صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

like the tribe of Hodcil, south of Mecca, perform it after a fashion peculiar to themselves.

Though polygamy is not common among Bedouins, marriages arc contracted without any legal intervention or guarantee; the consent of the parties, and the oral testimony of a couple of witnesses, should such be at hand, are all that are required; and divorce is equally easy. Nor is mutual constancy much expected or observed cither by men or women; and the husband is rarely strict in exacting from the wife a fidelity that he himself has no idea of observing. Jealousy may indeed occasionally bring about tragic results, but this rarely occurs except where publicity, to which the Bedouins, like all other Arabs, are very sensitive, is involved. Burckhardt writes: " The Bedouins are jealous of their women, but do not prevent them from laughing and talking with strangers. It seldom happens that a Bedouin strikes his wife; if he does so she calls loudly on her wasy or protector, who pacifies the husband and makes him listen to reason. . . . The wife and daughters perform all domestic business. They grind the wheat in the handmill or pound it in the mortar; they prepare the breakfast and dinner; knead and bake the bread; make butter, fetch water, work at the loom, mend the tent-covering . . . while the husband or brother sits before the tent smoking his pipe." A maiden's honour is, on-the other hand, severely guarded; and even too openly avowed a courtship, though with the most honourable intentions, is ill looked on. But marriage, if indeed so slight and temporary a connexion as it is among Bedouins deserves the name, is often merely a passport for mutual licence. In other respect* Bedouin morality, like that of most half-savage races, depends on custom and public feeling rather than on any fixed code or trained conscience, and hence admits of the strangest contradictions. Not only arc lying and exaggeration no reproach in ordinary discourse, but even deliberate perjury and violation of the most solemn engagements are frequent occurrences. Not less frequent, however, arc instances of prolonged fidelity and observance of promise carried to the limits of romance. "The wind," " the wood," and " the honour of the Arabs " are the most ordinary oaths in serious matters; but even these do not give absolute security, while a simple verbal engagement will at other times prove an inviolable guarantee. Thus, too, the extreme abstemiousness of a Bedouin alternates with excessive gorgings; and, while the name and deeds of " robber " are hardly a reproach, those of "thief " are marked by abhorrence and contempt. In patience, or rather endurance, both physical and moral, few Bedouins are deficient; wariness is another quality universally developed by their mode of life. And in spite of an excessive coarseness of language, and often of action, gross vice, at least of the more debasing sorts that dishonour the East, is rare.

Most Bedouins, men and women, are rather undersized; their complexion, especially in the south, is dark; their hair coarse, thick and black; their eyes dark and oval; the nose is generally aquiline, and the features well formed; the beard and moustache are usually scanty. The men arc active, but not strong; the women are generally plain. The dress of the men consists of a long cotton shirl.open at the breast,often girt with a leathern girdle; a black or siripcd cloak of hair « sometimes thrown over the shoulders; a handkerchief, folded once, black, or striped yellow and red, covers the head, round which it is kept in its place by a piece of twine or a twisted hairband. To this costume a pair of open sandals is sometimes added. Under the shirt, round the naked waist, a thin strip of leather plait is wound several limes, not for any special object, but merely out of custom. In his hand a Bedouin almost always carries a slight crooked wand, commonly of almond-wood. Among the Bedouins of the south a light wrapper lakes the place of the handkerchief on the head, and a loin-cloth that of the shirt. The women usually wear wide loose drawers, a long shirt, and over it a wide piece of dark blue cloth enveloping the whole figure and head, and trailing on the ground behind. Very rarely does a Bedouin woman wear a veil, Or even cover her face with her ovcrcloak, contenting herself with narrowing the folds of the latter over her on the approach of a stranger.^Her wrists and ankles arc

generally adorned with bracelets and rings of blue glass or copper or iron, very rarely of silver; her neck with glass beads; ear-rings arc rare, and nose-rings rarer. Boys, till near puberty, usually go stark naked; girls also wear no clothes up to the age of six or seven.

On a journey a Bedouin invariably carries with him a light, sharp-pointed lance, the stem of which is made of Persian or African cane; the manner in which this is carried or trailed often indicates the tribe of the owner. The lance is the favourite and characteristic weapon of the Arab nomad, and the one in the use of which he shows the greatest skill. An antiquated sword, an out-of-date musket, an ornamented dagger or knife, a coat of mail, the manufacture of Yemen or Bagdad, and a helmet, a mere iron head-piece, without visor or crest, complete his military outfit.

A Bedouin's tent consists of a few coverings of the coarsest goat-hair, dyed black, and spread over two or more small poles, in height from 8 to 9 ft., gipsy fashion. If it be the lent of a sheik, its total length may be from 30 to 40 ft.; if of an ordinary person, less than 20 ft. Sometimes a partition separates thie quarters of the women and children; sometimes they are housed under a lower and narrower covering. A rough carpet or mat is spread on the ground; while camel-saddles, ropes, halters, two or three cooking pots, one or two platters, a wooden drinking bowl, the master's arms at one side of the tent, and his spear stuck in the ground at the door, complete the list of household valuables. On striking camp all these are fastened on the backs of camels; the men mount their saddles, the women their Utters; and in an hour the blackened stones that served for a cooking hearth are the only sign of the encampment. For food the Bedouin relies on his herds, but rice, vegetables, honey, locusts and even lizards arc at times eaten.

Bibliography.—Tohann Ludwig Burckhardt, ffotis on tkt Bedouins and Wakabii (iBji); Kara tens Niebuhr. Travels through Arabia (orig. Germ. edit. 1772), translated into English by Robert Heron (2 vols.. Edinburgh, 1792); H. H. Tc»up, Womrn of the Arabs (New_Yorkv 1874)1; W-J- Blunr, Bedouin Tribft of tkt


(iqoo); \V. Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriott in Early Arabia (Cambridge. 1885); H. C. Trumbull. The Blood Covenant (Philadelphia, 1891).

BEDSORE, a form of ulceration or sloughing, occasioned in people who, through sickness or old age, are confined to bed, resulting from pressure or the irritation of sweat and dirt. Bedsores usually occur when there is a low condition of nutrition of the tissues. The more helpless the patient the more liable he is to betisoccs, and especially when he is paralysed, delirious or insane, or when suffering from one of the acute specific fevers. They may occur wherever there is a pressure, more especially when any moisture is allowed to remain on the bedding; and thus lack of cleanliness is an important factor in the production of this condition. In large hospitals a bedsore is now a great rarity, and this, considering the helplessness of many of the patients treated, shows what good nursing can do. The bed must be made with a firm smooth mattress; the undersheet and blanket must be changed whenever they become soiled; the drawshect is spread without creases, and changed the moment it becomes soiled. Preventive treatment must be followed from the first day of ihe illness. This consists in the most minute attention to cleanliness, and constant variation in the position of the patient. All parts subjected to pressure or friction mu&t be frequently washed with soap and hot water, then thoroughly dried with a warm soft towel. The part should next be bathed in a solution of corrosive sublimatcin spirits of wine, and finally dusted with an oxide of zinc and starch powder. This routine should begone through not less than four times in the twenty-four hours in any case of prolonged illness. The pressure may be relieved over bony prominences by a water-pillow or by a piece of thick felt cut into a ring. Signs of impending bedsores must constantly be watched for. Where one threatens, the skin loses its proper colour, becoming cither a deadly while or ft dusky red. and the redness does not disappear on pressure. The surrounding tissues become oedematous, and pain is often severer except in a case of paralysis. As the condition progresses further the pain ceases. The epidermis now becomes raised as in a blister, and finally becomes detached, forming an excoriation and exposing the papillae. Even at this late stage an actual ulceration can still be prevented if proper care is taken; but failing this, the skin sloughs and an ulcer forms. In treating this, the position of the patient must besuch that no pressure is ever allowed on the sloughing tissue. A hot boracic pad under oil-silk should be applied, the affected part being first dusted with iodoform. If, however, the slough is very large, it is safer to avoid wet applications, and the parts should be dusted with animal charcoal and iodoform, and protected with a dry dressing. When the •lough has separated and the sore is clean, friar's balsam will hasten the healing process. In any serious illness the formation of a bedsore makes the prognosis far more grave, and may even bring about a fatal issue, either directly or indirectly,

BEDWORTH, a. manufacturing town in the Nuneaton parliamentary division of Warwickshire, England; on the NuneatonCoventry branch of the London & North Western railway, 100 m. north-west from London. Pop. (1000) 7169. A tramway connects with Coventry-, and the Coventry canal passes through. Co,11 and ironstone are mined; there are iron-works, and bricks, hats, ribbons and tape and silk are made. Similar industries are pursued in the populous district (including the villages of Exhall and Foleshill) which extends southward towards Coventry.

BEE (Sanskrit Wra. A.S. M, Lat. apis), a large and natural family of the zoological order Hymmoplera, characterized by the plumose form of many of their hairs, by the large size of

the basal segment of the foot, which is always elongate and in the hindmost limb sometimes as broad as the shin, and by the development of a "tongue" for sucking liquid food; this organ has been variously interpreted as the true insectan tongue (hypopharynx) or as a ligula formed by fused portions of the second maxillae (probably the latter). Bees are specialized ill correspondence with the flowers from which they draw the bulk of their food supply, the flexible tongue being used for sucking nectar, the plumed hairs and the modified legs (fig. 7) for gathering pollen. These floral products which form the food of bees and of their larvae, are in most cases collected and stored by the industrious insects; but some genera of bees act as inquilines

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grub devours not only the food-supply, bat also the larva oi its host.

Solitary and Social Bees.—Many genera of bees are represented, like most other insects, by ordinary males and females, each female constructing a nest formed of several chambers (" cells ") and storing in each chamber a supply' of food for the grub to be batched from the egg that she lays therein. Such bees, although a number of individuals often make their nests .close together, are termed "solitary," their communities differing in nature from those of the " sodal " bees, among which there arc two kinds of females—the normal fertile females or "queens," and those specially modified females with undeveloped ovaries (see fig. 6) that are called "workers" (fig. i). The workers

[graphic][merged small]

a. Antenna or feeler. mx, 1st maxilla.

g, Epipharynx. Ip, Labial palp.

mxp, NlaxiUary palp. I, Ligula or 'tongue."

pg, Opposite to galcae of 2nd b, fiouton or spoon of tfct maxillae (labium). ligula.

(F/ooi Funk R. Cbahh'i B* *U bat,,ti,,)

are the earliest developed offspring of the queen, and it is their associated work which renders possible the rise of an insect state—a state,which evidently has its origin in the family. It is interesting to trace various stages in the elaboration of the bee-society. Among the humble-bees (Bombus) the workers help the queen, who takes her share in the duties of the nest; the distinction between queen and workers is therefore less absolute than in the hive-bees (Apis), whose queen, relieved of all nursing and building cares by the workers, devotes her whule energies


to egg-laying. The division of labour among the two castes of female becomes therefore most complete in the most highly organized society.

Structure.—Details of the structure of bees are given in the article Hymenoptera. The feelers (fig. 2, a) are divided into "scape " and " flagellum " as in the ants, and the mandibles vary greatly in size and sharpness in different genera. The proboscis or "tongue" (fig. a, /) is a hollow organ enclosing an outgrowth of the body-cavity which is filled with fluid, and with its flexible under-surfacc capable of invagination or protrusion. Along this surface stretches a groove which is surrounded by thickened cuticle and practically formed into a tube by numerous fine hairs. Along this channel the nectar is drawn into the pharynx and passes, mixed with saliva, into the crop or "honey-bag"; the action of the saliva changes the saccharose into dextrose and levulose, and the nectar becomes honey, which the bee regurgitates for storage in the cells or for the feeding of the grubs. The sting (fig. 6, pg, it.) of female bees is usually highly specialized, but in a few genera it is reduced and useless.

Many modifications in details of structure may be observed within the family. The tongue is bifid at'thc tip in a few genera; usually it is pointed and varies greatly in length, being comparatively short in Andrcna, long in the humblc-bces(Domini), and longest in. Euglossa, a tropical American genus of solitary bees. The legs,-which are so highly modified as pollen-carriers in the higher bees, are comparatively simple in certain primitive genera. The hairy covering, so notable in the hive-bcc and especially in humble-bees, is greatly reduced among bees that follow a parasitic mode of life.

Early stages.—As is usual where an abundant food supply is provided for the young insects, the larvae of bees (fig. 3, SL.)


Fig. 3.—Larva and Pupa of Api«.

SL, Spinning larva. sp. Spiracles. &, Wing.

N, Pupa. 1, "Tongue." «, Compound Eye.

FL, Feeding larva. m, Mandible. *,. Excrement.

CO, Cocoon. an, Antenna. ex, Exuvium.

(From Cheshire's jtoj and B«-lrtpi*s)

are degraded maggots; they have no legs, but possess fairly well-developed heads. The successive cuticles that are cast as growth proceeds are delicate in texture and sometimes separate from the underlying cuticle without being stripped off. The maggots may pass no excrement from the intestine until they have eaten all their store of food. When fully grown the final larval cuticle is shed, and the " free " pupa (fig. 3, N) revealed. The larvae of some bees spin cocoons (fig. 3, co) before pupation.

Nests of Solitary Bees.—Bees of different genera vary considerably in the site and arrangement of their nests. Many—like the common "solitary" bees Haliclus and Andrena—burrow in the ground; the holes of species of Andrena are commonly seen in springtime opening on sandy banks, grassy lawns or gravel paths. Our knowledge of such bees is due to the observations of F. Smith, H. Friese, C. Verhoeff and others. The nest may be simple, or, more frequently, a complex excavation, cells opening off from the entrance or from a main passage. Sometimes the passage is the conjoint work of many bees whose cells are grouped along it at convenient distances apart. Other bees, the species of Osmia for example, choose the hollow stem of a bramble or other shrub, the female forming a linear series of cells

in each of which an egg is laid and a supply of food stored up J. H. Fabre has found thai in the nests of some species of Osmia the young bee developed in the first-formed cell, if (as often happens) she emerges from her cocoon before the inmates of the later cells, will try to work her way round these or to bite a lateral hole through the bramble shoot; should she fail to do this, she will wail for the emergence of her sisters and not make her escape at the price of injury to them. But when Fabre substituted dead individuals of her own species or live larvae of another genus, the Osmia had no scruple in destroying them, so as to bite her way out to air and liberty.

The leaf-cutter bees (Megacliile)—which differ from AnJrcna and HalUtia and agree with Osmia, Apis and Bombus in having elongate tongues—cut neat circular disks from leaves, using them for lining the cells of their underground nests. The carpenter-bees (Xylocopa and allied genera), unrepresented in the British Islands, though widely distributed in warmer countries, make their nests in dry wood. The habits of X. violacca, the commonest European species, were minutely described in the iSth century in one of R. A. F de Reaumur's memoirs. This bee excavates several parallel galleries to which access is gained by a cylindrical hole. In the galleries, mre situated the cells, separated from one another by transverse partitions; which are formed of chips of wood, cemented by the saliva of the bee.

Among the solitary bees none has more remarkable nesting habits than the mason bee (Chaticodoma) represented in the south of France and described at length by Fabre. The female constructs on a stone a scries of cells, built of cement, which she compounds of particles of earth, minute stones and her own saliva. Each cell is provided with a store of honey and pollen beside which an egg is laid; and alter eight or nine cells have been successively built and stored, tin whole is covered by a dome-like mass of cement. Fabre found that a Chalu-odoma removed to a distance of 4 kilometres from the nest that sbe wms building, found her way back without difficulty to the exact spot. But if the nest were removed but a few yards from its former position, the bee seemed no longer able to recognize it, sometimes passing over it, or even into the unfinished cell, and then leaving it to visit again uselessly the place whence it had been moved. She would accept willingly, however, another nest placed in the exact spot where her. own had been. If the unfinished cell in the old nest had been only just begun, while that in the substituted nest were nearly completed, tie bee would add so much material as to make the cell much larger than the normal size, her instinct evidently being to do a certain amount of building work before filling the cell with food. The food, too, is always placed in the cell after a fixed routine—first honey disgorged from the mouth, then pollen brushed off the hairs beneath the body (fig. 7, c) after which the two substances are mixed into a paste.

Ini/uilints and Parasites.—The working bees, such as have been mentioned, arc victimized by bees of other genera, which throw upon the industrious the task of providing for the young of the idle. The nests of Andrena, for example, are haunted by the black and yellow species of Nomada, whose females lay t h <..eggs in the food provided for the larva of thcXndrrna. According to H. Friese, the relations between the host and the inquiline are quite friendly, and the insects if they meet in the nestgalleries courteously get out of each other's way. D. Sharp, in commenting on this strange behaviour, points out that the host can have no idea why the inquilinc haunts her nest. "Why then should the Andrena feel alarm? If the species of Nomad* attack the species of Andrena too much, it brings about the destruction of its own species more certainly than that of the Andrena."

More violent in its methods is the larva of a Stdis. whose operations in the nest of Osmia letuimcltna have been studied by Verhoeff. The female Stflis lays her eggs earlier than the Osmia, and towards the bottom of the food-moss; the egg of the Osmia is laid later, and on the surface of the food. Hence the two eggs are at opposite ends of the food, and both larn« feed lor a time without conflict, but the Stclis. being the older, is the larger of the two. Finally the parasitic larva attacks the Osmia, and digging its mandibles into its victim's head kills and eats it, taking from one to two days for the completion of the repast.

Social Bees.—The bees hitherto described are "solitary," all the individuals being either males or unmodified females. The most highly developed of the long-tongued bees are " social"

species, in which the females are differentiated into egg-laying 'queens and (usually) infertile "workers" (fig. 6). Verhoeff has discussed the rise of the "social" from the "solitary" condition, and

points out that FlG. 4-—Under Side of Worker, carrying Wax for the fonna.

tion of an insect community three conditions are necessary—a nest large enough for a number of individuals, a close grouping of the cells, and an association between mother and daughters in the winged state. For the fulfilment of this last condition, the older insects of the new generation must emerge from the cells while the mother is stifl occupied with the younger eggs or larvae. One species of Baliflus nearly reaches the desired stage; but the first young bees to appear in the perfect state are males, and when the females emerge the mother dies.

Among the social bees the mother and daughter-insects co-operate, and they differ from the " solitary " groups in the nature of their nest, the cells (fig. 25) of which arc formed of wax secreted by special glands (fig. 5) in the bee's abdomen, the wax being pressed out between tie segmental sclerites in the form of plates (fig. 4), which are worked by the legs (fig. 7) and jaws into the requisite shape. In our well-known hive-bee (Afit) and humble-bees (Bomtna) the wax glands are ventral


Flo. $.—Abdominal Plate (worker of Apis), under tide, third segment. W. wax-yielding surface, covering true gland; J, scptem, or carioa; »*, webbed hairs.

(Fran OicJiiV. &o nj B,,.tu>i,,)

in position, but in the " stingless " bees of the tropics (Trigona and Utlipona) they are dorsal. A colony of humble-bees is started in spring by a female " queen " which has survived the winter. She starts her nest underground or in a surface depression, forming a number of waxen cells, roughly globular in shape and arranged irregularly. The young females (" workers ") that develop from the eggs laid in these early cells assist the queen by building fresh cells and gathering food for storage therein. The queen may be altogether relieved of the wort of the nest as the season advances, so that she can devote all ber energies to egg-laying, and the colony grows rapidly. The

distinction between queen ana worker is not always clear among humble-bees, the female insects varying in size and in the development of their ovaries. If any mishap befall the queen, the workers can sometimes keep the community from dying out. In autumn males are produced, as well as young queens. The community is broken up on the approach of winter, the males and workers perish, and the young queens after hibernation start fresh nests in the succeeding year.

The appearance of the heavy-bodied hairy Bombi is well known. They are closely "mimicked" by bees of the genus Psithyns, which often share their nests. These Psilkyri have no pollen-carrying structures on the legs and their grubs are dependent for their food-supply on the labours of the Bombi, though, according to E. Hoffer's observations, it seems that the iemalePsilltyrtu builds her own cells. The colonies of Bombus illustrate the rise of the inquiline habit. Many of the species are very variable nd have been differentiated into races or varieties. F. W. L. Sladen states that a queen belonging to the virginalis form of Bombus tfrrcstris often invades a nest belonging to the Flc- «•—Ovanes of Queen and Workers (Apis).

lucorum form, mis
the rightful queen,
of the nest, getting
thelucorum workers
to rear her young.
In the nests of
Bombi are found
various beetle
arvae that live as
inquilincs or para-
sites, and also mag-
gots of drone-flics
(Volucella), which
act as scavengers;
the Volucella-fly is
usually a "mimic"

The " stinglcss " bees (Trigona) of the tropics have the parts of the sting reduced and useless for piercing. As though to compensate for the loss of this means of defence, the mandibles are very powerful, and some of the bees construct tubular entrances to the nest with a series of constrictions easy to hold against an enemy. The habits of the Brazilian species of these >ees have been described in detail by H. von Jhering, who points out that their wax glands are dorsal in position, not ventral as :n Sttmbus and A pit.

With Apis, the genus of the hive-bee, we come to the most lighly-spccializcd members of the family—better known,perhnp-,, han any other insects, on account of the long domestication of many of the species or races. In /l^istheworkcrsdifferstruclurally from the queen, who neither builds cells, gathers food, nor tends brood, and is therefore without the special organs adapted

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for those functions which are possessed in perfection by the workers. The differentiation of queen and workers is correlated with the habit of storing food supplies, and the consequent permanence of the community, which finds relief for its surplus population by sending off a swarm, consisting of a queen and a number of workers, so that the new community is already specialized both for reproduction and for labour.

The workers of Apis may be capable (fig. 6, C) of laying eggs —necessarily unfertilized—which always give rise to males ("drones"), and, since the researches of J. Dzierzon (iSn-1 iqo6) in 1848, it has been believed that the queen bee lays fertilized eggs in cells appropriate for the rearing of queens or



Fie. 7.—Modifications in the Legs of Bees.

A. a-d. Hive-bee (Apis). notch in tarsal segment for

B. f-g, Stingless bee (\Ielipona). cleaning feeler.

C. A i. Humble-bee (Bombus). t. Tip of intermediate thin with *./. A, Outer view of hind-leg. spur.

ot £, i, Inner view. c. Feathered hairs with pollen

d, Fore-leg of A pis showing grains, magnified.

(AflCT R Jey. tntttt Lift (V.S. Dr*. Afr.). vol. 6.)

workers, and unfertilized eggs in " drone-cells," virgin reproduction or parthenogenesis being therefore a normal factor in the life of these insects. F. Dickel and others have lately claimed that fertilized eggs can give rise to cither queens, workers or males, according to the food supplied to the larvae and the influence of supposed "sex-producing glands" possessed by the nurse-workers. Dickel states that a German male bee mated with a female of the Italian race transmits distinct paternal characters to hybrid male offspring. A. Weismann, however, doubts these conclusions, and having found a spermaster in every one of the eggs that he examined from workercells, and in only one out of 272 eggs taken from drone-cells, he supports Dzierzon's view, explaining the single exception mentioned above as a mistake of the queen, she having laid

inadvertently this single fertilized egg in a drone instead of in a worker cell.

The cells of the honeycomb of Apis are usually hexagonal in form, and arranged in two scries back to back (figs. 3, 35). Some of these cells are used for storage, others for the rearing ol brood. The cells in which workers are reared are smaller r t. •those appropriate for the rearing of drones, while the " royal cells/' in which the young queens are developed, are large in size and of an irregular oval in form (fig. 25). It is believed i r- • from the nature of the cell in which she is ovipositing, the queen derives a reflex impulse to lay the appropriate egg—fertilised in the queen or worker cell, unfertilized in the drone cell, u previously mentioned. Whether the fertilized egg shall develop into a queen or a worker depends upon the nature of the food All young grubs are at first fed with a specially nutritious food, discharged from the worker's stomach, to which is added a digestive secretion derived from special salivary glands in the worker's head. If this " royal jelly " continue to be given to the grub throughout its life, it will grow into a queen; if the ordinary mixture of honey and digested pollen be substituted, as is usually the case from the fourth day, the grub will become a worker. The workers, who control the polity of the hive (the "queen" being exceedingly "limited" in her monarchy), arrange if possible that young queens shall develop only whea the population of the hive has become so congested that it i* desirable to send off a swarm. When a young queen has emerged. she stings her royal sisters (still in the pupal stage) to death. Previous to the emergence of the young queen, the old queen, prevented by the workers from attacking her daughters, has led off a swarm to find a new home elsewhere. The young queen, left in the old home, mounts high into the air for her nuptial flight, and then returns to the hive and her duties of egg-Uying, The number of workers increases largely during the summer, and so hard do the insects work that the life of an individual may last only a few weeks. On the approach of winter the males, having no further function to perform for the community, Are refused food-supplies by the workers, and are either excluded or banished from the hive to perish. Such ruthless habits of the bee-commonwealth, no less than the altruistic labours of the workers, are adapted for the survival and dominance of the species. The struggle for life may deal hardly with the individual, but it results—to quote Darwin's well-known title—in "the preservation of favoured races."

Bibliography.—More has been written on bees, and especially Ob the genus A pit, than on any other group of insects. The rlawicil observations of Reaumur Mtmoires pour strmr a I'kuUn-re del insecies, vol*. v., vi (Paris, 1740-1743) and F. Huber't Novn observations sur Its abtilUs (Geneve, 1792) will never be forgott they have been matched in recent times by J. H. Fibre's Sovmrt') tntomolc[iqufs (Paris, 1870-1891); and M. Maeterlinck's poetic >rt scientific La vie dts abeiUes (Paris, 1901). Among writers oo tbc solitary and parasitic species may be specially mentioned F. Smith. Hymenoptera in the British Museum (London, 1853-1899);}!. Friese, Zool. Jahrb. Syst., iv. (1891) J. Perez, Attts Soc, Bordeaux, xlviu. (1895); and C Verhoeff, Zoo/. Jahrb. Syst.. vi. (1893). For th* social species we have valuable papers by E. Hoffcr, itfttt. Nol+rwisun. Ver. Steiermork, xxxi. (1881); H. von Jbering. Zool. JoJtr* Syst., xix. (1903); and others. For recent controversy on parthenogenesis in the hive bee, see J. Perez, Ann. Set. Nat. Zool, (6). vii. (1878); F. Dickel. Zool. An*., xxv. (1901), and Anatom. Xfurtfrr, xix. (1002); A. Petrunkcvich, Zoolot- Jakrb. Anal., riv. (1901). and A. Weismann, Anctfm. Anstiger. xviii. (1901). F. R. Cheshire'» Bee* and Bee-ketfnng (London. 1885-1888). and T. W. Cowu » Honey Bet (and ed., 1904), are invaluable to the naturalist, and contain extensive bibliographies of A pis. D. Sharp's summary in tbc Cambridge Natural History, vol. vi,. should be consulted for further information on bees generally. British bees are described in tbc catalogues of Smith, mentioned above, and by E. Stunders, Tkt UymtnopUra of tJu British Islands (London, 1896). (C. H, Cj


Bee-keeping, or the cultivation of the honey-bee as a souirt of income to those who practise it, is known to have existed from the most ancient times. Poets, philosophers, historian and naturalists (among whom may be mentioned Virgil. Aristotle, Cicero and Pliny) have eulogized the bee as unique uncos insects, endowed by nature with wondrous gifts beneficial U>

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