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?oth of September iSSo. He raade his way back to Herat, where he remained for some time unmolested. In the summer of 1881 he again invaded Afghanistan, and on the anniversary of the battle of Maiwand obtained a signal victory over Abdur Rahman's lieutenants, mainly through the defection of a Durani regiment. Kandahar fell into his hands, but Abdur Rahman now took the field in person, totally defeated Ayub, and expelled him from Herat. He took refuge in Persia, and for some time lived quietly in receipt of an allowance from the Persian government. In 1887 internal troubles in Afghanistan tempted him to make another endeavour to seize the throne. Defeated and driven into exile, he wandered for some time about Persia, and in November gave himself up to the British agent at Meshed. He was sent to India to live as a state prisoner.
AYUNTAMIENTO. the Spanish name for the district over which a town council has administrative authority; it is used also for a town council, and for the town-hall. The word is derived from the Latin adjungtre, and originally meant " meeting." In some parts of Spain and in Spanish America the town council was called the cabiUo or chapter, from the Latin capilulum. The ayuntamicnto consisted of the official members, and of regidores or regulators, who were chosen in varying proportions from the " hidalgos " or nobles (kijta de algo, sons of somebody) and the "pechcros," ot commoners, who paid the pecho, or personal tax; pecho (Lat. palus) is in Spanish the breast, and then by extension the person. The regidores of .the ayuntamientos, or lay cabildos, were checked by the royal judge or corregidor, who was in fact the permanent chairman or president. The distinction between hidalgo and pechero has been abolished in modern Spain, but the powers and the constitution of ayuntamientos have been subject to many modifications.
AYUTHI A, a city of Siam. now known to the Siamese as Kritng Kao at " the Old Capital,", situated in ico° 32' E., 14° 21' N. Pop. about 10,000. The river Me Nam, broken up into a network of creeks, here surrounds a large island upon which stand the ruins of the famous city which was for more than four centuries the capital of Siam. The bulk of the inhabitants live in the floating houses characteristic of lower Siam, using as thoroughfares the creeks to the edges of which the houses are moored. The ruins of the old city are of great archaeological interest, as arc the relics, of which a large collection is housed in the local museum. Outside the town is an ancient masonry enclosure for the capture of elephants, which is still periodically used. Ayuthia is on the northern main line of the slate railways, 42m. from Bangkok. Great quantities of paddi are annually sent by river and rail to Bangkok, in return for which cloth and other goods are imported to supply the wants of the agriculturist peasantry. There is no other trade. Ayuthia is the chief town of one of the richest agricultural provincial divisions of Siam and is the headquarters of a high commissioner. The government offices occupy spacious buildings, once a royal summer retreat; the government is that of an ordinary provincial division (Unto*).
Historically Ayuthia is the most interesting spot in Siam. Among the innumerable ruins may be seen those of palaces, pagodas, churches and fortifications, the departed glories of which are recorded in the writings of the early European travellers who first brought Siam within the knowledge of the West, and laid the foundations of the present foreign intercourse and trade. The town was twice destroyed by the Burmese, once in 1555 and again in 1767, and from the date of the second destruction it ceased to be the capital of the country.
AZAfS, PIERRE HYACINTHS (1766-1845), French philosopher, was bom at Sorcze and died at Paris. He spent his early years as a teacher and a village organist. At the outbreak of the Revolution he viewed it with favour, but was soon disgusted at the violence of its methods. A critical pamphlet drew upon him -the hatred of the revolutionists, and it was not until iSo6 that he was able to settle in Paris. In 1800 he published his great work, Dcs Compensations dans Ics destinies htmainti (sth ed. 1846), which pleased Napoleon so much that be made its author professor at St Cyr. In 1811 he became
inspector of the public library at Avignon, and from 1811 to 1815 he held the same position at Nancy. The Restoration government at first suspected him as a Bonapartist, but at length granted him a pension. From that time he occupied himself in lecturing and the publication of philosophical works. In the Compensations he sought to prove that, on the whole, happiness and misery are equally balanced, and therefore that men should accept the government which is given them rather than risk the horrors of revolution. "Lc principcdel'incgalile naturcllc-ct c&scnticllc dans les destinies humaincs conduit incvitablemcnt au fanali&me rcvolutionnairc ou au [anatisme religicux." The principles of compensation and equilibrium are found also in the physical universe, the product of matter and force, whose cauae is God. Force, naturally expansive and operating on the homogeneous atoms which constitute elemental matter, is subject to the law of equilibrium, or equivalence of action and reaction. The development of phenomena under this law may be divided into three stages—the physical, the physiologic.il, the intellectual and moral. The immaterial in man is the expansive force inherent in him. Moral and political phenomena arc the result of the opposing forces of progress and preservation, and their perfection lies in the fulfilment of the law of equilibrium or universal harmony. This may be achieved in seven thousand years, when man will vanish from the world. In an additional five thousand, a similar equilibrium will obtain in the physical sphere, which will then itself pass away. In addition to his philosophical work, Azals studied music under his father, Pierre Hyacinlhc Azais (1743-1796), professor of music at Sorczc and Toulouse, and composer of sacred music in the style of Cosscc. He wrote for the Reive musuate a series of articles entitled Acoustiquc fortdamcnlale (1831), containing an ingenious, but now exploded, theory of the vibration of the air. His other works arc: Systcme unmrsel (8 vols., 1813); Du Sort de fhomme (3 vols., 1820); Court dt phihsvpliie (8 vols., 1834), reproduced as Explication unmnelle (3vols., 1826-1828); JeuHcsse, multifile, religion, philosophic (1837), Dt la fkrltiolttie, du magnUisme, ct de la jolie (1843).
AZALEA, a genus of popular hardy or greenhouse plants, belonging to the heath order (Ericaceae), and scarcely separable botanicaUy from -Rltododcndron. The beautiful varieties now in cultivation have been bred from a few originals, natives of the hilly regions of China and Japan, Asia Minor, and the United States. They arc perhaps unequalled as indoor decorative plants. They arc usually increased by grafting the half-ripened shoots on the stronger-growing kinds, the shoots of the stock and the grafts being in a similarly half-ripened condition, and the plants being pbced in a moist heat of 65°. Large plants of inferior kinds, if healthy, may be grafted all over with the choicer sorts, so as to obtain a large specimen in a short time. They require a rich and fibrous peat soil, with a mixture of sand to prevent its getting water-logged. The best time to pot azaleas is three or four weeks after the blooming is over. The soil should be made quite solid to prevent its retaining too much water. To produce handsome plants, they must while young be stopped as required. Specimens that have got leggy may be cut back just before growth commences. The lowest temperature for them during the winter is about 35°, and during their season of growth from 55° to 65° at night, and 75° by day, the atmosphere being at the same time well charged with moisture. They are liable to the attacks of thrips and red spider, which do great mischief if not promptly destroyed.
The following are some well-known species:—A. arbffresrnt (Pennsylvania), a deciduous shrub 10-20 ft, high; A.cattitdulcKea (Carolina to Pennsylvania), a beautiful deciduous shrub j-6 ft. high, with yellow, red, orange and copper-coloured Hovers; A. hispida, a North American shrub, 10-15 ft. high, dowers white edged with red; A. indict (China), the so-called Indian azalea, a shrub 3-6 ft. or more high, the original of numerous single and double varieties, many of the more vigorous of which are hardy in southern England and Ireland; A. nudijtora, a North American shrub, 3-4 ft. high, which hybridizes freely with A. (ojendulaua, A. fmlifn and others, to produce single and double forms o[ a great variety of shades) A. ptmlica (Levant, Caucasus, &c.), 4-6 ft. high, with numerous varieties differing ift the colour of the dowers and the tint of the leaves; A. sintnsis (China and Japan), a beautiful shrub, 3-4 ft. high, with orangered or yellow bell-shaped flowers, hardy in the southern half of England, large numbers of varieties being in cultivation under the name of Japanese azaleas.
AZAHOARH, or Azuicau, a city and district of British India, in the Gorakhpur division of the United Provinces. The town is situated on the river Tons, and has a railway station. It is said to have been founded about 1665 by a powerful landholder named Azira Khan, who owned large estates in this part of the country. Pop. (1901) 18,835.
The area of the district is 1207 sq. m. It is bounded on the !*. by the river Gogra, separating it from Gorakhpur district; on the E. by Ghazipur district and the river Ganges; on the S. by the districts of Jaunpur and Ghazipur; and on the W. by Jannpur and Fyzabad. The portion of the district lying along the banks of the Gogra is a low-lying tract, varying considerably in width; south of this, however, the ground takes a slight rise. The slope of the land is from north-west to south-cast, but the general drainage is very inadequate. Roughly speaking, the district consists of a series of parallel ridges, whose summits are depressed into beds or hollows, along which the rivers flow; while between the ridges are low-lying rice lands, interspersed with numerous natural reservoirs. The soil is fertile, and very highly cultivated, bearing magnificent crops of rice, sugar-cane and indigo. There are several indigo factories. A 'branch of the Bengal & North-Western railway to Azamgarh town was opened in 1808. In 1001 the population was 1,539,785, showing a decrease of 11 % in the decade. The district was ceded to the Company in 1801 by the wazirs of Lucknow. In 1857 it became a centre of mutiny. On the 3rd of June 1857 the i?th Regiment of Native Infantry mutinied at Azamgarh, murdered some of theirofficers, and carried off the government treasure to Fyzabad. The district became a centre of the fighting between the Gurkhas ind the rebels, and was not finally cleared until October 1858 by ColonH Kelly.
AZAN (Arabic for " announcement "), the call or summons to public prayers proclaimed by the Muezzin (crier) from the mosque twice daily in all Mabommedan countries. In small mosques the Muezzin at Azan stands at the door or at the side of the building; in large ones he takes up his position in the minaret. The call translated runs: "God is most great!" (four times), "I testify there is no God but God!" (twice), "I testify that Mahomet is the apostle of God!" (twice)," Come to praycrl" (twice), "Come to salvation!" (twice), "God is most greatl" (twice), "There is no God but God!" To the morning Azin are added the words, "Prayer is better lhan deep!" (twice). The devout Moslem has to make a set response to each phrase of the Muezzin. At first these are mere repetitions of AzSn, but to the cry "Come to prayer!" the listener must answer, " I have no power nor strength but from God the most High and Great." To that of "Come to salvation!" the formal response !s, " What God willcth will be: what He willeth not •fll not be." The recital of the AzJn must be listened to with tbe utmost reverence. The passers in the streets must stand itill, all those at work must cease from their labours, and those in bed must sit up.
The Muezzin, who is a paid servant of the mosque, must stand with his face towards Mecca and with the points of his forefingers in his ears while reciting Az5n. He is specially chosen for good character, and Aiin must not be recited by any one unclean, by a drunkard, by the insane, or by a woman. The summons to prayers was at first simply " Come to prayerl" Mahomet, aniious to invest the call with the dignity of a ceremony, took counsel of his followers. Some suggested the Jewish trumpet, others the Christian bell, but according to legend the matter wu finally settled by a dream:—" While the matter was under docnuion, Abdallah, a Khazrajite, dreamed that he met a man tlad in green raiment, carrying a bell. AbdaJlah sought to buy it, that it would do well for bringing together the assembly
of the faithful. 'I will show thee a better way,' replied the stranger;' let a crier cry aloud " God is most great, &c."' -On awaking, Abdallah went to Mahomet and told him his dream," and Azan was thereupon instituted.
AZARA. DON JOSE NICHOLAS DE (1731-1804), Spanish diplomatist, was bom in 1731 at Barbunales, Aragon, and was appointed in 1765 Spanish agent and procurator-general, and in 1785 ambassador at Rome. During his long residence there he distinguished himself as a collector of Italian antiquities and as a patron of art. He was also an able and active diplomatist, took a leading share in the difficult and hazardous task of the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain, and was instrumental in securing the election of Pius VI. He withdrew to Florence when the French took possession of Rome in 1708, but acted on behalf of the pope during his exile and after his death at Valence in 1709. He was afterwards Spanish ambassador in Paris. In that post it was his misfortune to be forced by his government to conduct the negotiations which led to the treaty of San Ildefonso, by which Spain was wholly subjected to Napoleon. Azara was friendly to a French alliance, but his experience showed him that his country was being sacrificed to Napoleon. The First Consul liked him personally, and found him easy to influence. Azara died, worn out, in Paris in 1804. His end was undoubtedly embittered by his discovery of the ills which the French alliance must produce for Spain.
Several sympathetic notices of Azara will be found in Thiers, Consulal ft Em/tire. Sec also Reinado de Carlos IV, by Gen. J. Gomez dc Artcchc, in the Mistorio General de Espailo, published by the R. Acad. de la Historia, Madrid. 1892, &c. There is a Kolia historique sur le Chevalier d'Arara by Bourgoing (1804).
His younger brother, Don Feux De Azara (1746-1811), spent twenty years in South America as a commissioner for delimiting the boundary between the Spanish and Portuguese territories. He made many observations on the natural history of the country, which, together with an account of the discovery and history of Paraguay and Rio de la Plata, were incorporated in his principal work, Voyage dans I'Amtriquc meridionale depais 1781 jiisqu'cn 1801, published at Paris in 1809 in French from his MS. by C. A. Walckenaer.
AZARIAH, the name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament, (i) One of Solomon's " princes," son of Zadok the priest (i Kings iv. 2), was one of several Azariahs among the descendants of Levi (i Chron. vi. 9,10,13,36; 2 Chron. x.ivi. 17). (2) The son of Nathan, a high official under King Solomon (i Kings iv. 5). (3) King of Judah, son of Amaziah by his wife jecholiah (j Kings xv. i, 2), also called Uzziah (2 Chron. xxvi. i).
(4) Son of Ethan and great-grandson of Judah (i Chron. ii. 8).
(5) Son of Jehu, of the posterity of Judah (i Chron. ii. 38). (6) A prophet in the reign of Asa, king of Judah (2 Chron. xv. r). (7) Two sons of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah (2 Chron. xxi. 2). (B) King of Judah, also called Ahaziab and Jehoahaz, son of Jchoram (2 Chron. xxi. 17; xxii. i, 6). (9) The son of Jeroham, and (10) the son of Obed, were made " captains of hundreds" by Jehoiada the priest (2 Chron. xxiii. i). (ii) Son of Hilkiah and grandfather of Ezra the Scribe (Ezra vii. i; Neh. vii. 7, viii. 7, x. j). (12) Son of M.i.i i i.ih. one of those who under the commission of Artaxerxes restored the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. iii. 23). (13) Son of Hoshaiah, an opponent of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. xliii. 2). (14) One of the companions in captivity of the prophet Daniel, called Abednego by Nebuchadrezzar, by whom with two companions he was cast into a " burning fiery furnace" for refusing to worship the golden image set up by that monarch (Dan. i. 6, iii. 8-30).
AZAY-LE-RIDEAU, a town of western France, in the department of Indre-et-Loire, on the Indre, 16 im S.W. of Tours by rail. Pop. (1006) 1453. The town has a fine Renaissance chateau, well restored in modern times, with good collections of furniture and pictures.
AZEGLIO, MASSIMO TAPARELLI, Marquis D' (1798-1866), Italian statesman and author, was bom at Turin in October 1798, descended from an ancient and noble Piedmontese famfly. His father, Cesare d'Azeglio, was an officer in the Piedmontese army and held a high position at court; on the return of Pope Plus VII. to Rome after the fall of Napoleon, Cesare d'Azeglio was sent as special envoy to the Vatican, and he took his son, then sixteen years of age, with him as an extra attache. Young Massimo was given a commission in a cavalry regiment, which he soon relinquished on account of his health. During his residence in Rome he had acquired a love for art and music, and he now determined to become a painter, to the horror of his family* who belonged to the stiff and narrow Picdmontesc aristocracy. His father reluctantly consented, and Massimo settled in Rome, devoting himself to art. He led an abstemious life, maintaining himself by his painting for several years. But he was constantly meditating on Ihe political state of Italy. In 1830 he returned to Turin, and after his father's death in 1831 removed to Milan. There he remained for twelve years, moving in the literary and artistic circles of the city. He became the intimate of Alessandro Marutoni the novelist, whose daughter he married; thenceforth literature became bjs chief occupation instead of art, and he produced two historical novels, Niccolo dei Lapi and Etlore Fieramosca, in imitation of Manzoni, and with pronounced political tendencies, his object being to point out the evils of foreign domination in Italy and to reawaken national feeling. In 1845 he visited Romagna as an unauthorized political envoy, to report on its conditions and the troubles which he foresaw would break out on the death of Pope Gregory XVI. The following year he published his famous pamphlet Degli ullimi casi di Romagna at Florence, in consequence of which he was expelled from Tuscany. He spent the next few months in Rome, sharing the general enthusiasm over the supposed liberalism of the'now pope, Pius IX-.; like V. Giobcrli and Balbo he believed in an Italian confederation under papal auspices, and was opposed to the Radical wing of the Liberal party. His political activity increased, and he wrote various other pamphlets, among which was / lutti di Lombardia (1848).
On the outbreak of the first war of independence, d'Azcglio donned the papal uniform and took part under General Durando in the defence of Vicenza, where he was severely wounded. He retired to Florence to recover, but as he opposed the democrats who ruled in Tuscany, he was expelled from that country for the second time. He was now a famous man, and early in 1849 Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, invited him to form a cabinet. But realizing how impossible it was to renew the campaign, and "not having the heart to sign, in such wretched internal and external conditions, a treaty of peace with Austria" (Correspondence politiqtte, by E. Rcndu), he refused. After the defeat of Novara(33rd of March 1849),Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by Victor Emmanuel II. D'Azeglio was again called on to form a cabinet, and this time, although the situation was even more difficult, he accepted, concluded a treaty of peace, dissolved the Chamber, and summoned a new one to ratify it The treaty was accepted, and d'Azcglio continued in office for the next three years. While all the rest of Italy was a prey to despotism, in Piedmont the king maintained the constitution intact in the face of the general wave of reaction. D'Azcglio conducted the affairs of the country with tact and ability, improving its diplomatic relations, and opposing the claims of the Roman Curia. He invited Count Cavour, then a rising young politician, to enter the ministry in 1850. Cavour and Farini, also a member of the cabinet, made certam declarations in the Chamber (May 1852) which led the ministry in the direction of an alliance with Rattazzi and the Left. Of this d'Azeglio disapproved, and therefore resigned office, but on the king's request be formed a new ministry, excluding both Cavour and Farini. In October, however, owing to ill-health and dissatisfaction with some of his colleagues, as well as for other reasons not quite clear, he resigned once more and retired into private life, suggesting Cavour to the king as his successor.
For the next four years he lived modestly at Turin, devoting himself once more to art, although he also continued to take an active interest In politics, Cavour always consulting him on matters of moment. In 1855 he was appointed director of the Turin art gallery. In 1859 he was given various political missions, including one to Paris and London to prepare the basis for a
general congress of the powers on the Italian question. When war between Piedmont and Austria appeared inevitable he returned to Italy, and was sent as royal commissioner by Cavour to Romagna, whence the papal troops had been expelled. After the peace of Villafranca, d'Azcglio was recalled with orders to withdraw the Picdmontcse garrisons; but he saw the danger o( allowing the papal troops to reoccupy Che province, and after a severe inner struggle left Bologna without the troops, and interviewed the king. The latter approved of his action, and said that his orders had not been accurately expressed; thus Romagna was saved. That same year he published a pamphlet in French entitled De la Politiquc et du d» it chrttitn au ;.-•.•; de vue At la question iloliennc, with the object of inducing Napoleon III. to continue his pro-Italian policy. Early in 1860 Cavour appointed him governor of Milan, evacuated by the Austrian* after the battle of Magenta, a position which he held with great ability. But, disapproving of the government's policy with regard to Garibaldi's Sicilian expedition and the occupation by Piedmont of the kingdom of Naples as inopportune, he resigned office.
The death of his two brothers in 186* and of Cavour in 1861 caused Massimo great grief, and he subsequently led a comparatively retired life. But he took part in politics, botb as & deputy and a writer, his two chief subjects of interest being the Roman question and the relations of Piedmont (now Uk kingdom of Italy) with Mazzini and the other revolutionists. In his opinion Italy must be unified by means of the FrancoPiedmontese army alone, all connexion with the conspirators being eschewed, while the pope should enjoy nominal sovereignty over Rome, with full spiritual independence, the capital of Italy being established cUewherc, but the Romans being Italian citizens (see his letters to E. Rendu and his pamphlet Le questions urgent}). He strongly disapproved of the convention of 1864 between the Italian government and the pope. The last few years ofd'Azeglio'slifewerespentchicfiyathis villa of Canncro, where he set to work to write his own memoirs. He died of fever on the ijth of January 1866.
Massimo d'Azeglio was a very attractive personality, as well as an absolutely honest patriot, and a characteristic example of the best type of Picdmontcse aristocrat. He was cautions and conservative; in his general ideas on the liberation of Italy he was wrong, and to some extent he was an amateur hi politics, but of his sincerity there is no doubt. As an author his political writings arc trenchant and clear, but his novels are somewhat heavy and old-fashioned, and arc interesting only if one reads the political allusions between the lines.
Besides a variety of newspn pcf articles and pamphlets. d'AzecUo's chief works are the two novels Ettore FirramwrtiOSJjJand Nttcclo dei Laf>i( 1841). and a volume of autobiographical memoirs entitled I Miet Ricordi, a most charming work published after his death, in 1866, but unfortunately incomplete. See in addition to the Ruordi, L. Carpi's Jl Riwrfitnrtttr) li,iIiann,v(A,i.p\i. 288sq. and the Souvenir i hitfortqvrs of Constance d'Azeglio. Massimo's niece (Turin, 1884). (L, V.*}
AZERBAIJAN (also spelt Adebbijan; the Awbddegdn of medieval wrilcrs,thc/4/Ar opa ta kanandAlrvfKitcrteoilhe&ndcnls), the north-western and most important province of Persia. It is separated from Russian territory on the N. by the river Ar • . (Araxes), while it has the Caspian Sea, Gilan and Khamseh (Zcnjan) on the £., Kurdistan on the S.( and Asiatic Turkey on the W. Its area is estimated at 32,000 sq. m.; its population at i J to 2 millions, comprising various races, as Persians proper, Turks, Kurds, Syrians, Armenians, &c. The country is superior in fertility to most provinces of Persia, and consists of 4 regular succession of undulating eminences, partially cultivated and opening into extensive plains. Near the centre of the province the mountains of Sahand rise in an accumulated mass to the height cf 12,000 ft. above the soa. The highest mountain of the province is in its eastern part, Mount Savclan. with an elevation of 15,797 ft., and the Talish Mountains, which run from north to south, parallel to and at no great distance from the Caspian, have an altitude of ooooft.. The principal rivers arc the Arasand Kizil Uzain, both receiving numerous tributaries and flowing into the Caspian, and the Jaghatu, Tatava, Murdi, Aji Jik! others, which drain into the Urmia lake. The country lathe west of the lake, wrth the districts of Selmas and Urmia, b the most prosperous part of Azerbaijan, yet even here the intelligent traveller laments the want of enterprise among the inhabitants. Azerbaijan it one of the most productive provinces of Persia. The orchards and gardens in which many villages arc embosomed yield delicious fruits of almost every description, and great quantities, dried, are exported, principally to Russia. Provisions arc cheap and abundant, but there is a lack of forests and timber trees. Lead, copper, sulphur, orpimcnt, abo lignite, have been found within the confines of the province; also a kind of beautiful, variegated, translucent marble, which lakes a high polish, is used in the construction of palatial buildings, tanks, baths, &c.,and is known as Maragha, or Tabriz marble. The climate is healthy, not hot in summer, and cold in winter. The cold sometimes is severely (clt by the poor classes owing to want of proper fuel, for which a great part of the population has no substitute except dried cowdung. Snow lies on the mountains for about right months in the year, and water is everywhere abundant. The best soils when abundantly irrigated yield from 50- to 6o-fold, and the water for thif purpose is supplied by the innumerable streams which intersect the province. The natives of Azerbaijan makeexcellcnt soldiers, and about a third of the Persian army is composed of them. The province is divided into a number of administrative sub-provinces or districts, each with a kdkim, governor or sub governor, under the governor-general, who under the Kajir dynasty has always been the heir-apparent to the throne of Persia, assisted by a responsible minister appointed by the shah. The administrative divisions are as follows:—Tabriz and environs; Uskuh; Deh-Kharegan; Maragha; Miandoab; SiOjbulagh; Sulduz; Urmia; Selmas; Khoi; Maku; Gerger; Merend; Karadagh; Arvanek; Taltsh; Ardebil; M ish k i n; Khalkhil; Hashlrud; Carmrud; Afshar; Sain Kalch; Ujan; Sarab. The revenue amounts to about £700,000 per annum in cash and kind, and nearly all of it is expended in the province (or the maintenance of the court of the heir-apparent, the salaries a ad pay to government officials, troops, pensions, &c. (A.H.-S.)
AZIMUTH (from the Arabic), in astronomy, the angular distance from the north or south point of the horizon to the foot of the vertical circle through a heavenly body. In the case of a horizontal line the azimuth is its deviation from ihc north or south direction.
AZO (c. 1150-1230), Italian jurist. This Azo, whose name is tomctimes written Azzo and Axiolcnus, and who is occasionally described as Azo SoUlanus, from the surname of his father, is to be distinguished from two other famous. Italians of the same name, viz. Azo Lambcrlaccius, a canonist of the ijth century, profnsoT of canon law at the university of Bologna, author of Qufttianct in jut canonifum, and Azo dc Ramenghis, a canonist of the 14'h century, also a professor of cinon law at Bologna, and author of fttprtitienet suptr libra Dctrctorum. Few particulars ate known as to the life of Axo, further than that he was born •t Bologna about the middle of the i:ili century, and was a pupil of Joannes Bassunus, and afterwards became professor ol dvii law in the university of his native town. He also took an active part in municipal life, Bologna, with the other Lombard republics, having gained its municipal independence. Awi occupied a very important position amongst the glossalors, and hi* Reading on tit? Codf, which were collected by his pupil, Alrssandro de Santo Aegidio, and completed by the additions of Hugolinus and Odofrcdus, form a methodical exposition of Roman law, and were of such weight before the tribunals that it used to be said, " Chi non ha Azzo, non vada a palazzo." Azo gained a great reputation as a professor, and numbered amongst his pupil* Accursius and Jacobus Balduinus. He died about 1230.
AZO COMPOUNDS, organic substances of the type R-N:N-R' (where R ~ an ary! radical and R' — a substituted alkyl, or aryl radical). They may be prepared by Lh« reduction of nitro compounds in alkaline solution (using zinc dust and alkali, or a solution of an alkaline stannite as a reducing agent); by oxidation of hydrazo compounds; or by the coupling of a diazotized anlne and any compound of a phenolic or aminic type, provided
that there is a free para position in the amine or phenol. They may also be obtained by the molecular rearrangement of the diazoamines, when these are warmed with the parent base and its hydrochloride. This latter method of formation has been studied by H. Goldschmidt and R. U. Reinders (Btr.t 1896, 29. P> 1369), who found that the reaction U mono molecular, and that the velocity constant of the reaction is proportional to the amount of the hydrochloride of the base present and also to the temperature, but is independent of the concentration of the diazoamine. The azo compounds are intensely coloured, but arc not capable of being used as dyestufts unless they contain salt-forming, acid or basic groups (sec Dyeing). By oxidizing agents they are converted into azoxy compounds, and by reducing agents into hydrazo compounds or amines.
Azo-bcmctut <"JI-N:Nr(lHt, discovered by £. Mitschcrlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite. It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
Amino-azo Compounds may be prepared as shown above. They are usually yellowish brown or red In colour, the presence of more amino groups leading to browner shades, whilst the introduction of alkylatcd amino groups gives redder shades. They usually crystallize well and arc readily reduced. When heated with aniline and aniline hydrochloride they yield indulines(?.».). Amino-azo-bcruenc, C»Hj-NrC«H4NHi, crystallizes in yellow plates or needles and melts at 126° C. Its constitution is determined by the facts that it may be prepared by reducing nitro-azo-benzcne by ammonium sulphide and that by reduction with stannous chloride it yields aniline. and meta-phcnylenc diamine. Diamino-azo-bcnzene (clirysoidinc), CJK-Nj tUlt(>JII,»:, first prepared by 0. Witt (Ber,, 1877, 10. p. 656), is obtained by coupling phenyl diazonium chloride with mcta-phcnylene diamine. It crystallizes in red oclahcdra and dyes silk and wool yellow. Triamino-azo-benzene (meta-aminobenzcne-azo-mcta-phcnylcnc diamine or Bismarck brown, phcnylcne brown, vesuvinc, Manchester brown), NHyC»HvNj C*Hj(NHi)i, is prepared by the action of nitrous acid on meta-phenylene diamine. It forms brown crystals which are readily soluble in hot water, and it dyes mordanted cotton a dark brown. On the composition of the commercial Bismarck brown see E. Taubcr and F. Walder (Ber., 1897, 30, pp. 2111, 2899; 1900,33,p. 2116). Alkylatcd amino-azo-bcnzenes are also known, and arc formed by the coupling of diazonium salts with alkylatcd amines, provided they contain a free para position with respect to the amino group. In these cases it has been shown by H. Goldschmidt and A. Merz (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 670) that the velocity of formation of the amino-azo compound depends only on the nature of the reagents and not on the concentration, and that in coupling the hydrochloridc of a tertiary amine with diazobenzcne sulphonic acid the reaction takes place between the acid and the base set free by the hydrolytic dissociation of its salt, for the formation of the amino-azo compound, when carried out in the presence of different acids, takes place most rapidly with the weakest acid (H. GoKlschmidt and F. Buss, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 2075).
Methyl orange (helianthin, gold orange, Mandarin orange), (CH,),N-C,H4-N.-C.H«SO>Na, is the sodium salt of paradimcthylaminobcnzcnc-azo-beiuene sulphonic acid. It is an orange crystalline powder which is soluble in water, forming a yellow solution. The free acid is intensely red in colour. Methyl orange is used largely as'an indicator. The constitution of methyl orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid and para-aminodimcthyl aniline.
Oxyazo Compounds.—The oxyazo compounds are prepared by adding a solution of a diazonium salt to a cold slightly alkaline solution of a phenol. The diazo group ukes up the para positiun with regard to the hydroxyl group, and if this be prevented it then goes into the ortho position. It never goes directly into the meta position.
The constitution of the oxyazo compounds has attracted much attention, some chemists holding that they are true azophenols of the type R-Nj-RrOH, while others look upon them as having a quinonoid structure, i.e. as being quinone hydrazones, type KA'II N K, t :• The first to attack the purely chemical side were Th. Zincke (Ber., 1883,16, p. 1919; 1884, 17, p. 3016; 1887, jo, p. 3171) and R. Meldola (Jour. Ckem. Soc.. 1889, 55, pp. "4, 603). Th. Zincke found that the products obtained by coupling a diazonium salt with a-naphthol, and by condensing phenylhydrazine with a-naphthoquinone, were identical; whilst Meldola acetylated the azophcnols, and split the acetyl products by reduction in acid solution, but obtained no satisfactory results. K. Auwers (Zeit.J. pkys. Chtm., 1806, »i, p. 355; Bit., xooo, 33, p. t3O2)examincd the question frorathc physico-chemical standpoint by determining the freezing-point depressions, the result being that the para-oxyazo compounds give abnormal depressions and the ortho-oxyazo compounds give normal depressions; Auwers then concluded that the para compounds are phenolic and the ortho compounds are quinone hydrazones or act as such. A. Hantzsch (Btr., 1899, 32, pp. 590, 3089) considers that the oxyazo compounds arc to be classed as pseudoacids, possessing in the free condition the configuration of quinone hydrazones, their salts, however, being of the normal phenolic type. J. T. Hewitt (Jour. Ckcm. Soc., 1900, 77, pp. 99 et seq.) nitrated para-oxyazobenzene with dilute nitric acid and found that it gave a benzenc-azo-ortho-nitrophcnol, whereas quinones are not attacked by dilute nitric acid. Hewitt has also attacked the problem by brominating the oxyazobenzenes, and has shown that when the hydrobromic acid produced in the reaction is allowed to remain in the system, a brombenzcne-azo-phenol is formed, whilst if it be removed (by the addition of sodium acetate) bromination takes place in the phenolic nucleus; consequently the presence of the mineral acid gives the azo compound a pseudo-quinonoid character, which it does not possess if the mineral acid be removed from the sphere of the reaction.
Para-oxyazobenzene (benzene-azo-phcnol), CiHiN: N(l)-CtHiOH(.f), is prepared by coupling diazotized aniline with phenol in alkaline solution. It is an orange-red crystalline compound whichmeltsatiS4°C. Ortho-oxyazobenzenc, C,HSN: N(i)CiHr OH(2), was obtained in small quantity by £. Bambcrger (Ber., 1000, 33, p. 3189) simultaneously with the para compound, from which it may be separated by distillation in a current of steam, the ortho compound passing over with the steam. It crystallizes in orange-red needles which melt at 82-5-83° C. On reduction with zinc dust in dilute salammoniac solution, it yields ortho-aminophenol and aniline. Meta-oxyazobenzcne, C.HiN: N(i)C,H,-OH(3), was obtained in 1903 by P. Jacobson (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 4093) by condensing ortho-anisidine with diazo benzene, the resulting compound being then diazotized and reduced by alcohol to benzcne-azometa-anisole, from which mcta-oxyazobcnzenc was obtained by hydrolysis with aluminium chloride. It melts at 112-114° C. and is easily reduced to the corresponding hydrazo compound.
Diaw-Amines.—The diazo-amines, R-N : N-NHRi, are obtained by the action of primary amines on diazonium salts; by the action of nitrous acid on a free primary amine, an isodiazohydroxide being formed as an intermediate product which then condenses with the amine; and by the action of nitrosamines on primary amines. They are crystalline solids, usually of a yellow colour, which do not unite with acids; they arc readily converted into amino-azo compounds (see above) and are decomposed by the concentrated halogen acids, yielding haloid benzenes, nitrogen and an amine. Acid anhydrides replace the imino-hydrogen atom by acidyl radicals, and boiling with water converts them into phenols. They combine with phcnyl isocyanate to form urea derivatives (H. Goldschmidt, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2578), and on reduction with zinc dust (preferably in alcoholic acetic acid solution) they yield usually a hydrazinc and an amine. Diazoamino benzene, C.ilj N: N N1IC.II,, was first
obtained by P. Grw««( Ann., i86»,iii,p. 158). It crystallizes in yellow Inn i r; ir. which melt at 96* C. and explode at slightly higher temperatures. It is readily soluble in alcohol, etherand benzene. Diatoimino benzene, CtHiNj, is also known. It may be prepared by the action of ammonia on diazobenzene pcrbromide; by the action of hydroxylaminc on a diazonium sulphate (K. Heumann and L. Oeconomidcs, Bfr., 1887, to, p. 372); and by the action of phenylhydrazine on a diazonium sulphate. It is a yellow oil which boils at 59° C. (12 mm.), and possesses i stupefying odour. It explodes when heated. Hydrochloric acid converts it into chloraniline, nitrogen being eliminated; whilst boiling sulphuric acid converts it into aminophcnol.
Atoiy Compounds, R-N 0 N-R', are usually yellow or red crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash (preferably using methyl alcohol). They may also be obtained by the oxidation of azo compounds. When reduced (in acid solution) they yield amines; distillation with reduced iron gives azo compounds, and warming with ammonium sulphide gives hydrazo compounds. Concentrated sulphuric acid converts azoxybcnzcnc into oxyazobenzenc (0. Wallach, Bet., iSSo, 13. p. 525). Azoxybenzcne, (C.HiN):0, crystallizes from alcohol in yellow needles, which melt at 36° C. On distillation, it yields aniline and azobenzenc. Azoxybenzene is also found among the electro-reduction products of nitrobenzene, when the reduction is carried out in alcoholic-alkaline solution.
The mixed azo compounds arc those in which the azo group •N: K* is united with an aromatic radical on the one band, and with a radical of the aliphatic series on the other. The most easily obtained mixed azo compounds arc those formed by the union of a diazonium salt with the potassium or sodium salt of a nitroparaffin (V. Meyer, Ber., 1876, 9, p. 384): C,H,N,-NO,+CH,-CH(NCi)K - KNO,+C.H1N,-CH(1NO,)CH..
Those not containing a nitro group may be prepared by the oxidation of the corresponding mixed hydrazo compounds with mercuric oxide. E. Bambergcr (Ber., 1898,31^. 455) has shown that the nitro-alkyl derivatives behave as though they possess the constitution of hydrazones, for on heating with dilute alkalies they split more or less readily into an alkaline nitrite and an acid hydrazide: C.H,NH-N:C(NO,)CHi+NaOH-NaNO,+C.H.NH-NH-CO-CHi.
Bcnzene-azo-methane, C»Hi-Nj-CHi, is a yellow oil which boils at 150° C. and is readily volatile in steam. Benzene-azoethane, CiHi-Nj-CiHj, is a yellow oil which boils at about 180° C. with more or less decomposition. On standing with 60 % sulphuric acid for some time, it is converted into the isomcric acctaldehyde-phenylhydrazonc,C,HiNH-N:CH-CH,(&r.,i896. '9, P- 794).
The diazo cyanides, C,H.N,-CN, and carboxylic acids, C,H,Ni-COOH, may also be considered as mixed azo derivatives;. Diazobenzenecyanide, C«H>N, CN, is an unstable oil, formed when potassium cyanide is added to a solution of a diazonium salt. Phenyl-azo-carboxylic acid, CilU-NrCOOH, is obtained in the form of its potassium salt when phenylsemicarbazidc is oxidized with potassium permanganate in alkaline solution (J. Thiele, Ber., 1805, 28, p. 2600). It crystallizes in orange-red needles and is decomposed by water. The corresponding amide, phenyl-azo-carbonamide, C.HiN,-CONH,. also results from the oxidation of phcnylsemicarbazidc (Thiele, lac. cit.), and forms rccldish-yellow needles which melt at 114° C. When healed with benzaldehydc to 120° C. it yields diphenyloxylriazele, (C.HS),CN,C(OH).
AZOIMIDE. or HvDtAioic Aero, N|H, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, first isolated in 1800 by Th. Curtius (Bcrickle, 1890, 23, p. 3023). It is the hydrogen compound corresponding to P. Greiss' diazoimino benzene, CcHsNj. which is prepared by the addition of ammonia to diaiobcnzene perbromide.
Curtius found that benzoylglycollicacid gavcbenzoyl hydrazine with hydrazine hydrate: C.H.OCO CHiCOOH+2NIH,-HiO-HiO-t-C.H,CONH NH.+