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of the Brahmanical reaction and the decline of Buddhism; according to certain Buddhist writers the king, besides reviving Hindu rites, indulged in a savage persecution of the monks. The Sunga dynasty, which lasted 112 years, was succeeded by the Kanva dynasty, which after 45 years was overthrown (c. 17 n.c.) by the Andhras or Satavahanas. In A.D. 236 the Andhras were overthrown, and, after a confused and obscure period of about a century, Chandragupta I. established his power st Pataliputra (A. p. 32c) and founded the famous Gupta empire (see Gupta), which survived till it was overthrown by the Fphthalitcs (q.v.), or White Huns, at the close of the 5th century. In Magadha itself the Guptas continued to rule as tributary princes for some centuries longer. About the middle of the 8th century Magadha was conquered by Gopala, who had made himself master in Bengal, and founded the imperial dynasty known as the Palas of Bengal. They were zealous Buddhists, and under their rule Magadha became once morean active centre of Buddhist influence. Gopala himself built a great monastery at Udandapura, or Otantapuri, which has been identified by Sir Alexander Cunningham with the city of Behar, where the later Pala kings established their capital. Under Mahipala (r. to:6), the ninth of his line, and his successor Nayapala, missionaries from Magadha succeeded in firmly re-establishing huddhism in Tibet. In the 11th century the Pala empire, which, according to the Tibetan historian Taranath, extended in the 9th century from the Bay of Bengal to Delhi and Jalandhar (Jullundur) in the north and the Vindhyan range in the south, was partly dismembered by the rise of the “Sena” dynasty in Bengal; and at the close of the 12th century both Palas and Senas were swept away by the Mahommedan conquerors, the city of Behar itself bein: captured by the Turki free-lance Mahommed-i-Bakhtyar Kalii in 1193, by surprise, with a party of zoo horsemen. “It was discovered," says a contemporary Arab historian, “that the whole of that fortress and city was a college, and in the Hindi tongue they call a college Bihar." Most of the monks were massacred in the first heat of the assault; those who survived fled to Tibet, Nepal and the south. Buddhism in Magadha never recovered from this blow it lingered in obscurity for a *hile and then vanished. Behar now came under the rule of the Mahornmedan governors of Bengal. About 1330 the southern part was annexed to Delhi, while north Behar renuined for some time longer subject to Bengal. In 1397 the whole of Behar became part of the lungdom of Jaunpur; but a hundred years later it was annexed ty the Delhi emperors, by whom—save for a short period—it continued to be held. The capital of the province was established un'er the Moguls at the city of Behar, which gave its name to the province. From the middle of the rath to the middle of the 16:* century a large part of Behar was ruled by a line of Brahman tributary kings; and in the 15th century another Hindu dynasty ruled in Champaran and Gorakhpur, Bohar came into the possession of the East India Company with the acquisition of the Diwānī in 1765, when the province was united with Bengal. In 1857 two zemindårs, Umar Singh and Kumir Singh, rebelled against the British government, and for some months held the ruinous fort of Rohtas against the British See Interial Gaolo of Indoor to or of "and -- o "; W. A. Smith Early History of ladio 42nd ed., Oxford. too. BEHA UD-DIN (Anc-l-Mantent Ye-rr ran Rort' mon Sitapoko Brook on Dix) (1145-1934), Arabian writerard statesman, was born in Mosul and early became amous for his knowledge of the Koran and of jurisprudenre. Ik fore the are of thirty he become teacher in the great callere at Raoad known as the Muramiyya, and soon after became professor at M. vul. In 1187, after making the pilgrimage to Mora, he writed Damascus. ladin, *-ho was at the time besieging Kaukab (a few miles south of " * rins), sent for him and became his friend Behi ud-Din observed that the whole soul of the monarch was engrossed by the war which he was then engaged in wagong against the enemies of the faith, and saw that the only mode of acquiring his favour
was by urging him to its vigorous prosecution. With this view he composed a treatise on The Laws and Discipline of Sacred War, which he presented to Saladin, who received it with peculiar favour. From this time he remained constantly attached to the person of the sultan, and was employed on various embassies and in departments of the civil government. He was appointed judge of the army and judge of Jerusalem. After Saladin's death Behi-ud-Din remained the friend of his son Malik uz-Zahir, who appointed him judge of Aleppo. Here he employed some of his wealth in the soundation of colleges. When Malikuz-Zahir died, his son Malik ul-'Aziz was a minor, and Behā ud-Din had the chief power in the regency. This power he used largely for the patronage of learning. After the abdication of Malik ul-'Aziz, he fell from favour and lived in retirement until his death in 1234. Behaud-Din's chief work is his Life of Saladin (published at Leiden with Latin translation by A. Schultens in 1732 and 1755). An English translation was published by the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, London, 1897. For list of other extant works see C. Brockelmann, Geschickte der arabischen Literatur (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp. 316 f. (G. W. T.) BEHA UD-DIN ZUHAIR (Ant-l. Farl Zumara mon Magou*ED AL-MUHALLABs) (1186-1258), Arabian poet, was born at or near Mecca, and became celebrated as the best writer of prose and verse and the best calligraphist of his time. He entered the service of Malik us-Salib Najm ud-Din in Mesopotamia, and was with him at Damascus until he was betrayed and imprisoned. Behā ud-Din then retired to Nablos (Shechem) where he remained until Najm ud-Din escaped and obtained possession of Egypt, whither he accompanied him in 1240. There he remained as the sultan's confidential secretary until his death, due to an epidemic, in 1258. His poetry consists mostly of panegyric and brilliant occasional verse distinguished for its elegance. It has been published with English metrical translation by E. H. Palmer (2 vols., Cambridge, 1877). His fife was written by his contemporary Ibn Khallikin (see M'G. de Slane's trans of his Biographical Dict ... vol. i. pp. 542-545). (G. W. T. BEHBAHAN, a walled town of Persia in the province of Fars, pleasantly situated in the midst of a highly cultivated plain, 128 m.W.N.W. of Shiraz and 3 m. from the left bank of the river Tab, here called Kurdistan river. It is the capital of the KuhgiloBehbahan sub-province of Fars and has a population of abou" roooo. The walls are about 3 m. in circumference and a Narinj Kalah (citadel) stands in the south-east corner. At a short distance north-west of the city are the ruins of Arrajan, the old capital of the province. BEHEADING, a mode of executing capital punishment (q.v.). It was in use among the Greeks and Romans, and the former, as Xenophon says at the end of the second book of the Anabasis, regarded it as a most honourable form of death. So did the Romans, by whom it was known as decollatio or capitis amputatio The head was laid on a block placed in a pit dug for the purpose —in the case of a military offender, outside the intrenchments. in civil cases outside the city walls, near the porta decumama Before execution the criminal was tied to a stake and whipped with rods. In earlier years an axe was used; afterwards a sword, which was considered a more honourable instrument of death, and was used in the case of citizens (Dig. 48, 10, 28). It was with a sword that Cicero's head was struck off by a common soldier. The beheading of John the Baptist proves that the tetrarch Herod had adopted from his suzerain the Roman node of execution. Suetonius (Calig. c. 32) states that Caligula kept a soldier, an artist in beheading, who in his presence decapitated prisoners fetched indiscriminately for that purpose from the gaols. Beheading is said to have been introduced into England from Normandy by William the Conqueror. The first person to suffer was Waltheof, earl of Northumberland, in too. An ancient MS relating to the earls of Chester states that the serjeants or bailiffs of the earls had power to behead any malefactor on thief, and goves an account of the presenting of several heads of ions
is of course given to the Persian language (in four columns); the three Susian (Elamitic) columns lie to the left, and the Babylonian text is on a slanting boulder above them; a part of the Babylonian has been destroyed by a torrent, which has made its way over it. In former times the second language has often been called Scythian, Turanian or Median; but we now know from numerous inscriptions of Susa that it is the language of Elam which was spoken in Susa, the capital of the Persian empire. In 1835 the difficult and almost inaccessible cliff was first climbed by Sir Henry Rawlinson, who copied and deciphered the inscriptions (1835-1845), and thus completed the reading of the old cuneiform text and laid the foundation of the science of Assyriology. Diodorusii. 13 (cf.xvii.11c), probably following a later author who wrote the history of Alexander's campaigns, mentions the sculptures and inscriptions, but attributes them to Semiramis. At the foot of the rock are the remainders of some other sculptures (quite destroyed), the fragments of a Greek inscription of the Parthian prince Gotarzes (A.D. 40; text in Dittenberger, Orientis graeci inscr. selectae, no. 431), and of an Arabic inscription. See Sir Henry Rawlinson in the Jour-R-C-Sec. ix. 1839; J. R. Asiatic Soo-o- 1866, xiv., 1853.xv. 1855; Archaeologia, xxxiv., 1852; Sir R. Ker Porter, Travels, ii. 149 * Flandin and Coste, Voyage en Perse, i. pl. 16; and the modern editions of the inscriptions, the best of which, up to the end of the 19th century, were: Weisbach and Bang, Die allportioche-Kruochristen £o: Weissbach, Die A charmenidemisschriste-meiter Art (1890): 1. Pie (babyloniszko). Achaemenideninichriflem (1882). A description of the locality, with comments on the present state of the inscriptions and doubtful passages of the Persian text, was given by Dr A. V. Williams Jack-on in the Journal of the A-serican oriental Society, xxiv., 1903, and in his Persia. Post and Present (i. ). Dr Jackson in 1903 climbed to the ledge of the rock and was able to collate the lower part of the four large Persian columns: he thus convi himself that Foy's conjecture of artwo- ("righteousness") for Rawlinson's obiitan or abaud-, was correct. A later investigation was carried out in 1 on the instructions of the too, Trustees by Messrs. *W. King and R.C. Thompson, who published their results in 1907 under the title. The Inscription of Durius the Great au Bekistan, including a full illustrated account of the sculpture- and the inscription. and a complete collation of t-t- (Ed. M.) BEHN, APHRA (otherwise Arna, Artiara or Ayrana) (16401689), British dramatist and novelist, was baptized at Wye, Kent, in 1640. Her father, JohnJohnson, was a barber. While still a child she was taken out to Surinam, then an English possession, from which she returned to England in 1658, when it was handed over to the Dutch. In Surinam Aphralearned the history, and acquired a personal knowledge of the African prince Oroonoko and his beloved Imoinda, whose adventures she has related in her novel, Oroonoko. On her return she married Mr Behn, a London merchant of Dutch extraction. The wit and abilities of Mrs Behn brought her into high estimation at court, and-her husband having died by this time-Charles II. employed her onsecret service in the Netherlands during the Dutch war. At Antwerp she successfully accomplished the objects of her mission; and in the latter end of 1666 she wormed out of one Van der Aalbert the design formed by De Ruyter, in conjunction with the DeWitts, of sailing up the Thames and burning the English ships in their harbours. This she communicated to the English court, but although the cvent proved her intelligence to have been well founded, it was at the time disregarded. Disgusted with political service, she returned to England, and from this period she appears to have supported herself by her writings. Among her numerous plays are The Forod Marriage, or the Jealous Bridegroom (1671); The A-roar Prince (1671), The Town Pop (1677), and The Rover, or the Banukad Cavalier (in two parts, 1677 and 1681); and The Roundheads (1682). The coarsenes that distigures her plays was the fault of her time, she possessed greatingenuity, and showed an admirable comprehension of stage business, while her wit and vivacity were unfailing. Of her short tales, or novelettes, the best is the story of Oromoko, which was made the basis of Thomas Southerne's popular tragedy Mrs. Behn died on the 16th of April 1689, and was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey.
B.EHR, WILLIAM.JOSEPH (1775-1851), German publicist and writer, was born at Salzheim on the 26th of August 1775. He studied law at Würzburg and Göttingen, became professor of public law in the university of Würzburg in 1799, and in 1819 was sent as a deputy to the Landtag of Bavaria. Having associated himself with the party of reform, he was regarded with suspicion by the Bavarian king Maximilian L and the court party, although favoured for a time by Maximilian's son, the future King Louis I. In 1821 he was compelled to give up his professorship, but he continued to agitate for reform, and in 1831 the king refused to recognize his election to the Landtag. A speech delivered by Behr in 1832 was regarded as seditious, and he was arrested. In spite of his assertion of loyalty to the principle of monarchy he was detained in custody, and in 1836 was found guilty of seeking to injure the king. He then admitted his offence; but he was not released from prison until 1839, and the next nine years of his life were passed under police supervision at Passau and Regensburg. In 1848 he obtained a free pardon and a sum of money as compensation, and was sent to the German national assembly which met at Frankfortin May of that year. He passed his remaining days at Bamberg, where he died on the 1st of August 1851. Behr's chief writings are: Durstellung der Bedurfmisse, Wunsche and Hoffnungen deutscher Nation (Aschaffenburg, 1816); Die Verfassung und Verwaltung des Staates (Nuremberg, 1811-1812); Wondem rechtlichen Grenzen der Einvirkung des Deutschen Bunder auf die Verfassung, Geselgebung, and Rechtspflege seiner Gliederstaaten (Stuttgart, 1820).
BEIRA, a seaport of Portuguese East Africa, at the mouth of the Pungwe river, in 19°50'S., 34°50'E.,488 m.N. of Delagoa Bay, incommunication by railway with Cape Town via Umtali, Salisbury and Bulawayo. Pop. about 4ooo, of whom a third are Europeans, and some 3oo Indians. The town is built on a tongue of sand extending into the river, and is comparatively healthy. - The sea front is protected by a masonry wall, and there are over 13, ooo ft. of wharfage. Wessels drawing 24 ft. can enterther-ort at high tide. Between the customs house and the railway terminus is the mouth of a small river, the Chiveve, crossed by a steel bridge, the centre span revolving and giving two passages each of 40ft. The town is without any architectural pretensions, but possesses fine public gardens. It is the headquarters of the Companhai de Moçambique, which administers the Beira district under charter from the Portuguese crown. The business community is largely British.
Beira occupies the site of a forgotten Arab settlement. The present port sprang into being as the result of a clause in the Anglo-Portuguese agreement of 1891 providing for the construction of a railway between Rhodesia and the navigable waters of the Pungwe. The railway at first began at Fontesvilla, about 50 m. by rivet above Beira, but was subsequently brought down to Beira. The completioninrooz of the line connecting Salisbury with Cape Town adversely affected the port of Beira, the long railway route from the Cape being increasingly employed by travellerstoand from Mashonaland. Moreover, the high freights on goods by the Beira route enabled Port Elizabethto compete successfully for the trade of Rhodesia. In October 1995 a considerable reduction was made in railway rates and in port dues and customs, with the object of re-attracting to the port the transit trade of the interior, and in toon a branch of the Rhodesian customs was opened in the town. In that year roods valuedation.coopassed through the port to Rhodesia. Efforts were also made to develop the agricultural and mineral resourceof the Beira district itself. The principal exports are rubber, sugar, ground-nuts and oil seeds, beeswax, chromite (from Rhodesia), and gold (from Manica). The imports are chiefly rice (from India) and cotton goods for local use, and foodstuffs, machinery, hardware and manufactured goods for Rhodesia. For the three years, 1905-1997, the average ann-al-value on to imports and exports, excluding the transit trade with Rhodesia, was, imports £200,ooo, exports £90,000. Direct steamship communication with Europe is maintained by German and British lines. See Portuguese East Africa; also the reports issued yearly by the British Foreign Office on the trade of Beira. BEIRA, an ancient principality and province of northern and central Portugal; bounded on the N. by Entre Minho e Douro and by Trazos Montes, E. by the Spanish provinces of Leon and Estremadura, S. by Alemtejo and Portuguese Estremadura, and W. by the Atlantic Ocean. Por. (1900) 1,515,834; area, 92.08 sq. m. Beira is administratively divided into the districts of Aveiro, Coimbra, Vizeu, Guarda and Castello Branco, while it is popularly regarded as consisting of the three sectionsBeira Alta or Upper Beira (Vizeu), north and west of the Serra da Estrella; Beira Baixa or Lower Beira (Guarda and Castello Branco), south and east of that range; and Beira Mar or Maritime Beira (Aveiro and Coimbra), coinciding with the former coastal province of Douro. The coast line, about 72 m. long, is uniformly flat, with long stretches of sandy pine forest, heath or marshland bordered by a wide and fertile plain. Its most conspicuous features are the lagoon of Aveiro (q.v.) and the bold headland of Cape Mondego; in the south Aveiro, Murtosa, Ovar and Figueira da Foz are small seaports. Except along the coast, the surface is for the most part mountainous, -the highest point in the Serra da Estrella, which extends from north-east to south-west through the centre of the province, being 6532 ft. The northern and south-eastern frontiers are respectively marked by the two great rivers Douro and Tagus, which rise in Spain and flow to the Atlantic. The Agueda and Côa, tributaries of the Douro, drain the eastern plateaus of Beira; the Vouga rises in the Serra da Lapa, and forms the lagoon of Aveiro at its mouth; the Mondego springs from the Serra da Estrella, passes through Coimbra, and enters the sea at Figueira da Foz; and the Zezere, a tributary of the Tagus, rises north-north-east of Covilhã and flows south-west and south. Beirahasa warm and equable climate, exceptin the mountains, where the snowfall is often heavy. The soil, except in the valleys, is dry and rocky, and large stretches are covered with heath. The principal agricultural products are maize, wheat, garden vegetables and fruit. The olive is largely cultivated, the oil forming one of the chief articles of export; good wine is also produced. In the flat country between Coimbra and Aveiro the marshy land is laid outin rice-fields orin pastures for herds of cattle and horses. Sheep farming is an important industry in the highlands of Upper Beira; while near Lamego swine are reared in considerable numbers, and furnish the well-known Lisbon hams. Iron, lead, copper, coal and marble are worked to a small extent, and millstones are quarried in some places. Salt is obtained in considerable quantities from the lagoons along the coast. There are few manufactures except the production of woollen cloth, which occupies a large part of the population in the district of Castello Branco. Three important lines of railway, the Salamanca-Oporto, Salamanca-Lisbon and LisbonOporto, traverse parts of Beira; the two last named are also connected by the Guarda-Figueira da Foz railway, which has a short branch line going northwards to Vizeu. The chief towns, Aveiro (pop. 1900, 9979), Castello Branco (7288), Coimbra (18,144), Covilhã (15,469), Figueira da Foz (6221), Guarda (61.24), Ilhavo (12,617), Lamego (94.71), Murtosa (9737), Ovar (10,462) and Vizeu (8057), with the frontier fortress of Almeida (2330), are described in separate articles. There is a striking difference of character between the inhabitants of the highlands, who are grave and reserved, hardy and industrious, and those of the lowlands, who are more sociable and courteous, but lessenergetic. The heir-apparent to the throne of Portugal has the title of prince of Beira. BEtrust or Brymour. (1) A"vilayet of Syria, constituted as recently as 1888, which stretches along the sea-coast from Jebel-l-alara, south of the Orontes, to the Nahr Zerka, south of on towards the south extends from the Mediterordan. It -includes five sunjuks, Latakia,
Tripoli, Beirut, Acre and Buka'a. (2) The chief town of the vilayet (anc. Berytus), the most important seaport town in Syria, situated on the south side of St George's Bay, on rising ground at the foot of Lebanon. Pop. 1zoooo (Moslems, 35,000; Christians, 77,ooo; Jews, 25oo; Druses, 4oo; foreigners, 41 oo). Berytus, whether it is to be identified with Hebrew Borokai or not (2 Sam. viii. 8; Ezek. xlvii. 16), was one of the most ancient settlements on the Phoenician coast; but nothing more than the name is known of it till B.c. 140, when the town was taken and destroyed by Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII. for the throne of the Seleucids. It duly passed under Rome, was much favoured by the Herods and became a colonia. It was famous for its schools, especially that of law, from the 4th century A.D. onwards. Justinian recognized it as one of the three official law schools of the empire (A.D. 533), but within a few years, as the result of a disastrous earthquake (551), the students were transferred to Sidon. In the following century it passed to the Arabs (635), and was not again a Christian city till 1111, when Baldwin captured it. Saladin retook it in 1187, and thenceforward, for six centuries and a half, whoever its nominal lords may have been, Saracen, Crusader, Mameluke or (from the 16th century). Turk, the Druse emirs of Lebanon dominated it (see DRUSEs). One of these, Fakr ed-Din Maan II. fortified it early in the 17th century; but the Turks asserted themselves in 1763 and occupied the place. During the succeeding epoch of rebellion at Acre under Jezzar and Abdullah pashas, Beirut declined to a small town of about 10,000 souls, in dispute between the Druses, the Turks and the pashas, a state of things which lasted till Ibrahim Pasha captured Acre in 1832. When the powers moved against the Egyptians in 1840, Beirut had recently been occupied in force by Ibrahim as a menace to the Druses; but he was easily driven out after a destructive bombardment by Admiral Sir Robert Stopford (1768-1847). Since the pacification of the Lebanon after the massacre of the Christians in 1860 (for later history, see LEBANoN), Beirut has greatly increased in extent, and has become the centre of the transit trade for all southern Syria. In 1894 a harbour, constructed by a French company, was opened, but the insecurity of the outer roadstead militates against its success. Nevertheless trade is on the increase. In 1895 a French company completed a railway across the Lebanon to Damascus, and connected it with Mezerib in the Hauran, whence now starts the line to the Hejaz. Since 1907 it has also had railway communication with Aleppo; and a narrow-gauge line runs up the coast to Tripoli. The steepness of the Lebanon railway, and the break of gauge at Rayak, the junction for Aleppo, have prevented the diversion of much of the trade of North Syria to Beirut. The town has been supplied with water, since 1875, by an English company, and with gas, since 1888, by a French company. There are many American and European institutions in the city: the American Presbyterian mission, with a girls' school and a printing office, which published the Arabic translation of the Bible, and nowissues a weekly paper and standard works in Arabic; the Syrian Protestant college with its theological seminary, medical faculty, training college and astronomical observatory; the Scottish mission, and St George's institute for Moslem and Druse girls: the British Syrian mission schools; the German hospital. orphanage and boarding school; the French hospital and schools, and the Jesuit “Université de St Joseph” with a printing office. In summer most of the richer residents reside on the Lebanon, and in winter the governor of the Lebanon and many Lebanon notables inhabit houses in Beirut. The town has many fine houses, but the streets are unpaved and the bazaars mean. The Moslem inhabitants, being in a minority, have often shown themselves fanatical and turbulent. There are several fairly good hotels for tourists. (C.W.W., D.G.H.) BEIT, ALFRED (r353-1926), British South African financier, was the son of a well-to-do merchant of Hamburg, Germany, and in 1875, after a commercial education at home, was sent out to Kimberley, South Africa, to investigate the diamond prospects. He had relatives, the Lipperts, out there in business, and in conjunction with Mr (afterwards Sir) Julius Wernher