« السابقةمتابعة »
space A, and thence, through the spring-controlled steel disk valves i'-', into the discharge chamber C, which ultimately leads to the blast pipe. It will be seen lhat the valves v on the other side of the annular chamber arc closed. At the same time a partial vacuum is being formed in the space B, to be filled by the inflow of air through the valves D which are now open, the corresponding discharge valves rf being closed. These valves on the inside and outside of the annular spaces referred to are arranged so as to form a circle round the ends of the barrel of the cylinder. The free air, instead of being drawn into the valves? direct from the air of the engine house, is taken from an enclosed annular chamber £, which may be in communication with the clean, cool air outside. It will be seen that the piston is made deep ao as to allow for a long bearing surface in the cylinder. Two metal packing rings are provided to render the piston airtight. The horse-power of this engine, which is designed on the Cockerell system, is 750.
Air valves of other types than those which have been mentioned have been tried, such as sliding grid valves, rotatory slide valves and piston valves, but it has been found that cither 6ap or disk lift valves are more satisfactory for air on account of the grit which is liable lo get between slide valves and their seatings. In some of the blowing engines made by Messrs Fraser & Chalmers (see Engineer, June 15, 1006), sheets of flexible bronze *ct as flap valves both for admission and delivery, the part which actually closes the opening being thickened for strength. The pressure of the air supplied by blowing engines depends upon the purposes for which it is to be used. In charcoal furnaces the pressure is very low, being less than i Ib per sq. in.; for blast furnaces using coal an average value of 4 Ib is common; for American blast furnaces using coke or anthracite coal the pressure is as high as 10 Ib; while for the air required in the Bessemer process of steel-making pressures up to 25 or 30 Ib per sq. in. are not uncommon. According to British practice one large blowing engine is used to supply several blast furnaces, while in America a number of smaller ones is used, one for each furnace.
Rotary blowers occupy a position midway between blowing engines and fan blowers, being used for purposes requiring the delivery of large volumes of air at pressures lower than those of blowing engines, but higher than those of fan blowers. The blowing engine draws in, compresses and delivers its air by the direct action of air-tight pistons; the same effect is aimed at in a
rotary blower with the difference that the piston revolves instead of moving up and down a- cylinder. Two of the bestknown machines of this kind are Roots' and Baker's, both American devices. The mode of action of Roots' blower, as made by Messrs Thwaites Bros, of Bradford, will be clear from the section shown on fig. 6. The moving parts work in a closed casing It, which con* sisls of half-cylin. drical curved plates placed a little more
than their own radius apart, the ends being enclosed by two plates. Within the casing, and barely touching the curved part of the casing and each other, revolve two parts Ct 1>, called "revolvers," the speed of rotation of which is the tame, but the direction opposite. They are compelled to keep their proper relative positions by a pair of equal spur wheels
fixed on the ends of the shafts on which they run. The free air enters the casing through a wire screen at A and passes into Uk space £.
As the space E increases in volume owing to the movement of the revolvers, air is drawn in; it is then imprisoned between D and the casing, as shown at G, and is carried round until it ii free to enter F, from which it is in turn expelled by the lessening of this space as the lower ends of the revolvers come together. In this way a series of volumes of air is drawn in through A, to be afterwards expelled from 11 in an almost perfectly continuous stream, this result being brought about by the relative variation in volume of the spaces £, F and G. In their most improved form the revolvers are made hollow, of cast iron, and accurately machined to a form such lhat they always keep close to one another and to the end casing without actually touching, there being never more space for the escape of air than j';rni of an inch. Machines after this design are made from the smallest size. delivering 25 cub. ft., to the largest, with a capacity of 25,000 cub. ft. per minute working up to a pressure of 3 Ib per sq. in. It is not found economical to attempt to work at higher pressures, as the leakage between the revolvers and the casing becomes too great; where a higher pressure is desired two or more blowers can be worked in series, the air being raised in pressure by steps. A blower using i H.P. will deliver 350 cub. ft. of air per minute and one using 2} H.P. will deliver 800 cub. ft., at a pressure suitable for smiths' fires. At the higher pressure required for cupola work—somewhere about j Ib per sq. in.—61 H.P. will deliver 1300, and 123 H.P. 25.°°° cub. ft. per minute. In the Baker blower three revolvers are used—a Urge one which acts as the rotating piston and two smaller ones forming air locks or valves.
Rotary Fans.—Now that power for driving them is so generally available, rotary blowing fans have for many purposes taken the place of bellows. They are used for blowing smiths' fires, for supplying the blast for iron melting cupolas and furnaces and tbe forced draught for boiler fires, and for any other purpose requiring a strong bbst of air. Their construction will be clear from the two views (figs. 7 and 8) of the form made by Messrs Gunlhcr of Oldham, Lancashire. The fan consists of a circular casing A having the general appearance of a snail shell. Within this casing revolves a scries of vanes B—in this case five—curved as shown, and attached together so as to form a wheel whose centre is a boss or hub. This boss is fixed to a shaft or spindle which revolves in bearings supported on brackets outside the casing. As the shaft is rotated, the vanes B are compelled to revolve in the direction indicated by the arrow on fig. 7, and their rotation causes the air within the casing to rotate also. Thus a centrifugal action is set up by which there is a diminution of pressure at the centre of the fan and an increase against the outer casing. In consequence air is sucked in, as shown by the arrows on fig. -.. through the openings C, C, at the centre of the casing around the spindle. At the same time the air which has been forced towards the outside of the casing and given a rotary motion is expelled from the opening at D (fig. 8). All blowing fans work on the same principle, though differences in detail are adopted by different makers to meet the variety of conditions under which they are to be used. Where the fan is to be employed for producing a delivery or blast of air the opening D is connected to an air pipe which serves to transmit the current of air, and C it led open to th« atmosphere; when, however, the main object it suction, as in the case where the fan is used for ventilation, the aperture C is connected through a suction pipe with the spue* to be exhausted, D being usually left open. Glim her fans range in size from those which have a diameter of fan disk of 8 in. ami make 5500 revolutions per minute, to those which have a j., meter of 50 in. and run at from 950 to 1200 revolutions pet minute. For exhausting the fans are run less quickly than foe blowing, the speed for a fan of 10 in. diameter being 4800 revolutions for blowing and 3300-4000 for exhausting, while the 50-in. fan only runs at 5 jo-;oo when exhausting. These two exhausting fans remove 400-500 and 12,000-15,000 cub. ft. of air per minute respectively.
Flo. 7.—GUnthcr's Blowing Fan.
deliver comparatively large volumes of air at pressures which are little above that of the atmosphere. Where the pressure of the current produced exceeds a quarter of a pound on the square inch the waste of work becomes so great as to preclude their use. The fan is not the most economical form of blower, but it is simple and inexpensive, both in first cost and in maintenance. The largest fans are used for ventilating purposes, chiefly in mines, their diameters rising to 40 or even 50 ft. The useful effect of some <jf these larger fans, as obtained from experiments, is as
Fie. 8.—GQnther'i Blowing Fan.
high as 75%. In the case of the Capell fan, which differs from other forms in that it has two series of blades, inner and outer, separated by a curved blank piece between the inner wings, dipping into the fan inlet, and the outer wings, very high efficiencies have been obtained, being as great as 00% in some cases. Capell fans are used for ventilating mines, buildings, and ships, and for providing induced currents for use in boiler furnaces. In the larger fans the casing, instead of having a curved section, is more often built of sheet steel and is given a rectangular section at right angles to the periphery. The Sirocco blowing fan, of Messrs Davidson oi Belfast, has a larger number of blades,
which arc relatively narrow as measured radially, but wide axially. It can be made much smaller in diameter than fans of the older designs for the same output of air—a great advantage for use in ships or in buildings where space is limited—and its useful effect is also said to be superior. (See also Hydraulics, f «3.)
Helical or screw timixrs, often called " air propellers," are used where relatively large volumes of air have to be moved against hardly any perceptible difference in pressure, chiefly for purposes of ventilation and drying. Most often the propeller is used to move air from one room or chamber to another adjoining, and is placed in a light circular iron frame which is fixed in a hole in the wall through which the air is to be passed. The propeller itself consists of a series of vanes or wings arranged helically on a revolving shaft which is fixed in the centre of the opening. The centre line of the shaft is perpendicular to the plane of the opening so that when the vanes revolve the air is drawn towards and through the opening and is propelled away from it as it passes through. The action is similar to that of a steamship screw propeller, air taking the place of water. Such blowers are often driven by small electric motors working directly on the end of the shaft.• For moving large volumes of air against little pressure and suction they are very suitable, being simpler than fans, cheaper both in first cost and maintenance for the same volume of air delivered, and less likely to fail or get out of order. To obtain the best effect for the power used a certain maximum speed of rotation must not be exceeded; at higher speeds a great deal of the power is wasted. For example, a propeller with a vane diameter of ->J ft. was found to deliver a volume of air approximately proportional to the speed up to about 700 revolutions per minute, when 8000 cub. ft. per minute were passed through the machine; but doubling this speed to 1400 revolutions per minute only increased delivery by 1000 cub. ft. to oooo. At the lower of these speeds the horse-power absorbed was 0-6 and at the higher one 1-6.
Other Appliances for producing Currents of Air.—In its primitive form the " trompe " or water-blowing engine adopted in Savoy, Carniola, and some parts of America, consists of a long vertical wooden pipe terminating at its lower end in an air chest. Water is allowed to enter the top of the pipe through a conical plug and, falling down in streamlets, carries with it air which is drawn in through sloping holes near the top of the pipe. In this way a quantity of air is delivered into the chamber, its pressure depending on the height through which the water falls. This simple arrangement has been developed for use in compressing large volumes of air at high pressures to be used for driving compressed air machinery. It is chiefly used in America, and provides a simple and cheap means of obtaining compressed air where there is an abundant natural supply of water falling through a considerable height. The pressure obtained in the air vessel is somewhat less than half a pound per square inch for every foot of fall.
Natural sources of water are also used for compressing and discharging air by letting the water under its natural pressure enter and leave closed vessels, so alternately discharging and drawing in new supplies of air. Here the action is the same as in a blowing engine, the water taking the place of the piston. This method was first thoroughly developed in connexion with the Mt. Ccnis tunnel works, and its use has since been extended.
In the jet blower (fig. 9) a jet of steam is used to induce a|
flow freely. The effect is to cause e movement of the »ir in the pipe, with the result that a fresh supply is drawn in through the annular opening at C, C, and a continuous stream of air passes along the pipe. This is the form of blower made by Messrs Mi-Mi Imh Bros, of Manchester, and is largely used for delivering air under the fire bars of boiler and other furnaces. In some cases the jets of steam arc allowed to enter a boiler furnace above the fire, thus inducing a current of air which helps the chimney draught and is often used to do away with the production of smoke; they are also used for producing currents of air for purposes other than those of boiler tires, and are very convenient where considerable quantities of air are wanted at very low pressures and where the presence of the moisture of the steam docs not matter.
Sometimes jets of high-pressure air flowing at great velocities are used to induce more slowly-moving currents of larger volumes of air at low pressures. (W. C. P.)
BELLOY, DORMONT DE, the name assumed by Pierre Laurent Buirette (1727-1775), French dramatist, was born at Saint-Flour, in Auvergne, on the I7th ol November 1727. He was educated by his uncle, a distinguished advocate in Paris, for the bar. To escape from a profession he disliked he joined a troupe of comedians playing in the courts of the northern sovereigns. In 1758 the performance of bis Titus, which had already been produced in St Petersburg, was postponed through his uncle's exertions; and when it did appear, a hostile cabal procured its failure, and it wu not until after his guardian's death that de Belloy returned to Paris with Ztlmite (1762), a fantastic drama which met with great success. This was followed in 1765 by the patriotic play, Le Siege de Calais. The moment was opportune. The humiliations undergone by France in the Seven Years' War assured a good reception for a play in which the devotion of Frenchmen redeemed disaster. The popular enthusiasm was unaffected by the judgment of calmer critics such as Diderot and Voltaire, who pointed out that the glorification of France was not best effected by a picture of defeat. De Belloy was admitted to Lhe Academy in 1772. His attempt to introduce national subjects into French drama deserves honour, but it must be confessed that his resources proved unequal to the Usk. The Siege de Calais was followed by Gallon el Bayard (1771), Pedro le cruel (1772) and Gatrielle dt Vergy (1777). None of these attained the success of the earlier play, and de Belloy's death, which took place on the 5th of March 1775, is said to have been hastened by disappointment.
BELL or INCHCAPE ROCK, a sandstone reef in the North Sea, 11 m. S.E. of Arbroath, belonging to Forfarshire, Scotland. It measures 3000 ft in length, is under water at high tide, but at low tide is exposed for a few feet, the set for a distance of ico yds. around being then only three fathoms deep. Lying,in the fairway of vessels m»l"ng or leaving the Tay and Forth, besides ports farther north, it was a constant menace to navigation. In the great gale of 1799 seventy sail, including the " York," 74 guns, were wrecked off the reef, and this disaster compelled the authorities to take steps to protect shipping. Next year Robert Stevenson modelled a tower and reported that its erection was feasible, but it was only in 1806 that parliamentary powers were obtained, and operations began in August 1807. Though John Rennie had meanwhile been associated with Stevenson as consulting engineer, the structure in design and details is wholly Stevenson's work. The tower is 100 ft. high; its diameter at the base is 42 ft., decreasing to 15 ft. at the top. It is solid for 30 ft. at which height the doorway .is placed. The interior is divided into six storeys. After five yean the building was finished at a cost of £61,300. Since the lighting no wrecks have occurred on the reef. A bust of Stevenson by Samuel Joseph (d. 1850) was placed in the tower.
According to tradition an abbot of Aberbrothock (Arbroath) riad ordered a tell—whence the name of the rock—to be fastened to the reef in such a way that it should respond to the movements of the waves, and thus always ring out a warning to mariners. This signal was wantonly destroyed by a pirate, whose ship was afterwards wrecked at this very spot, the rover and his men
being drowned. Southey made the Incident the subject of his ballad of " The Inchcape Rock."
BELLONO (anc. Bellmtum), a city and episcopal see of Vrnctia, Italy, the capital of the province of Belluno, N. of Treviso, 54 m. by rail and 18 m. direct. Pop. (1901) (own, 6898; commune, 19,050. It » situated in the valley of the Piave, at iu confluence with the Ardo, 1285 ft. above sea-level, among the lower Venetian Alps. It was a Roman municifiuin. In the middle ages it went through various vicissitudes; it fell under the dominion of Venice in 1511, and remained Venetian until 1797. Its buildings present Venetian characteristics; it ha> some good palaces, notably the fine early Lombard Renaissance Palazzo dci Rcttori, now the seat of the prefecture. The cathedral, erected af tcr 1517 by Tullio Lombardo, was much damaged by the earthquake of 1873, which destroyed a considerable portion of the town, though the campanile, 217 ft. high, erccttd in 1732*1743, stood firm. The facade was never finished. Important remains of prehistoric settlements have been found in the vicinity; cf. G. Ghirardini in Nolait dff.lt Scati, 1883, 17, on the necropolis of Caverzano. (T. As.)
BELMONT, AUGUST (1816-1890), American banker and financier, was born at Alzci, Rhenish Prussia, on the 8th of December 1816. He entered the banking house of the Rothschilds at Frankfort at the age of fourteen, acted as their agent for a time at Naples, and in 1837 settled in New York as their American representative. He became an American citizen, and married a daughter of Commodore Matthew C. Perry. He was the consul-general of Austria at New York from 1844 lo 1850, when he resigned in protest against Austria's treatment of Hungary. In 1853-1855 he was charge d'affaires for the United States at the Hague, and from 1855 to 1858 was the American minister resident there. In 1860 he was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention at Charleston, South Carolina, actively supporting Stephen A. Douglas for the presidential nomination, and afterwards joining those who withdrew to the convention at Baltimore, Maryland, where he was chosen chairman of the National Democratic Committee. He energetically supported the Union cause during the Civil War, and exerted a strong influence in favour of the North upon the merchants and financiers of England and France. He remained at the head of the Democratic organization until 1872. He died in New York on the 24th of November 1890.
His son, Perky Beluont (1851- ), was born in New York on the 28th of December 1851, graduated at Harvard in i8ji and at the Columbia Law School in 1876, and practised law in New York for five ycarst He wa^ a Democratic member of Congress from 1881 to 1889, serving in 1885-1887 as chairman of the committee on foreign aflairs. In 1889 he was United States minister to Spain.
Another son, August Belhont (1853- ), was born in New York on the iSth of February 1853 and graduated at Harvard in 1875. Be succeeded his father as head of the banking house and was prominent in railway finance, and in financing and building the New York subway. In 1004 he was one of the principal supporters of Alton B. Parker for the Democratic presidential nomination, and served a> chairman of the finance committee of the Democratic National Committee.
A volume entitled Letters, SftfcJtft and Addresses of Auimt Bclmonl (the elder) was published at New York in 1800.
BELOIT, a city oi Rock county, Wisconsin, U.S.A., situated on the S. boundary of the state, on Rock river, about 91 m. N.W. of Chicago and *bonl 85 m. S.W. of Milwaukee. Pop. (i3oo) 6315; (1900) 10,436, of whom 1468 were foreign-bom; (1910) 15,125- It is served by Uk Chicago fc North-Western, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways, and by an inter-urban electric railway to Janesville, Wisconsin and Rockford, Illinois. Beloit is attractively situated on high bluffs on both sides of the river. The city is the seat of Beloit College, a co-educational, non-sectarian institution, founded under the auspices of the Congregational and Presbyterian churches in 1847, and having, in 1007-1908,36 instructors and 430 students. It has classical, philosophical (1874) and scientific (1809) course*; •omen were first admitted in 1895. The Greek department of the college has supervised since 1805 the public presentation Hearty every year of an English version of a Greek play. The river furnishes good water-power, and among the manufactures are wood-working machinery, ploughs, steam pumps, windmills, gas engines, paper-mill machinery, cutlery, flour, ladies' shoes, cyclometers and paper; the total value of the factory product in 1005 was $.(,485,224, 60* 2% more than in 1900. Beloit, founded by New Engenders in 1838, was chartered as a city in i8j6. BELOMANCY (from Gr. /JeX'ot, a dart, and /utrrda, prophecy or divination), a form of divination (?.*.) by means of arrows, practised by the Babylonians, Scythians and other ancient peoples. Nebuchadrezzar (Ezek. xxl. 21) resorted to this practice " when lie stood in the parting of the way ... to use divination: he made his arrows bright."
BELON, PIERRE (1517-1564), French naturalist, was born about 1517 near Le Mans (Sarthe). He studied medicine at Paris, where he took the degree of doctor, and then became a pupil of the botanist Valerius Cordus (1515—1544) at Wittenberg, with whom he travelled in Germany. On his return to France he was taken under the patronage of Cardinal de Tournon, who furnished him with means for undertaking an extensive scientific journey. Starting in 1546, be travelled through Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, Arabia and Palestine, and returned in 1549. A full account of his (ravels, with illustrations, was published in 1553. Bclon, who was highly favoured both by Henry n. and by Charles IX., was assassinated at Paris one evening in April i .Hi, when coming through the Bois de Boulogne. Besides the narrative of his trawls he wrote several scientific works of considerable value, particularly the Sislain naturettedt; estranges #<>fij<Mtj(i55i), De aquatiKbus (1553), and L'Histoirede la nature its oyscaux (1553), which entitle him to be regarded as one of the first workers in the science of comparative anatomy.
HELPER, a market-town in the mid-parliamentary division of Derbyshire, England, on the river Derwent, 7 m. N.of Derby on the Midland railway. Pop. of urban district (1901), 10,934. The chapel of St John is said to have been founded by Edmund Crouchback, second son of Henry III., about the middle of the r3th century. There is an Anglican convent of the Sisters of St Lawrence, with orphanage and school. For a considerable period one of the most flourishing towns in the county, Belper owed its pror^crity to the establishment of cotton works in 1776 by Messrs Strutt, the title of Baron Belper (cr. 1856), in the Strutt family, being taken from the town. Belper also manufactures Hnrn, hosiery, silk and earthenware; and after the decline of nail-making, once an important industry, engineering works and iron foundries were opened. The Derwent provides water-power for the cotton-nulls. John of Gaunt is said to have bc«n a great benefactor to Belper, and the foundations of a massive building have been believed to mark the site of his residence. A chapel which he founded is incorporated with a modern tchoolhouse. The scenery in the neighbourhood of Belper, especially to the west, is beautiful; but there are collieries, lead-mines and quarries in the vicinity of the town.
Belper (Bcaurepaire) unto 1848 formed part of the parish of Dufneld, granted by William I. to Henry de Ferrers, earl of Derby. There is no distinct mention of Belper till 1296, when It - manor was held by Edmund Crouchback, carl of Lancaster, who 'n said to have enclosed a park and built a hunting seat, to whi.-h, from its situation, he gave the name Bcaurepaire. The manor thus became parcel of the duchy of Lancaster and Is said to have been the residence of John of Gaunt. It afterwards passed with Duffield to the Jodrell family. In a great storm in 1545, 40 houses were destroyed, and the place was scourged by the plague in 1609,
See C. \VitIott, Historical Rttoris of Belfer.
BELSHAM, THOMAS (1750-1829), English Unitarian minister, was born at Bedford on the jfith of April 1750. He was educated at the dissenting academy at Daventry, where for seven years he acted as assistant tutor. After three years spent in a charge at Worcester, he returned as head of the Daventry academy, a post which be continued to hold til 1789, when, having adopted
Unitarian principles, he resigned.' With Joseph"Prfestly for colleague, he superintended during its brief existence a new college at Hackney, and was, on Priestly's departure in 1794, also called to the charge of the Gravel Pit congregation. In 1805 he accepted a call to the Essex Street chapel, where in gradually failing health he remained till his death in 1829. Belsham's first work of importance, Review of Mr Wilbrrjorcc'f Treatise entitled Practical View (1798), was written after his conversion to Urdtarianism. His most popular work was the Evidences of Christianity; the most important was his translation and exposition of the Epistles of St Paul (1822). He was also the author of a work on philosophy, Elements of Ike Pkilasoflty of the Human Mind (i8or), which is entirely based on Hartley's psychology. Belsham is one of the most vigorous and able writers of his church, and the Quarterly Renew and Gentleman's Magazine of the early years of the igth century abound in evidences that his abilities were recognized by his opponents.
BELSHAZZAR (6th century B.C.), Babylonian general. Until the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, he was known only from the book of Daniel (v. 2,11,13,18) audits reproduction in Josephus, where he is'represented as the son of Nebuchadrezzar and the last king of Babylon. As his name did not appear in the list of the successors of Nebuchadrezzar handed down by the Greek writers, various suggestions were put forward as to his identity. Nicbuhr identified him with Evil-Merodach, Ewald with Nabonidos, others again with Neriglissor. The identification with Nabonidos, the last Babylonian king according to the native historian Berossus, goes back to Josephus. The decipherment of the cuneiform texts put an end to all such speculations. In 1854 Sir H. C. Rawlinson discovered the name of Bel-sarrauznr—" O Bel, defend the king "—in an inscription belonging to the first year of Nabonidos which had been discovered in the ruins of the temple of the Moon-god at Muqayyar or Ur. Here Nabonidos calls him his " first-born son," and prays that *' he may not give way to sin," but that "the fear of the great divinity " of the Moon-god may " dwell in his heart." In the contracts and similar documents there are frequent references to Belshaxzar, who is sometimes entitled simply " the son of the king."
He was never king himself, nor was he son of Nebuchadrezzar Indeed his father Nabonidos (Nabunaid), the son of Nabubaladsu-iqbi, was not related to the family of Nebuchadrezzar and owed his accession to the throne to a palace revolution. Bclshazzar, however, seems to have had more political and military energy than his father, whose tastes were antiquarian and religious; he took command of the army, living with it in the camp near Sippara, and whatever measures of defence were organized against the invasion of Cyrus appear to have been due to him. Hence Jewish tradition substituted him for his less-known father, and rightly concluded that his death marked the fall of the Babylonian monarchy. We learn from the Babylonian Chronicle that from the 7th year of Nabonidos (548 B.c.) onwards " the son of the king " was with the army in • AU:ad, that is in the close neighbourhood of Sippara. This, as Dr Th. G. Pinches has pointed out, doubtless accounts for the numerous gifts bestowed by him on the temple of the Sun-god at Sippara. So late as the 5thofAbinthei7th year of Nabonidos —that is to say, about three weeks after the forces of Cyrus bad entered Babylonia and only three months before his death— find him paying 47 shekels of silver to the temple on behalf' of his sister, this being the amount of " tithe " due from her at the time. At an earlier period there is frequent mention of his trading transactions which were carried out through his housesteward or agent. Thus in 545 B.c. he lent 20 manehs of silver to a private individual, a Persian by race, on the security of the property of the latter, and a year later his house-steward negotiated a loan of r6 shekels, taking as security the produce of a field of corn.
The legends of Bclshazzar's feast and of the siege and capture of Babylon by Cyrus which have come down to us from the book of Daniel and, the CyropaeJio of Xenophon have been shown by • the contemporaneous inscriptions to have been a projection backwards of the re-conquest of the city by Darius Hystaspis. The actual facts were very different. Cyrus had invaded Bab>Ionia from two directions,he himself marching towards the confluence of the Tigris and Diyaleh, while Gobryas, the satrap of Kurdistan, led another body of troops along the course of the Adhem. The portion of the Babylonian army to which the protection of the eastern frontier had been entrusted was defeated at Opis on the banks of the Nizallat, and the invaders poured across the Tigris into Babylonia. On the i4th of Tammuz (June), 538 B.c., Nabonidos fled from Sippara, where he had taken his son's place in the camp, and the city surrendered at once to the enemy. Meanwhile Gobryas bad been despatched to Babylon, which opened its gates to the invader on the lOih of the month " without combat or battle," and a few days later Nabonidos was dragged from his hiding-place and made aprisoncr. According to Berossus he was subsequently appointed governor of Karmania by his conqueror. Belshazzar, however, still held out, and it was probably on this account that Cyrus himself did not arrive at Babylon until nearly four months later, on the 3rd of Marchesvan. On the nth of that month Gobryas was despatched to put an end to the last semblance of resistance in the country " and the son (?) of the king died." In accardance with the conciliatory policy of Cyrus, a general mourning was proclaimed on account of his death, and this lasted for six days, from the ayth of Adar to the 3rd of Nisan. Unfortunately the character representing the word " son "is indistinct on the tablet which contains the annals of Nabonidos, so that the reading is not absolutely certain. The only other reading possible, however, is " and the king died," and this reading is excluded partly by the fact that Nabonidos afterwards became a Persian satrap, partly by the silence which would otherwise be maintained by the Annals " in regard to the fate of Belshazzar. Considering how important Bclshazzar was politically, and what a prominent place he occupied in the history of the period, such a silence would be hard to explain. His death subsequently to the surrender of Babylon and the capture of Nabonidos, and with it the last native effort to resist the invader, would account for the position he assumed in later tradition and the substitution of his name for that of the actual king.
See Th. G. Pinches. P.S.B.A.. May 1884: H. Winckler, Zeilsckrjftfur Assyriologie, ii. 2, 3 (1887): Records oj Ike Fait, new series, i. pp. 22-31 (1888); A. H. Sayce, The Hither Criticism, pp. 497-537 (1893). (A. H. S.)
BELT, THOMAS (1832-1878), English geologist and naturalist, was bom at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1832, and educated in that city. As a youth he became actively interested in natural history through the Tyncside Naturalists' Field Club. In 1852 he went to Australia and for about eight years worked at the gold-diggings, where he acquired a practical knowledge of oredeposits. In 1860 he proceeded to Nova Scotia to take charge of some gold-mines, and there met with a serious injury, which led to his return to England. In 1861 he issued a separate work entitled Mineral Veins: an Enquiry into their Origin, founded on a Study pflhc A uriferous Quart: Veins of A tatroJia. Later on he was engaged for about three years at Dolgelly, another though small gold-mining region, and here he carefully investigated the rocks and fossils of the Lingula Flags, his observations being published in an important and now classic memoir in the Geological Mapline for 1867. In the following year he was appointed to take charge of some mines in Nicaragua, where he passed four active and adventurous years—the results being given in his Naturalist in Nicaragua (1874), a work of high merit. In this volume the author expressed his views on the former presence of glaciers in that country. In subsequent papers he dealt boldly and suggestively with the phenomena of the Glacial period in Britain and in various parts of the world. After many further expeditions to Russia, Siberia and Colorado, he died at Denver on the 2ist of September 1878.
BELT (a word common to Teutonic languages, the Old Ger. form being bob, from which the L.u. baltsvs probably derived), a Sat strap of leather or other material used as a girdle (?.?.), especially the cinftura (fadu or sword-belt, the dud! " ornament
of investiture " of an earl or knight; in machinery, a flexible strap passing round from one drum, pulley or wheel to another, for the purpose of power-transmission!?.!'.). The word is applied to any broad stripe, to the belts of the planet Jupiter, to the armour-belt at the water-line of a warship, or to a tract of country, narrow in proportion to its length, with special distinguishing characteristics,'such as the earthquake-bell across a continent.
BELTANE, Butine, Beltine, or Hf Al-texe (Scottish Gaelic, bealltain), the Celtic name for May-day, on which also was held a festival called by the same name, originally common to all the Celtic peoples, of which traces still linger in Ireland, the Highlands of Scotland and Brittany. This festival, the moot important ceremony of which in later centuries was the lighting of the bonfires known as " beltane fires," a believed to represent the Druidical worship of the sun-god. The fuel was piled on » hill-top, and at the fire the beltane cake was cooked. This was divided into pieces corresponding to the number of those present, and one piece was blackened with charcoal. For these pieces lots were drawn, and he who had the misfortune to gel the blacV bit became caitleack bealtine (the beltane carlinc)—a term of great reproach. He was pelted with egg-sheUs, and afterwards for some weeks was spoken of as dead. In the north-east of Scotland beltane fires were still kindled in the latter half of the i8th century. There were many superstitions connecting them with the belief in witchcraft. According to Coimac. archbishop of Cashel about the year 908, who furnishes in his glossary the earliest notice of beltane, it was customary to light two firci close together, and between these both men and cattle were driven, under the belief that health was thereby promoted and disease warded off. (Sec Transactions of the Irish Academy, xiv. pp. ico, 122,123.) The Highlanders have a proverb, "he is between two beltane fires." The Strathspey Highlander* used to make a hoop of rowan wood through which on beltane day they drove the sheep and lambs both at dawn and sunset.
As to the derivation of the word beltane there is considerable obscurity. Following Cormac, it has been usual to regard it as representing a combination of the name of the god Bel or Baal or Bil with the Celtic teine, fire. And on this etymology theories have been erected of the connexion of the Semitic Baal with Celtic mythology, and the identification of the beltane fires with the worship of this deity. This etymology is now repudiated by scientific philologists, and the New English Dictionary accepts Dr Whitlcy Stokcs's new that beltane in its Gaelic form can have no connexion with trine, fire. Beltane, as the 1st of May, was in ancient Scotland one of the four quarter da vs. the others being Hallowmas, Candlemas, and Lammas.
For a full description of the beltane celebration in the Highlands of Scotland during the I8th century, see John Ramsay. Scotland and Scotsmen in the iStfi Century, from MSS. edited by A. AlUrdyrc (1888): and see further j. Robertson in Sinclair's Statistical Aufmmt of Scotland, xi. 620; Thomas Pennant, Tour in Scotland (1769-1770); W. GreKor, " Notes on Beltane Calces," Folklore, vi. (189!), p. J; and " Notes on the Folklore of the North-East of Scotland, p. 187 (Folklore Soc.m. 1881): A. Bcrtrand. La Relitio* desCaulois (1897); Jamieson, Scottish Dictionary (1808). Cormac's Glossary has been edited by O'Donovan and Stokes (i«O2).
BELUGA (Delphinaflena kucas), aiso called the "white whale," a cetacean of the family Delpkinidae, characterized by its rounded head and uniformly light colour. A native of t he Arctic seas, it extends in the western Atlantic as far south as the river St Lawrence, which it ascends for a considerable distance. In colour it is almost pure white; the maximum length is about twelve feet; and the back-fin is replaced by a low ridge. Examples have been taken on the British coaats; and individuals have been kept for some time in captivity in America and in London. See Cetacea.
BELVEDERE, or Belmdeke (Ital. (or "fair-view"), an architectural structure built in the upper part of a building or in any elevated position so as to command a fine view. The belvedere assumes various forms, such as an angle turret, a cupola, a loggia or open gallery. The name is also applied to the whole building, as the Belvedere gallery in the Vatican at Rome. Fee Apollo Belvidero Kc Gxcxc A»i, Plate H. fig. is.