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His brother, Louis Charles Asuako Fouquet, known as the Chevalier de Belle-Isle (1693-1746), was also a soldier and a diplomatist. He served as a junior officer in the War of the Spanish Succession and as brigadier in the campaign of 1734 on the Rhine and Moselle, where he won the grade of martchal dc camp. He was employed under his brother in political missions in Bavaria and in Swabia in 1741-1741, became a lieutenant-general, fought in Bohemia, Bavaria and the Rhine countries in 1742-1743, and was arrested and sent to England with the marshal in 1744. On his release he was given a command in the Army of Piedmont. He fell a victim to his romantic bravery at the action of Exilles (Col de PAssiettc) on the igth of July 1746.
See Jean de Ma were, Oraiton funrbre du marietta! de BcUetsle (MontmMy, 1762): R. P. de Neuville, Memoires du martehal due de Betleislt (Paris, 1761); D. C (Chevrier). La Vi* politiqut tt miiitaire du marfchal due ie BclUistf (London, 1760), and Testament Politique du marlchal due de Bclltisle (Hague,'i762); Is Codicitle et .'.;.';"/ «wi commentaire des maximes du marernal due de BelMile (Amsterdam, 1761); F. M. Chavcrt, Notice snr le mareckal de ftclltisk (Mete, 1856); I,. Leclerc, H^e du marerkal de Bellcisle iM.-t/. 1863); E. Michel, Eloge du marshal de Belleisle (Paris, 1862); and Jobcz, La France sous Louis XV (6 vols., Paris, 1868-1874).
BELLE ISLE, STRAIT OP, the more northern-of the two channels connecting the Gulf of St Lawrence with the Atlantic Ocean. It separates northern Newfoundland from Labrador, and extends N.E. and S.W. for 35 m., with a breadth of 10 to 15 m. It derives its name from a precipitous granite island, 700 ft. in height, at its Atlantic entrance. On this lighthouses arc maintained by the government of Canada and constant communication with the mainland is kept up by wireless telegraphy. The strait is in the most direct route from Europe to the St Lawrence, but is open only from June till the end of November, and even during this period navigation is often rendered dangerous by floating ice and fogs. Through it Jacques Cartier sailed in 1534. The southern or Cabot Strait, between Cape Ray in Newfoundland and Cape North in Cape Breton, was discovered later, and the expansion below Belle Isle was long known as La Grande Baic. Cabot Strait is open all the year, save for occasional inconvenience from drift ice.
BELLENDEN (ballantyne or Bannatyne), JOHN (fl. 1533-1587), Scottish writer, was born about the end of the i5th century, in the south-east of Scotland, perhaps in East Lothian. He appears to have been educated, first at the university of St Andrews and then at that of Paris, where he took the degree of doctor. From his own statement, in one of his poems, we learn that he had been in the service of James V, from the king's earliest years, and that the post he held was clerk of accounts. At the request of James he undertook translations of Boece's Historic, Scotorum, which had appeared at Paris in 1527, and the first five books of Livy. As a reward for his versions, which In finished in 1533, he was appointed archdeacon of Moray and a canon of Ross. He was a strenuous opponent of the Reformation and was compelled to go into exile: He is said by some authorities to have died at Rome in 1550; by others to have been still living in 1587. His translation of Boccc, entitled The History and Chronicles of Scotland, is a remarkable specimen of Scottish prose, distinguished by its freedom and vigour of expression. It was published in 1536; and was •cprintedin 2 vols..edited by Maitlami, in 1821. The translation of Livy was not printed till 1822 (also in 2 vols.). Two MSS. of the latter are extant, one, the older, in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh (which was the basis of the normalized text of 1822), the other (c. 1550) in the possession of Mr Ogilvic Forbes of lioyndlie. An edition of the work was edited for the Scottish Text Society by Mr W. A. Craigie (2 vols. 1901, 1003). The second volume of this edition contains also a complete reprint of the portions of the holograph first draft which were discovered in the British Museum in 1002. Two poems by Bellendcn—The Proheme to the Cosmographe and the Proheme of the //utory— appeared in the 1536 edition of the History of Scotland. Others, bearing his name in the well-known Bannatyne MS. collection, made by his namesake George Bannatyne (?.«.), may or may not
be his. Sir David Lyndsay, in his prologue to the
"Ane cunnyng Clark quhilk wrythith craftclie
The chief sources of information Peganfinij Bcllendcn's life arc the Accounts of the Lord ffigk Treasurer ej Scotland, his own works jnd the ecclesiastical records.
BELLENDEN. WILLIAM. Scottish classical scholar. Hardly anything is known of him. He lived in the reign of James I. (VI. of Scotland),who appointee] him mQgistfrtlbetlorumsuppHttiin or masterof requests. King James is also said to haw provided Bellendcn with the means of living independently at Paris, where he became professor at the university, and advocate In the parliament. The date of his birth cannot be fixed, and It can only be said that he died later than 1625. The first of the works by which he is known was published anonymously in 160$, with the title Ciccronis Prinecps, a laborious compilation of aH Cicero's remarks on the origin and principles of regal government, digested and systematically arranged. In 1612 there appeared a similar work, devoted to the consideration of consular authority and the Roman senate, Ciceronis Consul, Senator, Settatusqve Romania. His third work, De Statu Prisci Orbis, 1615, is a good outline of general history. AH three works were combined in a single large volume, entitled De Slain Libri Tres, 1615, which was first brought into due notice by Dr Samuel Parr, who, in 1787, published an crlitibn with a preface, famous for the elegance of its Latinfty, in which he eulogized Burke, Fox and Lord North as the "three English luminaries." The greatest of Bellenden's works is the extensive treatise De Tritnts Luntinifciu Romanonnn, printed and published posthumously at Paris in 1633. The book is unfinished, and treats only of the first luminary, Cicero; the other* intended were apparently Seneca and Pliny. It contains a most elaborate history of Rome and its institutions, drawn from Cicero, and thus forms a storehouse of all the historical notice* contained in that voluminous author. It is said that nearly all the copies were lost on the passage to England; One of the few that survived was placed in the university library at Cambridge, and freely drawn upon by Cotiyen MIddleton, the librarian, in his History of the Life of Cicero. Both Joseph Wartonand Dr Parr accused Middleton of deliberate plagiarism, which was the more likely to have escaped detection owing to the small number of existing copies of Bellenden's work.
BELLBROPHON, or Belle»oj»hontes, in Greek legend, son of daucus or Poseidon, grandson of Sisyphus and local hero of Corinth. Having slain by accident the Corinthian hero Bellr-rus (or, according to others, his own brother) he fled to Tiryns, where his kinsman Proetus, king of Argos, received him hospitably and purged him of his guilt. But Anteta (or Sthcneboea), wife of Proetus, became enamoured of Bellerophon, and, when he refused her advances, charged htm with an attempt upon her virtue. Proetus thereupon sent him to lobatos, hi) wife's father, king of I.ycia, with a letter or sealed tablet, in which were instructions, apparently given by means of signs, to take the life of the bearer. Arriving in Lycia, he was received as a guest and entertained for nine days. On the tenth, being asked the object of his visit, he handed the letter to the king, whose first plan for complying with it was to send him to slay the Chimacra, a monster which was devastating the country. BeHcrophon,mountedon Pegasus(g.v.),kcpt upin the air out of the way of the* Cbimaera, but yet near enough to kilHt with his spear, or, as h« is at other time* represented, with his sword or with a bow. He was next ordered out against the Sulymi, a hostile tribe, nod afterwards against the Amazons, from both of which expeditions he not only returned victorious, but also on his way back slew an ambush xtf chosen warriors whom lob&tes had placed to intercept him, His divine origin was now proved; the king gave him his daughter in marriage; and the Lycians presorted him with a large and fertile estate on which he lived (Apollodonis, ii, 3; Homer, /':••*, vi. 155). Bellerophon is said to hart returned to Tiryns and avenged himself on Aaufo: he persuaded her to Uy with biro on his winged horse, snd then flung her into tie sea near the bland of Melos (Schol. Aristoph., /Vr, i,<o). His ambitious attempt to ascend to the heavens on Pegasus brought upon him the wrath of the gods. His son was smitten by Arcs in battle; his daughter Laodameia was slain by Artemis; he himself, flung from his horse, lamed or blinded, became a wanderer over the face of the earth until his death (Pindar, htktnia, vi. [vii.], 44; Horace, Odes, iv. ti, 26). Bellcrophon was honoured as a hero at Corinth and in Lycia. His story formed the subject of the lobalaot Sophocles, and of the R:!!,,,/ phonies and Stimeboet of Euripides. It has been suggested that Perseus, the local hero of Argos, and Bellerophon were originally one and the same, the difference in their exploits being the result of the rivalry of Argos and Corinth. Both are connected with the sun-god Helios and with the sea-god Poseidon, the symbol of the union being the winged horse Pegasus. Bellerophon has been explained as a hero of the storm, o! which his conflict with the Chimaera Is symbolical. The most frequcntreprcscntaUons of Bellcrophon in ancient art are (i) slaying the Chimaera, (*) departing from Argos with the letter, (3) leading Pegasus to drink. Among the first is to be noted a tcrra-cotta relief from Mclos in the British Museum, where also, on a vase of black ware, is what seems to be a representation of his escape from Stbeneboea.
Sec H. A. Fischer, Belltropkm (18.11); R. Engclmann. Annali of the Archaeological Institute at Komc (1874); O. Trcuber. Cefchichtf dfr Lyktfr (1887); articles in Pauly-Wisspwa's Keal-Encydopodif, W. H. Roschcr's Ltxiken tier Hfyttiolofte, Darembcrg and bnglio's Didtonnaire dcs ttnltguitis; L. Preller, Gruckiuhe Uythologis
BELLES-LETTRES (Fr. for "fine literature "), a term used to designate the more artistic and imaginative forms of literature, as poetry or romance, as opposed to more pedestrian and exact studies. The term appears to have been first used in English by Swift (1710).
BELLEVILLE, a city and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, and capital of Hastings county, 106 m. E.N.E. of Toronto, on Bay of Quintfi and the Grand Trunk railway. Pop. (1001) 9117. Communication is maintained with Lake Ontario and St Lawrence ports by several lines of steamers. It is the commercial centre of a fine agricultural district, and has a large export trade in chceso and farm produce. The principal industries »rc planing mills and cement works, cheese factories and distilleries. There arc several educational institutions, including a business college, a convent, and a government institute for the deal and dumb. Albert College, under the control of the Methodist church, was formerly a university, but Dow confines itself to secondary education.
BELLEVILLE, a dty and the county-seat of St Clair county, Illinois, U.S.A., In the S.W. part of the state 14 m, S.E. of St Louis, Missouri. Pop. (1800) 15,361; (1900) 17,484, of whom 2750 were foreign-born; (1910) ai.us. Belleville is served by the Illinois Central, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Southern railways, abo by extensive interurban electric tystems; and a belt line to O'Fallon, Illinois, connects Belleville with the Baltimore & Ohio South Western railway. A large element of the population is of German descent or German birth, and two newspapers arc published in German, besides three dailies, three weeklies and a semi-weekly in English. Among (he industrial establishments of the dty are stove and range factories, flour mills, rolling mills, distilleries, breweries, shoe factories, copper refining works, nail and tack factories, glass works and agricultural implement factories. The value of the city's factory products increased from $1,873,334 in 1000 to $4,356.615 in 1905 or 5i<6%. Belleville is in a rich agricultural region, and in the vicinity there are valuable coal mines, the first of which was sunk in 1852; from this dates the industrial development of the city. Belleville was first settled in 1813, *•» incorporated as a city in 1850, and was re-incorporated In rg?6.
BELLET, a (own of eastern France, capital of an arrondissemenl hi the department of Ain, 52 m. S.E. 01 Bourg by TM* Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1006), town, 3709; commune, S7°7- It it situated on vine-covered hill* at the southern
extremity of the Jura, 3 m. from the right bank of the Rhone. Apart from the cathedral of St Jean, which, with the exception of the choir of 1413, is a modern building, there is little of architectural interest in the town. 1 id ley is the seat of a bishopric and a prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance. The manufacture of morocco leather goods and the quarrying of the lithographic stone of the vicinity are carried on, and there is trade in cattle, grain, wine, trufBes and dressed pork. Belley is of Roman origin, and in the 5th century became an episcopal see. It was the capital of the province of Bugcy, which was a dependency of Savoy till 1601, when it was ceded to France. In 1385 the town was almost entirely destroyed by an act of incendiarism, but was subsequently rebuilt by the dukes of Savoy, who surrounded it with ramparts of which little is left.
BELLI, GIUSEPPE GIOACHINO (1791-1863), Italian poet, was bom at Rome, and after a period of literary employment in poor circumstances was enabled by marriage with a lady of means to follow his-.own special bent. He is remembered for his vivid popular poetry in the Roman dialect, a number of satirical sonnets which in their own way are unique.
See Morandi's edition, / sonetti romanexki (1886-1889).
BELUGERENCY, the state of carrying on war (Lat. bdlum, wax, and gcrere, to wage) in accordance with the law of nations. Insurgents are not as such excluded from recognition as bclligercnU, and, even where not recognized as belligerents by the government against which they have rebelled, they may be so recognized by a neutral state, as in the case of the American Civil War, when the Southern states were recognized as belligerents by Great Britain, though regarded as rebels by the Northern states. The recognition by a neutral state of belligerency docs not, however, imply recognition of independent political existence. The regulations annexed to the Hague Convention, relating to the laws and customs of war (agth of July 1809), contain a section entitled "Belligerents" which is divided into three chapters, dealing respectively with (i.) The Qualifications of Belligerents; (ii.) Prisoners of War; (iii.) The Sick and Wounded. To entitle troops to the special privileges attaching to belligerency, chapter i. provides that all regular, militia or volunteer forces shall alike be commanded by persons responsible for the acts of their men, that all such shall carry distinctive emblems, recognizable at a distance, that arms shall be carried openly and operations conducted in accordance with the usages of war observed among civilized mankind. It provides, nevertheless, for the emergency of the population of a territory, which has not already been occupied by the invader, spontaneously taking up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to comply with the above requirements; they, too, are to be treated as belligerents " if they respect the laws and customs of war." In naval war, privateering having been finally abolished as among the parties to it by the declaration of Paris, a privateer is not entitled, as between such parties, to the rights of belligerency. As between states, one of whom is not a party to the Declaration, the right to grant letters of marque would remain intact for both parties, and the privateer, as between Item, would be a belligerent; as regards neutrals, the situation would be complicated (see Privatees). On prisoners of war and sick and wounded, see Wax. (T. Ba.)
BELUNGHAU. SIR EDWARD (d. 1549), lord deputy of Ireland, was a son of Edward Bclh'ngham of Erringham, Sussex, his mother being a member of the Shelley family. As a soldier he fought in France and elsewhere, then became an English member of parliament and a member of the privy council, and in 154; took part in some military operations in Ireland. In May 1548 he was sent to that country as lord deputy. Ireland was then in a very disturbed condition, but the new governor crushed a rebellion of the O'Connors in Leinsler, freed the Pale from rebels, built forts, and made the English power respected in M'msicr and Connaught. Bcllingham, however, was a headstrong man and was constantly quarrelling with his council; 1 •"i one pf his opponents admitted that he was " the best man of war that ever he had seen in Ireland." His short but successful term of office was ended by his recall in 1549.
Sec R. Bagwell, Ireland Under Ou Tvdon. vol. i. (1685).
BELLINGHAM. a city of Whatcorn county, Washington, U.S.A., on the E. side of Bcllingham Bay, 06 m. N. of Seattle. Pop. dooo) 11,062; (1905, statecst.) 26,000; (1010, U.S. census) 14,298. Area about 23 sq. m. It is served by the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific, the Canadian Pacific, and the Bellingham Bay & British Columbia railways—being a terminus of the last named, which operates only 62 m. of line and connects with the Mt. Baker goldfields and the Nooksack valley farm and orchard region. A suburban electric line was projected in 1007. About 2} m. south-east of the city is the main body of Lake Whatcom, ij m. long, i| m. wide, and 318 ft. higher than the city and the source of its water-supply, a gravity system which cost $1,000,000, being owned by the city. Bellingham has two Carnegie libraries. Among the principal buildings are the county court-house, the city hall, the Young Men's Christian Association building, and Becks theatre, with a ieating capacity of 2200. The largest of the state's normal colleges is situated here; in 1907 it had a faculty of 25 and 350 students; there are two high schools, two business colleges, and one industrial school also in the city. The excellent harbour, and the fact that Bellingham is nearer to the great markets of Alaska than any other city in the states, make the port an important shipping centre. In the value of manufactured product the city was fourth in the state in 1905 (being passed only by Tacoma, Seattle and Spokane), with a value of $3,293,988; according to a census taken by the local chamber of commerce the value of the product in 1006 was $7,751,464. The principal industrial establishments are shingle (especially cedar) and saw-mills, salmon canneries and factories for the manufacture of tin cans, and machinery used in the canning of salmon. Motive and electric lighting power is brought 52 m. from the falls of the north fork of the Nooksack river, where there is a power plant which furnishes 3500 horsepower. There are deposits of clay and limestone in the surrounding country, and cement is manufactured in the vicinity of the city. The blue-grey Chuckanut sandstone is quarried on the shore of Chuckanut Bay, south of Bellingham; and a coarse, dark-brown sandstone is quarried on Sucia'Island, west of the city. There arc quarries also on Waldron Island. Bellingham was formed in 1003 by the consolidation of the cities of New Whatcom (pop. in 1900, 6834) and Fairhavcn (pop. in 1000, 4228), and was chartered as a city of the first class in 1904; it is named from Bellingham Bay, which Vancouver is supposed to have named, in 1792, in honour of Sir Henry Bellingham.
BELLINI, the name of a family of craftsmen in Venire, three members of which fill a great place in the history of the Venetian school of painting in the i;th century and the first yean of the i6th.
I. Jacopo Bellini (c. 1400-1470-71) was the son of a tinsmith or pewtcrcr, Nicolctto Bellini, by his wife Franccschina. When the accomplished Umbrian master Gentile da Fabriano came to practise at Venice, where art was backward, several young men of the city took service under him as pupils. Among these were Giovanni and Antonio of Murano and Jacopo Bellini. Gentile da Fabriano left Venice for Florence in 1422, and the two brothers of Murano stayed at home and presently founded a school of theirown (sec VlVAKnn). But Jacopo Bellini followed his teacher to Florence, where the vast progress lately made, alike in truth to natural fact and in sense of classic grace and style, by masters like Donatello and Ghiberti, Masaccio and Paolo Uccello, offered him better instruction than he could obtain even from his Umbrian teacher. But his position as assistant to Gentile brought him into trouble. As a stranger coming to practise in Florence, Gentile was jealously, looked on. One day some young Florentines threw stones into his'shop, and the Venetian pupil ran out and drove them of! with his fists. Thinking this might be turned against him, he went and took service on board the galleys of the Florentine state; but returning after a year, found he had in his absence been condemned and fined for
assault. He was arrested and imprisoned, but the matter was soon compromised, Jacodo submitting to a public act of penance and his adversary renouncing further proceedings. Whether Jacopo accompanied his master to Rome in 1416 we cannot tell; but by 1429 we find him settled at Venice and married; to a wife from Pesaro named Anna (family name uncertain)* who in that year made a will in favour of her first child then expected. She survived, however, and bore her husband two sons, Gentile and Giovanni (though some evidences have been thought to point rather to Giovanni having been his son by another mother), and a daughter Nicolosia. In 1436 Jacopo was at Verona, painting a Crucifixion in fresco for the chapel of S. Nicholas in the cathedral (destroyed by order of the archbishop in 17 so, but the composition, a vast one of many figures, has been preserved in an old engraving). Documents ranging from 1437 to 1465 show him to have been a member of the Scuola or mutual aid society *f St John the Evangelist at Venice, for which he painted at an uncertain date a scries of eighteen subjects of the Life of the Virgin, fully described by Ridolfi but now destroyed or dispersed. In 1439 we find him buying a panel of tarsia work at the sale of the effects of the deceased painter Jacobcllo dd Fiore, and in 1440 entering into a business partnership with another painter of the city called Donato. About this time he must have paid a visit to the court of Fcmra, where there prevailed a spirit of free culture and humanism most congenial to his tastes. Pisancllo, the first great naturalist artist of north Italy, whose influence on Jacopo at the ouUct of his career had been only second to that of Gentile da Fabriano, had been some time engaged on a portrait of Lconello d'Este, the elder son of the reigning marquis Niccolo 111. Jacopo (according to an almost contemporary sonneteer) competed with a rival portrait, which was declared by the father to be the better of the two. In the next year, the last of the marquis Niccolo's life, we find him making the successful painter a present of two bushels of wheat. The relations thus begun with the house of Este seem to have been kept up, and among Jacopo's extant drawings arc several that seem to belong to the scheme of a monument erected to the memory of the marquis Niccolo ten years later. He was also esteemed and employed by Sigismondo MalatcsLa at the court of Rimini. In 1443 Jacopo took as an articled pupil a nephew whom he had brought up from charity; in 1452 be painted a banner for the Scuola of St Mary of Charity at Venice, and the next year received a grant from the confraternity for the marriage of his daughter Nicolosia with Andrea Mantegna, a marriage which had the effect of transferring the gifted young Paduaa master definitively from the following of Squarcione to that of Bellini. In 1456 he painted a figure of Lorenzo Giusltniani, first patriarch of Venice, for his monument in San Pielro de Castello, and in 1457, with a son for salaried assistant, three figures of saints in the great hall of the patriarch. For some time about these yean Jacopo and his family would seem to have resided at, or at least to have paid frequent visits to Padua, where he is reported to have carried out works now lost, including an altar-piece painted with the assistance of his sons in 1450-1460 for the Gattamclata chapel In the Santo, and scvcr.il portraits which are described by 16th-century witnesses but have disappeared. At Venice he painted a Calvary for the Scuola of St Mark (1466), His activity can be traced in documents down to August 1470, but in November 1471 his wife Anna describe* herself as his relict, so that he must have died some time in the interval.
The above are all the facts concerning the life of Jacopo Bellini which can be gathered from printed and documentary records. The materials which have reached posterity for a critical Judgment on his work consist of four or five pic lures only, together with two important and invaluable books of drawing! These prove him to have been a worthy third, following th* Umbrian Gentile da Fabriano and the Veronese Pisanello, in that trio of remarkable artists who in the first half of the i jih century carried towards maturity the art of painting in Venice and the neighbouring cities. Of his pictures, an important signed example is a Ufe-sixe Christ Crucified in the archbukap'i palace At Verona. The rest are almost all Madonnas: two signed, one in the Tadini gallery at Loverc, another in the Venice academy; a third, unsigned and long ascribed in error to Gentile da Fabriano, in the Louvre, with the portrait of Sigisonondo Malatesta as donor; a fourth, richest of all in colour and ornamental detail, recently acquired from private luiul. for the Uffizi at Florence. Plausibly, though less certainly, ascribed to him are a fifth Madonna at Bergamo, a warrior-saint on horseback (San Crisogono) in the church of San Trovaso at Venice, a Crucifixion in the Musco Correr, and an Adoration of the Magi in private possession at Ferrari. Against this scanty • tale of paintings we have to set an abundance of drawings and studies preserved in two precious albums In the British Museum and the Louvre. The former, which is the earlier in date, belonged to the painter's elder son Gentile and was by him bequeathed to his brother Giovanni. It consists of ninety-nine paper pages, all drawn on both back and front with a lead point, an instrument Bnosual at this date. Two or three of the drawings have been worked over in pen; of the remainder many have become dim from time and rubbing. The album at the Louvre, discovered (n 1883 in the loft of a country-house in Guicnnc, is equally rich and better preserved, the drawings being all highly finished in pen, probably over effaced preliminary.sketches in chalk or lead. The range of subjects is much the same in both collections, and in both extremely varied, proving Jacopo to have been a craftsman of many-sided curiosity and invention. He passes indiscriminately from such usual Scripture scenes as the Adoration of the Maci, the Agony in the Garden, and the Crucifixion, to designs from classic fable, copies from ancient has reliefs, stories of the saints, especially St Christopher and St George, the latter many times repeated (he was the patron saint of the house of Bate), fanciful allegories of which the meaning has now become obscure, scenes of daily life, studies for monuments, and studies of animals, especially of eagles (the emblem of the house of Estc), horses and lions. He loves to marshal his figures in vast open spaces, whether of architecture or mountainous landscape. In designing such spaces and in peopling them with figures of relatively small scale, we see him eagerly and continually putting to the test the principles of the new science of perspective. His castellated and pinnacled architecture, in a mixed medieval and classical spirit, is elaborately thought out, and scarcely less so his groups and ranges of barren hills, broken in clefts or ascending in spiral terraces. With a predilection for tall and slender proportions, he draws the human figure with a flowing generalized grace and no small freedom of movement; but he does not approach either in mastery of line or in vehemence of action a Florentine draughtsman such as Antonio Pollaiuolo. Jacopo's influence on the development of Venetian art was very great, not only directly through his two sons and his son-in-law Mantegna, but through other and Independent contemporary workihops of the city, in none of which did it remain unfelt.
II. Gentile Beluni (1420-1430-1307), the elder son of Jacopo, first appears independently as the painter of a Madonna, much in his father's manner, dated 1460, and now in the Berlin museum. We have seen how in the previous year he and his brother assisted their father in the execution of an altar-piece for the Santo at Padua. In July 1466 we find him contracting with the officers of the Scuoh of St Mark as an independent mrtist to decorate the doors of their organ. These paintings still exist in a blackened condition. They represent four saints, colossal in size, and designed with much of the harsh and searching austerity which characterized the Paduan school under Squartione. In December of the same year Gentile bound himself to execute for the great hall of the same company two subjects of the Exodus, to be done better than, or at least as well as, his father's work in the same place. These paintings have perished. For the next eight yean the history of Gentile's life and work remains obscure. But he must have risen steadily in the esteem of his fellow-citizens, since in 1474 we find him commissioned by the senate to restore, renew, and when necessary replace, the aeries of paintings, the work of an earlier generation of artists, which wen perishing from damp on the walls of the Hall of the
Great Council in the ducal palace. This was evidently intended to be a permanent employment, and in payment the painter was to receive the reversion of a broker's stall in the Fondaco dei Tedeschi; a lucrative form of sinecure frequently allotted to artists engaged for tasks of long duration. In continuation of this work Gentile undertook a series of independent paintings on subjects of Venetian history for the same hall, but had apparently only finished one, representing the delivery of the consecrated candle by the pope to the doge, when his labours were interrupted by a mission to the East. The sultan Mahommcd II. had despatched a friendly embassy to Venice, inviting the doge to visit him at Constantinople and at the same time requesting the despatch of an excellent painter to work at bis court. The former part of the sultan's proposal the senate declined, with the latter they complied; and Gentile Bellini with two assistants was selected for the mission, his brother Giovanni being at the same time appointed to fill his place on the works for the Hall of the Great Council. Gentile gave great satisfaction to the sultan, and returned after about a year with a knighthood, some fine clothes, a gold chain and a pension. The surviving fruits of his labours at Constantinople consist of a large painting representing the reception of an ambassador in that city, now in the Louvre; a highly finished portrait of the sultan himself, now one of the treasures, despite its damaged condition, of the collection of the late Sir Henry Layard; an exquisitely wrought small portrait in water-colour of a scribe, found in 1005 by a private collector in the bazaar at Constantinople and now in the collection of Mrs Gardner at Boston; and two pen-and-ink drawings of Turkish types, now in the British Museum. Early copies of two or three other similar drawings arc preserved in the St&del Institute at Frankfurt; such copies may have been made for the use of Gentile's Umbrian contemporary, Pinturicchio, who introduced figures borrowed from them into some of his decorative frescoes in the Appartamcnto Borgia at Rome.
A place bad been left open for Gentile to continue working beside his brother Giovanni (with whom he lived always on terms of the closest amity) in the ducal palace; and soon after 1480 he began to carry out his share in the great scries of frescoes, unfortunately destroyed by fire in 1577, illustrating the part played by Venice in the struggles between the papacy and the emperor Barbarossa. These works were executed not on the wall itself but on canvas (the climate of Venice having so many times proved fatal to wall paintings), and probably in oil, a method which all the artists of Venice, following the example set by Antoncllo da Messina, had by this time learnt or were learning to practise. The subjects allotted to Gentile, in addition to the above-mentioned presentation of the consecrated candle, were as follows: the departure of the Venetian ambassadors to the court of Barbarossa, Barbarossa receiving the ambassadors, the pope inciting the doge and senate to war, the pope bestowing a sword and his blessing on the doge and his army (a drawing in the British Museum purports to be the artist's original sketch for this composition), and according to some authorities also the gift of the symbolic ring by the pope to the victorious doge on his return. These works received the highest praise both from contemporary and from later Venetian critics, but no fragment of them survived the fire of 1577. Their character can to some extent be judged by a certain number of kindred historical and processional works by the same hand which have been preserved. Of such the Academy at Venice has three which were painted between 1400 and 1500 for the Scuola of Si John the Evangelist, and represent certain events connected with a famous relic belonging to the Scuola, namely, a supposed fragment of the true cross. All have been much injured and re-painted; nevertheless one at least, showing the procession of the relic through St Mark's Place and the thanksgiving of a father who owed to it the miraculous cure of his son, still gives a good idea of the painter's powers and style. Great accuracy and firmness of individual portraiture, a strong gift, derived no doubt from his father's example, for grouping and marshalling a crowd of personages in spaces of fine architectural perspective, the severity and dryness of the Paduan manner much mitigated by the dawning splendour of true Venetian colour—these arc the qualities that no injury has been able to deface. They are again manifest in an interesting Adoration of the Magi in the Layard collection; and reappear still more forcibly in the last work undertaken by the artist, the great picture now at the Brera in Milan of St Mark preaching at Alexandria; this was commissioned by the Scuola of St Mark in March 1505, and left by the artist in his will, dated iSlh of February 1507, to be finished by his brother Giovanni. Of single portraits by this artist, who was almost as famous for them as for processional groups, there survive one of a doge at the Museo Correr in Venice, one of Catarina Cornaro at Budapest, one of a mathematician at the National Gallery, another of a monk in the same gallery, signed wrongly to all appearance with the name of Giovanni Bellini, besides one or two others in private hands. The features of Gentile himself are known from a portrait medallion by Camclio, and can be recognized in two extant drawings, one at Berlin supposed to be by the painter's own hand, and another, much larger and more finished, at Christ Church, Oxford, which is variously attributed to Bonsignori and A. Vivarini.
III. Giovanni Bellini (1430-1431-1516) b generally assumed to have been the second son of Jacopo by his wife Anna; though the fact thafshe docs not mention him in her will with her other sons has thrown some slight doubt upon the matter. At any rate he was brought up in his father's house, and always lived and worked in the closest fraternal relation with Gentile. Up till the age of nearly thirty we find documentary evidence of the two sons having served as their father's assistants in works both at Venice and Padua. In Giovanni's earliest independent works we find him more strongly influenced by the harsh and searching manner of the Paduan school, and especially of his own brother-in-law Manti-gna, than by the more graceful and facile style of Jacopo. This influence seems to have lasted at full strength until after the departure of his brother-in-law Mantegna for the court of Mantua in 1460. The earliest of Giovanni's independent works no doubt* date from before this period. Three of these exist at the Correr museum in Venice: a Crucifixion, a Transfiguration, and a Dead Christ supported by Angels. Two Madonnas of the same or even earlier date arc in private collections in America, a third in that of Signor Frizzoni at Milan; while two beautiful works in the National Gallery of London seem to bring the period to a close. One of these is of a rare subject, the Blood of the Redeemer; the other is the fine picture of Christ's Agony in the Garden, formerly in the Northbrook collection. The last-named piece was evidently executed in friendly rivalry with Mantegna, whose version of the subject hangs near by; the main idea of the composition in both cases being taken from a drawing by Jacopo Bellini in the British Museum sketch-book. In all these pictures Giovanni combines with the Paduan severity of drawing and complex rigidity of drapery a depth of religious feeling and human pathos which is his own. They are all executed in the old tempera method; and in the last named the tragedy of the scene is softened by a new and beautiful effect of romantic sunrise colour. In a somewhat changed and more personal manner, with less harshness of contour and a broader treatment of forms and draperies, but not less force of religious feeling, are the two pictures of the Dead Christ supported by Angels, in these days one of the master's most frequent themes, at Rimini and at Berlin. Chronologically to be placed with these are two Madonnas, one at the church of the Madonna del Orlo at Venice and one in the Loch is collection at Berp.imo; devout intensity of feeling and rich solemnity of colour being in the case of all these early Madonnas combined with a singularly direct rendering of the natural movements and attitudes of children.
The above-named works, all still executed in tempera, are no doubt earlier than the date of Giovanni's first appointment to work along with his brother and other artists in the Scuola di San Marco, where among other subjects he was commissioned hi 1470 to paint a Deluge with Noah's Ark. None of the master's this kind, whether painted for tlie various schools or
confraternities or for ;!» ducai palace, have survived To tfae decade following 1470 must probably be assigned a Transfigure tton now in the Naples museum, repeating with greatly ripened powers and in a much st-rcner spirit the subject of his early effort at Venice; and also the great alur-picce of the Coronation of the Virgin at Pesaro, which would seem to be his earliest effort in a form, of art previously almost monopolized in Venice by the rival school of the Vivarini. Probably aot much later was the still more famous altar-piece painted in tempera for a chapel in the church of S. Giovanni e Paolo, where it pen&he* along with Titian's Peter Martyr and Tintoretto's Cruoibioa in the disastrous urc of 1867. After 1479-1480 very much of Giovanni's time and energy must have been taken up by his duties as conservator of the paintings in the great hall of the ducal palace, in payment for which he was awarded, first the revcrsktm of a broker's place in the Fondaco dci Tcdeschi, and afterwards, as a substitute, a fixed annual pension of eighty ducats. Besides repairing and renewing the works of his predecessors he was commissioned to paint a number of new subjects, six or seven in all, in further illustration of the part played by Venice in the wars of Barbarossa and the pope. These works, executed wuh much interruption and delay, were the object of universal admiration while they lasted, but not a trace of them survived the fire of 1577; neither have any other examples of his historical and processional compositions come down, enabling us to comport his manner in such subjects with that of his brother GcntUc. Of the other, the religious class of his work, including both altar-pieces with many figures and simple Madonnas, a considerable number have fortunately been preserved. They show him gradually throwing off the last restraints of the islh-ccatury manner; gradually acquiring a complete mastery of the new otl medium introduced in Venice by Anloncllo da Mcssirja about 1473, and mastering with its help all, or nearly all, tbc secrets of the perfect fusion of colours and atmospheric gradation of tones. The old intensity of pathetic and devout feeling gradually fades away and gives place to a noble, if more worldly, serenity and charm. The enthroned Virgin and Child become tranquil aod commanding in their sweetness, the personages of the attendant saints gain in power, presence and individuality; enchanting groups of singing and viol-playing angels symbolize and complete the harmony of the scene. The full splendour of Venetian colour invests alike the figures, their architectural framework, ihe landscape and the sky The altar-piece of the Friri at Venice. the alur-picce of San Giobbe, now at the academy, the Virgin between SS, V'aul and George, also at the academy, and the altarpiece with the kneeling doge Barbarigo at Murano, arc ac*on& the most conspicuous examples. Simple Madonnas of the Saxdc period (about 1485-1490) are in the Venice academy, in the National Gallery, at Turin and at Bergamo. An internl o\ some years, no doubt chiefly occupied with work in the Hallof the Great Council, seems to separate the last-named altar-pieces from that of tbc church of San Zaccjria at Venice, which is perhaps the most beautiful and imposing of all, and is dated 1505, the >rar following that of Giorgionc's Madonna at CasieUranco. Another great altar-piece with saints, lhal of the church of Sac Francc&ro dc la Vigiu at Venice, belongs to 1507; that of La Corona, it Viccnza, a Baptism of Christ in a landscape, to 1510; to IS*J that of San Giovanni Crisostomo at Venice, where the aged saint Jerome, seated on a hill, is raised high against a resplendent sunset background, with SS. Christopher and Augustine standing facing each other below him, in front. Oi Giovanni's activuv in the interval between the altar-pieces of San Giobbe and ot Murano and that of San Zaccaru, there are a few minorevidence* left, though the great mass of its results pcrbhed with the tac of the ducal pnlacc in 1577. The examples that remain consist of one very interesting and beautiful allegorical picture in the Uffizi at Florence, the subject of which had remained a ridJJe until it was recently identified as an illustration of a French medieval allegory, ihe Pitrriaz&e dt Vtimc by GuiUaucac de GuiUcvfllc; with a set of five other allegories or moral e on a smaller sc.ilc and very romantically treated, in the a at Venice. To these should probably be added, as