Averroes include treatises on jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and philosophy. In 1859 a work of Averroes was for the first time published in Arabic by the Bavarian Academy, and a German translation appeared in 1875 by the editor, J. Muller. It is a treatise entitled Philosophy and Theology, and, with the exception of a German version of the essay on the conjunction of the intellect with man, is the first translation which enables the non-Semitic scholar to form any adequate idea of Averroes. The Latin translations of most of his works arc barbarous and obscure. A great part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and astronomy, as well as essays on special logical subjects, prolegomena to philosophy, criticisms on Avicenna and Alfarabius (FirSbl),remain in manuscript in the Escorial and other libraries. The Latin editions of his medical works include the Collifrt (i.e. Kulliyyat, or summary), a rliunt of medical science, and a commentary on Avicenna's poem on medicine; but Averroes, in medical renown, always stood far below Avicenna. The Latin editions of his philosophical works comprise the Cnmniratariei on Aristotle, the Destruclio Deitriutumit (against Ghazali), the De Substanlia Grins and a double treatise Dt Auimac Beoliludine. The Commentaries of Averroes fall under three head*:— the larger commentaries, in which a paragraph is quoted at large, and its clauses expounded one by one; the medium commentaries, which cite only the first words of a section; and the paraphrases or analyses, treatises on the subjects of the Aristotelian books. The larger commentary was an innovation of Averroes; for Avicenna, copied by Albcrtus Magnus, gave under the rubrics furnished by Aristotle works in which, though the materials were borrowed, the grouping was his own. The great, com* mcntarics exist only for the Posterior Analytics, Physics, Dt Coelo, Do Anima and Metaphysics. On the Hillary o] Animals no commentary at all exists, and Plato's Republic is substituted for the then inaccessible Politics. The Latin editions of thne works between 1480 and 1580 number about ico. The first tppeared at Padua (1474); about fifty Wot published »t Venice, the bat-known being that by the Juntas (1552-1533) in ten rolumes Mil).
See E. Rrnan, Atcrrolt rl rAremAime (and ed., Paris, i860; S Mont, tlflomtri. 413-458; G. Stftckl. Phil. d. Millflallers, ii. 67124: At*met (\'attr und So*x), Drti Abkan<ll. uber d. Conjunction d irparzten Intellect mil d. Mtnschen. trans, into German from the Arabic version of Sam. Ben-Tibbon. by Dr J. Herd (Berlin, 1869); T. J. de Boer, History of Philosophy in Islam (London, 1003), ch. vi.: A. F. M. Mehren in UtJton, vii. 613-627; viii. l-io; Carl Brockelmann. Cesckulae drr arabtsckr* LitltraluT (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp. 461 I. Sec also Arabian Phu.osofhv. (W. W.; G. W. T.)
AVERRUNCATOR, a form of Ion); shears used in arboriculture for " sverruncating " or pruning off the higher branches of trees, tc. The word " avcrruncate " (from Lat. awmmcore, to ward off, remove mischief) glided into meaning to" weed the ground," "prune vines," Sec., by a supposed derivation from the Lat. ci. off, and eruncart, to weed out, and it was spelt " aberuncate" to suit this; but the New English Dictionary regards such a derivation as impossible.
A VERSA, a town and episcopal Set of Campania, Italy, In the povuice of Caserta, 15) m. S.S.W. by rail from Caserta, and i: 1 tn. N. by rail from Naples, from which there is also an electric tramway. Pop. (1001) 2.5.477- Avers* was the first place in which the Normans settled, it being granted to them in 1027 for the help which they had given to Duke Scrgius of Naples apiiut Pandulf IV. of Capua. The Benedictine abbey of S. Lorenzo preserves a portal of the nth century. There is also i large lunatic asylum, founded by Joachim Mural in 1813.
AVESMES* a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissenent in the department of Nord, on the Helpc, 28 m. S.E. of Vtloidennes by rail Pop. (1006) 5076. The town is the seal of t sub-prelect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a chamber cf orimmcrce and a communal college. Its church of St Nicholas (i6th century) has a tower 260 ft. high, with a fine chime of bells. The chic! industry of ihctown is wool-spinning, and there is trade m wood. Avcsncs was founded in the i ith century, and formed > eountehtp which in the islh century pasted to the house of Burgundy and afterwards to that of Habsburg. In 1477 it was destroyed by Louis XI. By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1650) il cune into the possession of the French, and was fortified by Vuhan. It was captured by the Prussians in 1815.
AVEYRON, a department of southern France, bounded N. by Gmlal, E. by Lozcrc and Card, S.W. by Tarn and W. by Tirn-et-Garonne and Lot. Area, 3386 sq. m. Pop. (1006) jTj.'oo. It corresponds nearly to the old district of Rouergue, wfcirh gave its name to a countship established early in the gth (rntury, end united with that of Toulouse towards the end of the mil century. The earliest known natives of this region were the Critic Rulhf-ni, to whom the numerous megalithic monuments found in the department are attributed. Avcyron lies on the niihtni border of the central plateau of France. Its chief men are the Lot in the north, the Avcyron in the centre and the Tim in the south, all tributaries of the Garonne. They flow from east to west, following the general slope of the department, and divide it into four zones. In the north-cast, between the Lot and it* tributary th«Truydre, lies the lonely pastoral plateau ol the Vuulc'ne, dominated by the volcanic mountains of Aubrac, •kich form the north-eastern limit of the department and include iu highest summit (4760 ft.). Entraygues, at the confluence ol the Lot and the TruyJre, is one of the many picturesque Inrns of the department. Between the Lot and the Aveyron c a belt of caiuja or monotonous limestone table-lands, broken krrt and there by profound and beautiful gorges—a type of Ktm-ry characteristic of Aveyron. This zone is also watered bjr the Dourdou du Nord, a tributary of the Lot. The salient faturt of the region between the Tarn and the Aveyron is the plilcau of the Segal j. bordered on the east by the heights of I. vi. .u.i u and Palanges and traversed from east to west by the di-rp valley of the Viaur, a tributary of the Aveyron. The country teuih of the Tarn is occupied in great part by the huge plateau of Larcar, which lies between the Causse Noir and the Causse St Aflrique, the three forming the south-western termination of the
Clvennes. On the Causse Noir Is found the fantastic chaos of rocks and precipices known as Montpellier-le-Vieuz, resembling the ruins of a huge city. The climate of Aveyron varies from extreme rigour in the mountains to mildness in the sheltered valleys ; the south wind is sometimes of great violence. Wheat, rye and oats are the chief cereals cultivated, the soil of Aveyron being naturally poor. Other crops are potatoes, colza, hemp and flax. The mainstay of the agriculture of the department is the raising of live-stock, especially of cattle of the Aubrac breed, for which Laguiole is an important market. The wines of Entraygucs, St Georges, Bouillac and Najac have some reputation; in the Segala chestnuts form an important element in the food of the peasants, and the walnut, cider-apple, mulberry (for the silk-worm industry), and plum are among the fruit trees grown. The production of Roquefort cheeses is prominent among the agricultural industries. They are made from the milk of the large flocks of the plateau of Larzac, and the choicest are ripened in the even temperature of the caves in the cliff which overhangs Roquefort. The minerals found in the department include the coal of the basins of Aubin and Rodez as well as iron, zinc and lead. Quarries of various kinds of slone arc also worked. The chief induslrial centres are Decazcvillc, which has metallurgical works, and Millau, where leather-dressing and the manufacture of gloves have attained considerable importance. Wool-weaving and the manufacture of woollen goods, machinery, chemicals and bricks are among the other industries.
There arc five arrondissements, of which the chief towns are Rodez, capital of the department, Espalion, Millau, St Affrique and Villcfranche, with 43 cantons and 304 communes. Rodez is the seat of a bishopric, the diocese of which comprises the department. Aveyron belongs to the i6th military region, and to the acadtmie or educational circumscription of Toulouse. Its court of appeal is at Montpellicr. The department is traversed by the lines both of the Orlfans and Southern railways. The more important towns are Rodez, Millau, St Affrique, Villefranche-de-Rouergue and Decazcvillc. The following are also of Interest :—Sauvcterrc, founded in rz8i, a striking example of the bastide (?.t.) of that period; Conques, which has a remarkable abbey church of the nth century like St Semin of Toulouse in plan and possessing a rich treasury of reliquaries, &c.;Espalion, where amongst other old buildings there are the remains of a feudal stronghold and a church of the Romanesque period; Najac, which has the ruins of a magnificent chateau of the 131)1 century; and Sylvanes, with a church of the izth century, once attached to a Cistercian abbey.
AVEZZANO, a town of the Abruzzi, Italy, In the province of Aquila, 67 m. E. of Rome by rail and 38 m. S. of Aquila by road. Pop. (1001) 0442. It has a fine and well-preserved castle, built in r4Oo by Gentile Virginio Orsini; it is square, with round towers at the angles. Avczzano is on the main line from Rome to Castellammare Adriatico; a branch railway diverges to Roccasecca, on the line from Naples to Rome. The Logo Fucino lies i J m. to the east.
AVIANUS, a Latin writer of fables, placed by some critics in the age of the Antonines, by others as late as the 6th century A.d. He appears to have lived at Rome and to have been a heathen. The 42 fables which bear his name are dedicated to a certain Theodosius, whose learning is spoken of in most flattering terms. He may possibly be Macrobius Theodosius, the author of the Saturnalia; some think he may be the emperor of that name. Nearly all the fables arc to be found in Babrius, who was probably Avianus's source of inspiration, but as Babrius wrote in Greek, and Avianus speaks of having made an elegiac version from a rough Latin copy, probably a prose paraphrase, he was not indebted to the original. The language and metre are on the whole correct, in spite of deviations from classical usage, chiefly in the management of the pentameter. The fables soon became popular as a school-book. Promythia and epimythia (introductions and morals) and paraphrases, and imitations were frequent, such as the Nona Arianta of Alexander Ncckam (<2th century).
Editions.—Cannegieter (1731), Lachmann (1845). Frflhner (1863), Bahrein in Poetae Lalini Uinores, Ellis (1887)- See Mailer, Dt Phaedn el Aviani Fabulis (1875); Unrein, De Aviani Aelalt (1885); Hervicux, Les Fabuliiles latins (1894); TJu Fables of Avian Iranilatcd into Eaetyski. . . by William Canton at Wtilmyiutn (1483).
AVIARY (from Lat. avis, a. bird), called by older writers "volary," a structure in which birds arc kept in a state ot captivity. While the habit of keeping birds in cages dates from a very remote period, it is probable that structures worthy of being termed aviaries were first used by the ancient Romans, chiefly for the process of fattening birds for the table. In Varro's time, 116-127 B.C., aviaries or " ornithoncs " (from Gr. Spra 6p«flb!, bird) were common. These consisted of two kinds, those constructed for pleasure, in which were kept nightingales and other song-birds, and those used entirely for keeping and fattening birds for market or for the tables of their owners. Varro himself had an aviary for song-birds exclusively, while Lucullus combined the two classes, keeping birds both for pleasure and as delicacies for his table. The keeping of birds for pleasure, however, was very rarely indulged in, while it was a common practice with poulterers and others to have large ornilhones cither in the city or at Sabinum for the fattening of thrushes and other birds for food.
Ornithoncs consisted merely of four high walls and a roof, and were lighted with a few very small windows, as the birds were considered to pine less if they could not sec their free companions outside. Water was introduced by means of pipes, and conducted in narrow channels, and the birds were fed chiefly upon dried figs, carefully peeled, and chewed into a pulp by persons hired to perform this operation.
Turtle-doves were fattened in large numbers for the market on wheat and millet, the latter being moistened with sweet wine; but thrushes were chiefly in request,, and Varro mentions one ornithon from which no less than five thousand of these birds were sold for the table in one season.
The habit of keeping birds in aviaries, as we understand the term, for the sake of the pleasure they afford their owners and for studying their habits is, however, of comparatively recent date. The beginning of geographical research in the ijth century brought with it the desire to keep and study at home some of the beautiful forms of bird-life which the explorers came across, and hence it became the custom to erect aviaries for the reception of these creatures. In the i6th century, in the early part of which the canary-bird was introduced into Europe, aviaries were not uncommon features of the gardeas of the wealthy, and Bacon refers to them in his essay on gardening (1597). Elizabeth of Bohemia, the daughter of James I. of England, when a child, had an outdoor aviary at Coombe Abbey near Coventry, the back and roof of which were formed of natural rock, in which were kept birds of many species from many countries.
Within recent years the method of keeping birds in large aviaries has received considerable attention, and it is fully recognized that by so doing, not only do we derive great pleasure, but our knowledge of avian habits and mode of living can thereby be very considerably increased.
An aviary may be of almost any size, from the large cage known, on account of its shape, as the " Crystal Palace aviary," to a structure as large as a church; and the term is sometimes applied to the room of a house with the windows covered with wire-netting; but as a rule it is used for outdoor structures, composed principally of wire-netting supported on a framework of either iron or woodwork. For quite hardy birds little more than this is necessary, providing that protection is given in the form of growing trees and shrubs, rock-work or rough wooden shelters. For many of the delicate species, however, which hai] from tropical countries, warmth must be provided during the inclement months of the year, and thus a part at least of an aviary designed for these birds must be in the form of a wooden or brick house which can be shut up in cold weather and artificially warmed.
The ideal aviary, probably, is that which is constructed in two parts, viz. a well-built house for the winter, opening out
nto a large wire enclosure for use in the summer months. The doors between the two portions may be of wood or glazed. The >art intended as the winter home of the birds is best built in wick or stone, as these materials are practically vermin-proof and the temperature in such a building is less variable than that
a thin wooden structure. The floor should be of concrete 01 wick, and the house should be fitted with an efficient healing apparatus from which the heat is distributed by means of hotwater pipes. Any arrangement which would permit the escape nto the aviary of smoke or noxious fumes is to be strongly condemned. Such a house must be well lighted, preferably by means of skylights; but it is a mistake to have the whole roof ;lazed, at least half of it should be of wood, covered with slates or tiles. Perches consisting of branches of trees with the bark adhering should be fixed up, and, if small birds are to be kept, Bundles of bushy twigs should be securely fixed up in corners under the roofs.
The outer part, which will principally be used during the summer, though it will do most birds good to be let out for * few hours on mild winter days also, should be as large as possible, and constructed entirely of wire-netting stretched on a framework of wood or iron. If the latter material is selected, stout gas-piping is both stronger and more easily fitted together than solid iron rods.
If the framework be of wood, this should be crcosoted. preferably under pressure, or painted with three coats of good lead paint, the latter preservative also being used if iron is the material selected.
The wire-netting used may be of almost any sized mesh, according to the sized birds to be kept, but as a general rule the smallest mesh, such as half or five-eighths of an inch, should be used, as it is practically vermin-proof, and allows of birds of any size being kept. Wire-netting for aviaries should be of the best quality, and well galvanized. The new interlinked type is less durable than the old mesh type, though perhaps it looks somewhat neater when fixed.
Provision must be made for the entire exclusion of such vermin as rats, stoats and weasels, which, if they were lo gain access, would commit great havoc amongst the birds. The simplest and most effectual method of doing this is by sinking the wire-netting some i ft. into the ground all round the aviary, and then turning it outwards for a distance of another foot as shown in the annexed cut (fig. l).
The outer part of the aviary should be turfed and planted with evergreen and deciduous shrubs, and be provided with some means of supplying an abun
dance of pure water for the birds to drink and bathe in. and
a gravel path should not be forgotten.
Perhaps the most useful type of aviary is that built as above described, but with several compartments, and a passage at the back by which any compartment may be visited without the necessity of passing through and disturbing the birds in other compartments. Fig. 2 represents a ground plan of an aviary of this type divided into four compartments, each with an inner house 10 ft. square, and an outer flight of double that area. The outer flights are intended lo be turfed, and planted with shrubs, and the gravel path has a glazed roof above it by which it is kept dry in wet weather. Shallow water-basins arc shown, which should be supplied by means of an underground pipe and a cock which can be turned on from outside the aviary; and they must be connected with a properly laid drain by means of a waste plug and an overflow pipe.
An aviary should always be built with a southern or southeastern aspect, and, where possible, should be sheltered from the north, north-east and north-west by a belt of fir-trees, high wall or bank, to protect the birds from the biting winds from these quarters.
When parrots of any kind arc to be kept it is useless to try to grew any kind of vegetation except grass, and even Ibis will be demolished unless the aviary is of considerable size. The larger parrots wilj, in fact, bite to pieces not only living trees but also the woodwork of their abode, and the only really suitable materials for the construction of an aviary for these birds arc brick or stone and iron; and the wire-netting used must be of the stoutest gauge or it will be torn to pieces by their strong bills.
The feeding of birds in aviaries is, obviously, a matter of the utmost importance, and, in order that they may have what is most suitable, the aviculturist should find out as much as possible of the wild lift of the species be wishes to keep, or if little or nothing is known about their mode of living, as is often the case ». iih rare forms, of nearly related species whose habits and food are probably much the same, and he should endeavour to provide food as nearly as possible resembling that which would be obtained by ths birds when wild. It is often, however, impossible to supply precisely the same food as would be obtained by the birds had they their liberty, but a substitute which suits them well can
FlG. 2.—Plan of 4-cornpartment Aviary for Foreign Birds. generally be obtained. The majority of the parrot tribe subsist principally upon various nuts, seed and fruit, while some of the smaller purakeeU or paroquets appear to feed almost exclusively upon the seeds of various grasses. Almost all of these are comparatively easy to treat in captivity, the larger ones being fed on maize, sunflower-seed, hemp, dari, oats, canary-seed, nuts and various ripe fruits, while the grass-parrakeets thrive remarkably well on little besides canary-seed and green food, the most suitable of which is grass in flower, duckweed, groundsel ud various seed-bearing weeds. But there is another large group ol parrots, the Loriidoe or brush-tongucd parrots, some of the most interesting and brightly coloured of the tribe, which, when * iM. subsist principally upon the pollen and nectar of flowers, notably the various species of Eucalyptus, the filamented tongues of these parrots being peculiarly adapted for obtaining this. In captivity these birds have been found to live well upon sweetened milk-sop, which is made by pouring boiling milk upon crumbled bread or biscuit. They frequently learn to eat seed like other parrots, but, if fed exclusively upon this, are apt, especially if deprived of abundance of exercise, to suffer from (us which are usually fatal. Fruit is also readily eaten by the lories and lorikeets, and should always be supplied.
The foreign doves and pigeons form a numerous and beautiful group which are mostly hardy and easily kept and bred in captivity. They are for the most part grain-feeders and require only small com and seeds, though a certain group, known as the fruit-pigeons, are fed in captivity upon soft fruits, berries, boiled potato and soaked grain.
The various finches and finch-like birds form an exceedingly laaje group »od comprise perhaps the most popular of foreign
aviary birds. The weaver-birds of Africa are mostly quite tardy and very easily kept, their food consisting, for the most ?art, of canary-seed. The males of these birds are, as a rule, gorgeously attired in brilliant colours, some having long flowing tail-feathers during the nuptial season, while in the winter their showy dress is replaced by one of sparrow-like sorabrcncss. The grass-finches of Australasia contain some of the most brilliantly coloured birds, the beautiful grass-finch (Potphila tuirabiiis) being resplendent in crimson, green, mauve, blue and yellow. Most of these birds build their nests, and many rear their young, successfully in outdoor aviaries, their food consisting of canary and millet seeds, while flowering grasses provide them with an endless source of pleasure and wholesome food. The same treatment suits the African waybills, many of which are extremely beautiful, the crimson-eared waxbill or " cordonbleu" being one of the most lovely and frequently imported. These little birds are somewhat delicate, especially when first imported, and during the winter months require artificial warmth.
There is a very large group of insectivorous and fruit-eating birds very suitable for aviculture, but their mode of living necessarily involves considerable care on the part of the aviculturist in the preparation of their food. Many birds arc partially insectivorous, feeding upon insects when these arc plentiful, and upon various seeds at other times. Numbers of species again which, when adult, feed almost entirely upon grain, feed their young, especially during the early stages of their existence, upon insects; while others are exclusively insect-eaters at all times of their lives. All of these points must be considered by those who would succeed in keeping and breeding birds in aviaries.
It would be almost an impossibility to keep the purely insectivorous species, were It not for the fact that they can be gradually accustomed to feed on what is known as " insectivorous " or "insectile" food, a composition of which the principal ingredients generally consist of dried ants' cocoons, dried flies, dried powdered meat, preserved yolk of egg,1 and crumb of bread or biscuit. This is moistened with water or mixed with mashed boiled potato, and forms a diet upon which most of the insectivorous birds thrive. The various ingredients, or the food ready made, can be obtained at almost any bird-fancier's shop. Although it is a good staple diet for these birds, the addition of mealworms, caterpillars, grubs, spiders and so forth is often a necessity, especially for purely insectivorous species.
The fruit-eating species, such as the tanagcrs and sugar-birds of the New World, require ripe fruit in abundance in addition to a staple diet such as that above described, while for such birds as feed largely upon earth-worms, shredded raw meat is added with advantage.
Many of the waders male very interesting aviary birds, and require a diet similar to that above recommended, with the addition of chopped raw meat, mealworms and any insects that can be obtained.
Birds of prey naturally require a meat diet, which is best given in the form of small, freshly killed mammals and birds, the fur pr feathers of which should not be removed, as they aid digestion.
The majority of wild birds, from whatever part of the world they may come, will breed successfully in suitable aviaries providing proper nesting sites are available. Large bundles of brushwood, fixed up in sheltered spots, will afford accommodation for many kinds of birds, while some will readily build in evergreen shrubs if these arc grown in their enclosure. Small boxes and baskets, securely fastened to the wall or roof of the
1 ft has recently been stated by certain rncdical men that e£Bfood in any form is an undesirable diet for bird?, owing to its being peculiarly adapted to the multiplication of the bacillus of septicaemia, a disease which is responsible for the death of many_ newly imported birds. It is a significant fact, however, that insectivorous species, whirh are those principally fed upon this substance, are not nearly so susceptible to this disease ac> seed-eating birds which rarely taste Crk: ana in spite of what has been written concerning its harmfulness. the large majority of aviculturists use it, in both the fresh and the preserved state, with no apparent ill effects, but rather the reverse.
sheltered part of an aviary, will be appropriated by such species as naturally .build in holes and crevices. Parrots, when wild, lay their eggs, in hollow trees, and occasionally in holes in rocks, making no nest,1 but merely scraping out a slight hollow in which to deposit the eggs. For these birds hollow logs, with small entrance holes near the top, oc boxes, varying in size according to the size of the parrots which they are intended for, should be supplied. In providing nesting accommodation for his birds the aviculturist must endeavour to imitate their natural surroundings and supply sites as nearly as possible similar to those which the birds, to whatever order they may belong, would naturally select.
Aviculture is a delightful pastime, but it is also far more than this; it is of considerable scientific importance, for it admits of the living birds being studied in a way that would be quite impossible otherwise. There are hundreds of species of birds, from all parts of the world, the habits of which are almost unknown, but which may be kept without difficulty in suitable aviaries. Many of these birds cannot be studied satisfactorily in a wild state by reason of their shy nature And retiring habits, not to mention their rarity and the impossibility, so far as most people are concerned, of visiting their native haunts. In suitable large aviaries, however, their nesting habits, courtship, display, incubation, moult and so forth can be accurately observed and recorded. The keeping of birds in aviaries is therefore a practice worthy of every encouragement, so long as the aviaries are of sufficient size and suitable design to allow of the birds exhibiting their natural habits; for in a large aviary they will reveal the secrets of their nature as they never would do in a cage or small aviary. GD.S.-S.)
AVICENNA [AbO 'All al-Husain ibn 'AbdallSh ibn SlnS] (980-1037), Arabian philosopher, was born at Afshcna in the district of Bokhara. His mother was a natrve of the place; his father, a Persian from Balkh, filled the post of tax-collector in the neighbouring town of Harmaitin, under Nuh II. ibn Mansur, the Samanid amir of Bokhara. On the birth of Avicenna's younger brother the family migrated to Bokhara, then one of the chief cities of the Moslem world, and famous for a culture which was older than its conquest by the Saracens. Avicenna was put in charge of a tutor, and his precocity soon made him the marvel of his neighbours,—as a boy of ten who knew by rote the Koran and much Arabic poetry besides. From a greengrocer he learnt arithmetic; and higher branches were begun under one of those wandering scholars who gained a livelihood by cures for the sick and lessons for the young. Under him Avicenna read the Isagogc of Porphyry and the first propositions of Euclid. But the pupil soon found his teacher to be but a charlatan, and betook himself, aided by commentaries, to master logic, geometry and the Almagest. Before he was sixteen he not merely knew medical theory, but by gratuitous attendance on the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment. For the next year and a half he worked at the higher philosophy, in which he encountered greater obstacles. In such moments of baffled inquiry he would leave his books, perform the requisite ablutions, then hie to the mosque, and continue in prayer till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night he would continue his studies, stimulating his senses by occasional cups of wine, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty times, it is said, he read through the Mtlaphysics of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning was hopelessly obscure, until one day they found illumination from the little commentary by Klr.ibi ((/.p.), which he bought at a bookstall for the small sum of three dirhcms. So great was his joy at the discovery, thus made by help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, and bestowed an alms upon the poor. Thus, by the end of his seventeenth year his apprenticeship of study was
1 There is, however, one true nest-building parrot, the grcybrcastcd parrakcet (Myopsittactts tnonachus), which constructs a huge neat of twigs. The true love-birds (Aeapornis) may also be laid to build nests, for they line their nest-hole with strips of pliant bark.
concluded, and he went forth to find a market for his accomplishments.
His first appointment was that of physician to the amir, who owed him his recovery from a dangerous illness (007). Aviccnna's chief reward for this service was access to the royal library of the Samanids (?.».), well-known patrons of scholarship and scholars. When the library was destroyed by fire not long after, the enemies of Avicenna accused him of burning it, in order for ever to conceal the sources of his knowledge. Meanwhile, he assisted his father in his financial labours, but still found time to write some of his earliest works.
At the age of twenty-two Avicenna lost his father. Tht Samanid dynasty came to its end in December 1004. Avicenna seems to have declined the offers of Mahmud the Ghazncvid. and proceeded westwards to Urjensh in the modern Khiva, where the vizier, regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a small monthly stipend. But the pay was small, and Aviccnna wandered from place to place through the districts of Nishapur and Merv to the borders of Khorasan, seeking an opening for his talents. Shams al-Ma'Al! QibQs, the generous ruler of Dailam, himself a poet and a scholar, with whom he h'ad expected to find an asylum, was about that date (1012) starved to death by his own revolted soldiery. Avicenna himself was at this season stricken down by a severe illness. Finally, at Jorj&n, near the Caspian, he met with a friend, who bought near his own house a dwelling in which Aviccnna lectured on logic and astronomy. For this patron several of his treatises were written; and the commencement of his Canon of lledicinc also dates from his stay in Hyrcania.
He subsequently settled at Rai, in the vicinity of the modern Teheran, where a son of the last amir, Majd Addaula, was nominal ruler, under the regency of his mother. At Rai about thirty of his shorter works arc said to have been composed. But the constant feuds which raged between the regent and her second son, Shams Addaula, compelled the scholar to quit the place, and after a brief sojourn at Kazwln, he passed southwards to Il.-imadin, where that prince had established himself. At first he entered into the service of a high-born lady; but ere long the amir, hearing of his arrival, called him in as medical attendant, and sent him back with presents to his dwelling. Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier; but the turbulent soldiery, composed of Kurds and Turks, mutinied against their nominal sovereign, and demanded that the new vizier should be put to death. Shams Addaula consented that he should be banished from the country. Aviccnna, however, remained hidden for forty days in a sheik's house, till a frcih attack of illness induced the amir to restore him to his post. Even during this perturbed time he prosecuted his studies and teaching. Every evening extracts from his great works, the Canon and the Sanalio, were dictated and explained to his pupils; among whom, when the lesson was over, he spent the rest of the night in festive enjoyment with a band of singers and players. On the death of the amir Avicenna ceased to be vizier, and hid himself in the house of an apothecary, where, with intense assiduity, he continued the composition of his works. Meanwhile, he had written to Abu Ya'far, the prefect of Isfahan, offering his services; but the new amir of HamadSn getting to hear of this correspondence, and discovering the place of Aviccnna's concealment, incarcerated him in a fortress. War meanwhile continued between the rulers of Isfahan and Hnrr.adln; in 1014 the former captured Hamadin and its towns, and expelled the Turkish mercenaries. When the storm had passed Avicenna returned with the amir to HamadSn, and carried on his Ulcr.iry labours; but at length, accompanied by his brother, a favourite pupil, and two slaves, .made his escape out of the city in die dress of a Sufite ascetic. After a perilous journey they reached Isfahan, and received an honourable welcome from the prince. The remaining ten or twelve years of Aviccnna's life were spent in the service of Abu Ya'far 'AH Addaula, whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns. During these years he began to study literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by