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النشر الإلكتروني
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fact. Created beings were originally of three orders—the intelligent or angels; the non-intelligent natural existences; and man, who mediated between these two orders. Intelligent beings arc endowed with freedom; it is possible, but not necessary, that they should fall. Hence the fact of the fall is not a speculative but an historic truth. The angels fell through pride—through desire to raise themselves to equality with Cod; man felt by lowering himself to the level of nature. Only after the fall of man begins the creation of space, time and matter, or of the world as we now know it; and the motive of this creation was the desire to afford man-an opportunity for taking advantage of the scheme of redemption, for bringing forth in purity the image of God according to which he has been fashioned. The physical philosophy and anthropology which Baader, in connexion with this, unfolds in various works, is but little instructive, and coincides in the main with the utterances of Bochme. In nature and in man he finds traces of the dire effects of sin, which has corrupted both and has destroyed their natural harmony. As regards ethics, Baadcr rejects the Kantian or any autonomic system of morals. Not obedience to a moral law, but realization in ourselves of the divine life is the true ethical end. But man has lost the power to effect this by himself; he has alienated himself from God, and therefore no ethical theory which neplects the facts of sin and redemption is satisfactory or even possible. The history of man and of humanity is the history of the redeeming love of God. The mean* whereby we put ourselves so in relation with Christ as to receive from Him his heating virtue are chiefly prayer and the sacrament* of the church; mere works are never sufficient. Man in his social relations is under two great institutions. One is temporal, natural and limited—the state; the other is eternal, cosmopolitan and universal—the church. In the state two things arc requisite: first, common submission to the ruler, which can be secured or given only when the state is Christian, for God alone is the true ruler of men; and, secondly, inequality of rank, without which there can be no organization. A despotism of mere power and liberalism, which naturally produces socialism, are equally objectionable. The ideal state is a civil community ruled by a universal or Catholic church, the principles of which arc equally distinct from mere passive pietism! or faith which will know nothing, and from the Protestant doctrine, which is the very radicalism of reason.

Baadcr is, without doubt, among the greatest speculative theologians of modern Catholicism, and his influence has extended itself even beyond the precincts of his own church. Among those whom he influenced were R. Rothc, Julius Miillcr and Hans L. Markcnsen.

His works were collected and published by a number of his adherents—F. Hoffman, J. Hambcrger, E. v. Schadcn, Luttcrbeck, von Osten-Sacken and Schliitcr—Baader's s&mmtiiche \Vcrkt (16 vols., 1851-1860). Valuable introductions by the editors arc prefixed to the several volumes. Vol. xv. contains a full biography; vol. xvi. an index, and an able sketch of the whole system by Luttcrbeck. See F. Hoffmann, Vorhalle zur spckulativcn Lehre Baadtr's (1836); Grundzuec der Sociclats-Phttosophit Franz Boeder's (1837); Philosophised Sthriftcn (3 vols., 1868-1872); Die Wcltolttr (1868); Biographic und Briefu'cchstl {Leipzig, 1887); J. Hamberfjer, Cardinal punkte dcr Baadefschen Philosophic (l8j>5); Fundtinifntalbtgrijfe von F. B.'s Ethik, Politik, u. Religions-Philosophic (1858); J. A. B. Lutterbeck, Philosophised Standfankte Baadtrs (1854); BaadfTS Lehre vom Weltgcb&ude (1866). The most satisfactory surveys are those given by Erdmann, Versuch tint? Gesch, d. neuern Phil. iii. a. pp. 583-636; J. Claasscn, Frans von Baaders Leben und tkeosophischf Werke (Stuttgart, 1886-1887), and Franz von Baaders Cfdankcn uber Slant tttid Gesellschaft (Gutersloh, 1890); Otto Pfleidcrer, Philosophy of Religion (vol. ii., Eng. trans. 1887); R. Falckenberg, History of Philosophy, pp. 472-475 (trans. A. C. Armstrong, New York, 1893); Rcichel, Die Sosietatsphilosophie Fran* v. Baaders (Tubingen, 1901); Kuno Fischer, Zur hundcrtjahrigen Geburtstagfeier Baaders (Erlangen, 1865).

BAAL, a Semitic word, which primarily signifies lord, owner or inhabitant,1 and then, in accordance with the Semitic way of looking at family and religious relations, is specially appropriated to express the relation of a husband to his wife and of the deity to his worshipper. In the latter usage it indicated not that the god was the lord of the worshipper, but rather the possessor of, or ruler in, some place or district. In the Old Testament it is regularly written with the article, i.e. " the Baal "; and the baals of different tribes or sanctuaries were not necessarily conceived as identical, so that we find frequent mention of Baalim, or rather "ihe Baalim" in the plural. That the Israelites even applied the title of Baal to Yabweh himself is proved by the occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one of Saul's sons) and Bceliada (a son of David, i Chron. xiv. 7). The last name appears in 2 Sam. v. 16 as Eliada, showing that El

1 Cf. its use as a noun of relation, e.g. a ba'al of hair, "a hairy man " (2 Kings i. 8), b. of wings, " a winged creature," and in the plural, b. of arrows, "archers (Geu. *Jix* z\). b. of oath. "ran•piraton" CNeh. vi i8i

(God) was regarded a* equivalent to Ba.il; cf. also the n.imt Be'aliah, "Yahwch is baai or lord," which survives in i Chron. >ii 5. However, when the name Baal was eiclusively appropriated to idolatrous worship (cf. Hos. ii. 16 scq.), abhorrence for the unholy word was marked by writing bdshtth (shameful thing) for baal in compound proper names, and thus we get the usual forms Ishbosheth, Mephibo&hcth.

The great difficulty which has been felt by investigators in determining the character and attributes of the god Baal mainly arises from the original appellative sense of the word, and many obscure points become clear if we remember that when a title becomes a proper name it may be appropriated by different peoples to quite distinct deities. Baal being originally a title, and not a proper name, the innumerable baals could be distinguished by the addition of the name of a place or of some special attribute.1 Accordingly, the baals arc not to be regarded necessarily as local variations of one and the same god, like the many Virgins or Madonnas of Catholic lands, but as distinct numina. Each community could speak of its own baal, although a collection of allied communities might share the same cult, and naturally, since the attributes ascribed to the individual baals were very similar, subsequent syncretism was facilitated.

The Baal, as the head of each worshipping group, is the source of all the gifts of nature (cf. Hos. ii. 8 *cq., Ezck, xvi. i.i>, as the god of fertility all the produce of the soil is his, and hia adherents bring to him their tribute of first-fruits. He is the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the " uncontrolled use of analogy characteristic of early thought," the Baal is the god of the productive element in its widest sense. Originating probably, in the observation of the fertilizing effect of rains and streams upon the receptive and reproductive soil, baali&m becomes identical with th< grossest nature-worship. Joined with the baal& there are naturally found corresponding female figures known as AshtarOth, embodiments of Ashtftreth (see Astarte; Ishtar). In accordance with primitive notions of analogy,1 which assume that it is possible to control or aid the powers ol nature by the practice of " sympathetic magic " (sec Magic), the cult of the baals and AshlarOth was characterized by gross sensuality and licentiousness. The fragmentary allusions to the cult of Baal Peor (Num. xxv., Hos. ix. 10, Ps. cvi, 28 seq.) exemplify the typical species of Dionysiac orgies that prevailed.* On the summits of hills and mountains flourished the cult of the givers of increase, and "under every green tree" was practised the licentiousness which in primitive thought was held to secure abundance of crops (see Frazcr, Golden Bough, and cd. vol. ii. pp. 204 sqq.). Human sacrifice (Jer. xix. 5), the burning of incense (Jer. vii. o), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts ol bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and show that the cult of Baal (and Astartc) included the characteristic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic world, although attached to other names.'

By an easy transition the local gods of the streams and springs which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with

1 Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.t. Baal of Tyre, of Lebanon, &c.. arc frequent; scr G. B. Gray, Heb. Propfr Names, pp. 124-126. Bnal-berith or lil-hcrith of Shcchent (Judg. ix. 4, 46) is usually interpreted to be the Baal or God at the covenant, but whether of covenants in general or of a particular covenant concluded at Shcchcm is disputed. The iii.'\u<7,. •„, (near Beirut) apparently presided over dancing; another compound (in Cyprus) seems to represent a Baal of healing. On the " Baal of flics " sec Beelzebub.

1 The general analogy shows itself further in the idea of the deity as the husband (ba'al) of his worshippers or of the land in which they dwelt. The Astarte of Cabal (Byblus) was regularly known as the ba'oJath (fern, of boat), her real name not being pronounced (perhaps out of reverence).

'See further Clcrmont-Ganiicau, Pal. Expfar, Fund Quart. Stat., 1901, pp. 239, 369 .,-) . Bilchler, Rev. ..'••••;,.;.;.. juives, 1901. pp. 125 seq.

* The extent to which elements of heathen cult entered into purer types of religion is illustrated in the worship of Yahweh. The sacred cakes of Astartc and old holy wells associated with bet cult were later even transferred to the worship of the Virgin (£ncy. • rfti col, ^993: Rouvicr. in B'-'.U. ArfMol., 1900, p. 170).

uV«DmrT>*n *wm mi all atmim, and proceeding along this line il was possible for the numerous baa Is to be regarded eventually ii m«e forms of one absolute deity. Consequently, the Baal could be identified with some supreme power of nature, e.g. the havens, the sun, the weather or some planet. The particular lineoldevelopment would vary indifferent places, but the change from an association of the Baal with earthly objects to heavenly is characteristic of a higher type of belief and appears to be relatively later. The idea which has long prevailed that Baal was properly a sky-god affords no explanation of the local character of the many baals; on the other hand, on the theory of a higher development where the gods become heavenly or isiral beings, the fact that ruder conceptions of nature were still retained (often in the unofficial but more popular forms of cull) is more intelligible.

A specific Baal of the heavens appears to have been known among die Hiitites in the time of Ramcses II., and considerably liter, at the beginning of the yth century, it was the title of one of the gods of Phoenicia. In Babylonia, from a very early period, Baal became a definite individual deity, and was identified with the planet Jupiter. This development is a mark of superior culture and may have been spread through Babylonian influence. Both Baal and Astartc were venerated in Egypt at Thebes and Memphis in the XlXth Dynasty, and the former, through the influence of the Aramaeans who borrowed the Babylonian spoiling Bel, ultimately became known as the Greek Bclos who wai identified with Zeus.

Of the worship of the Tyrlan Baal, who is also railed Mclkart (king of the city), and is often identified with the Greek Heracles, but sometimes with the Olympian Xcus, we have many accounts in ancient writers, from Herodotus downwards. Me had a magnificent temple in insular Tyre, founded by Hiram, to which gifts •creamed from all countries, especial)/ at the great feasts. The »laj character of this dcily appear* especially in the annual feast of his awakening shortly alter the winter enlaticc (Joseph. C Afrion. I i"). At Tyre, as'among the Hebrews, Baal h.vj his symbolical jrillin, one of gold and one of sinar.i^lir-*, which, transported by phantasy to the farthest west, art t>till Umiliar to u.sas the Pillars of Hercules. The worship of the Tynan Baal was carried to all the Phoenician colonies.1 His name occur* as an element in Cartha* ginian proper nimes (Hannifto/, Hasdru&o/, &c.),and a tablet found at Marseilles still survive* to inform u» of the charges made by the priests o( the temple of Baal (or offering r rifices.

The history of Baalism among the Hebrews is obscured by the difficulty of determining whether the false worship which the prophets stigmatize is the heathen worship of Yahweh under a conception, and often with rites, which treated him as a local uiuregod; or whether Baalism was consciously recognized to be distinct from Yahwism from the first. Later religious practice was undoubtedly opposed to that of earlier times, and Attempts were made to correct narratives containing views *hich had come to be regarded as contrary to the true worship of Yahweh. The Old Testament depicts the history of thepeople w a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this Ifives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the knelitcs into Palestine. This is still under dispute. There is Jtrong evidence at all events that many of the conceptions are contrary to historical fact, and the points of similarity between native Canaanite cult and Israelite worship arc so striking that only the persistent traditions of Israel's origin and of the work of Moses compel the conclusion that the germs of specific Yahweh *»rihip existed from his day. The earliest certain reaction iKainit Baalism is ascribed to the reign of Ahab, whose marriage •itb Jezebel gave the impulse to the introduction of a particular form of the cult. In honour of his wife's god, the king, following the example of Solomon, erected a temple to the Tyrian Baal (iwabove). This, however, did not prevent him from remaining t follower of Yahweh, whose prophets he still consulted, and

1 The sanctuary of Heracles at Daphne near Antioch was properly w»l of the Semitic Baal, and at Amaihus lupiicr Honpes takes the P&« of Heracles or Malilca. in which theTyrian Mefkart is to be urd fW. R. Smith. K»l. Sem. and «1. pp. 178. 376). See Phoenicia.

whose protection h* still cherished when he named his.sons Ahaziah and Jehoram (" Yah[weh] holds," "Y. i$ high "). The antagonism of Elijah was not against Baalism in general, but against the introduction of a rival deity. But by the time of Hosea (ii. 16 seq.) a further advance was marked, and the use of the term " Baal " was felt to be dangerous to true religion. Thus there gradually grew up a tendency to avoid the term, and in accordance with the idea of Ex. xxiii. 13, it was replaced by the contemptuous bdsketfi, " shame " (see above). However, the books of Deuteronomy and Jeremiah fit. also Zeph. i. 4) afford complete testimony for the prevalence of Baalism as late as the exile, but prove that the clearest distinction was then drawn between the pure worship of Yahweh the god of Israel and the inveterate and debased cults of-the gods of the land. (See further Hebrew Religion; Prophet.)

Bibliography.—W Robertson Smith. Kelif. Semites, and ed. pp. 93-1 >3' i.' nil r his theory of the introduction of Baal among the Arabs sec M. j. Xagrange, Etudes ft. relig. sem. pp. 83-98). For the reading "Baal ' in the Amarna tablets (Palestine, about 1400 B.c.) see Knudtzon, Bcitr. t. Assyriot. (toot), pp. 320 seq., 415; other cuneiform evidence in E. Schrader's Kcilinsch. u. Alte Test. 3rd ed. p. 357 (by H. Zimmcrn; see also his Index, sub voce). On Baal-Shamem (B. of the heavens) M. Lid/barski's monograph (Epkcmeris, i. 243260, ii. i .'••.' is invaluable, and this work, with his //',••'', d. norastmit. Epi^raphik, contains full account of the epigraphies! material. See Bacthgcn, Btitr. 9. semit. Relifcionsgesch, pp. 17-32; also the articles on Tlaal by E. Meyer in Roschcr's Lexikon, and G. F. Moore in Ency. Bib. (On Beltane fires and other apparent points of conncxion with Baal it may suffice to refer to Aug. Fick, Vergleiik. Woitfrbuch, who derives the element brl from an old Celtic root meaning shining, &c.) (W. R. S.; S. A. C.)

BAALBEK (anc. He!iopaHs),& town of the Buka'a (Coelesyria), altitude 3850 ft., situated E. oC the Litani and near the parting between its waters and those of the Asi. Pop. about 5000, including 2000 Metawali and 1000 Christians (Maronitc and Orthodox). Since 1902 Baalbek has been connected by railway with Rayak (Rejak) on the Bcirut*Damascus line, and since 1907 with Aleppo. It is famous for its temple ruins of the Roman period, before which we have no record of it, certain though it be that Hcliopolis is a translation of an earlier native name, in which Baal was an clement. It has been suggested, but without good reason, that this name was the Baalgad of Josh. xi. 17.

Hcliopolis was made a colonia probably by Octavian (coins of ist century A.d.), and there must have been a Baal temple there in which Trajan consulted the oracle. The foundation of the present buildings, however, dates from Antoninus Pius, and their dedication from Septimius Scvcrus, whose coins first show the two temples. The great courts of approach were not finished before the reignsof Caracalla and Philip. In commemoration, no doubt, of the dedication of the new sanctuaries, Scvcrus conferred the/if * Italicum on the city. The greater of the two temples was sacred to Jupiter (Baal), identified with the Sun, with whom were associated Venus and Mercury as trDp^w/wi Qcoi The lesser temple was built in honour of Bacchus (not the Sun, as formerly believed). Jupiter-Baal was represented locally as a beardless god in long scaly drapery, holding a whip in his right hand and lightning and cars of corn in his left. Two bulls supported him. In this guise he passed into European worship in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.d. The extreme licence of the Heliopolitan worship is often animadverted upon by early Christian writers, and Constantino, making an effort to curb the Venus cult, built a basilica. Thcodosius erected another, with western apse, in the main court of the Jupiter temple.

When Abu Ubaida (or Obaida) attacked the place after the Moslem capture of Damascus (a.d. 635), it was still an opulent city and yielded a rich booty. It became a bone of contention between the various Syrian dynasties and the caliphs first of Damascus, then of Egypt, and in 748 was sacked with great slaughter. In 1000 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus and was captured by Saladin in i 175. The Crusaders raided its valley more than once, but never took the city. Three times shaken by earthquake in the I2th century, it was dismantled by Hulagu in 1260. But it revived, and most of its fine Moslem mosque and fortress architecture, still extant, belongs to the reign of Suit .in KataQn (i 282) and the succeeding century, during which Abulfeda describes it as a very strong place. In 1400 Timur pillaged it, and in 1517 it passed, with the rest of Syria, to the Ottoman dominion. But Ottoman jurisdiction was merely nominal ia the Lebanon district, and Baalbek was really in the hands of the Metawali (see Lebanon), who retained it against other Lebanon tribes, until " Jezzar " Pasha, the rebel governor of the Acre province, broke their power in the last half of the i8th century. The anarchy which succeeded his death in 1804 was only ended by the Egyptian occupation (1832). With the treaty of London (1840) Baalbek became really Ottoman, and since the settlement of the Lebanon (1864) bos attracted great numbers of tourists.

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The ruins were brought to European notice by Pierre Bclon in 1555, though previously visited, in 1507, by Martin von Baumgarten. Much damaged by the earthquake of lyso.lhcyremained a wilderness of fallen blocks till 1901, when their clearance was undertaken by the German Archaeological Institute and entrusted to the direction of Prof. O. Puchstein. They He mainly on the ancient Acropolis, which has been shored up with huge walls to form a terrace raised on vaults and measuring about noo ft. from E. to W. The Propyttua lie at the E. end, and were approached by a flight of steps now quarried away. These propylaca formed a covered hall, or vestibule, about 35 ft. deep, flanked with towers richly decorated within and without (much damaged by Arab reconstruction). Columns stood in front, whose bases still exist and bear the names of Antoninus Pius and Julia Domna Hence, through a triple gateway in a richly ornamented screen, access is gained to the first or Hexagonal Court, which measures about 250 ft. from angle to angle. It is now razed almost to foundation level; but it can be seen that it was flanked with halls each having four columns in front. A

portal on the W., 50 ft. wide, flanked by lesser ones To ft. wide (that on the N. is alone preserved), admitted to the Main Court, in whose centre was the High Altar of Burnt Sacrifice. This altar and a great tank on the N. were covered by the foundations of Theodosius' basilica and not seen till the recent German clearance The Main Court measures about 440 ft. from E. to W. and 370 ft. from N. to S., thus covering about 3! acres. It had a continuous fringe of covered halls of various dimensions and shapes, once richly adorned with statues and columnar screens. Some of these halls are in fair preservation. Stairs on the W. led up to the temple of Jupiter-Baal, now much ruined, having only 6 of the 54 columns of its peristyle erect. Three fell ia the earthquake of 1759. Those still standing are Nos. n to 16 in the southern rank. Their bases and shafts are not finished, though the capitals and rich entablature seem completely worked. They have a height of 60 ft. and diameter of 7} ft., and are mostly formed of three blocks. The architrave is threefold and bears a frieze with lion-heads, on which rest a moulding and cornice.

The temple of Bacchus stood on a platform of its own formed by a southern projection of the Acropolis. It was much smaller than the Jupiter temple, but is better preserved. The steps of the E. approach were intact up to 1688. The temple was peripteral with 46 columns in its peristyle. These were over 52 ft. in height and of the Corinthian order, and supported an entablature 7 ft. high with double frieze, connected with the cella walls by a coffered ceiling, which contained slabs with heads of gods and emperors. Richard Burton, when consul-general at Damascus in 1870, cleared an Arab screen out of the vestibule, and in consequence the cjcquisite doorway leading into the cella can now be well seen. On cither side of it staircases constructed within columns lead to the roof. The cracked door-lintel, which shows an eagle on the soffit, was propped up first by Burton, and lately, more securely, by the Germans. The cella, now ruinous, had inner wall-reliefs and engaged columns, which supported rich entablatures.

The vaults below the Great Court of the Jupiter Temple, together with the supporting walls of the terrace, are noticeable. In the W. wall of the latter occur the three famous megaliths, which gave the name TfUithan to the Jupiter temple in Byzantine times. These measure from 63 to 64 ft. in length and 13 ft. ia height and breadth, and have been raised ?o ft. above the ground. They arc the largest blocks known to have been used in actual construction, but are excelled by another block still attached to its bed in the quarries half a mile S.W. This is 68 fi. long by 14 ft. high and weighs about 1500 tons. For long these blocks were supposed, even by European visitors, to be relics of a primeval race of giant builders.

In the town, below the Acropolis, on the S.E. is a small temple of the late imperial age, consisting of a semicircular cella with a peristyle of eight Corinthian columns, supporting a projecting entablature. The cella is decorated without with a frieze, and within with pillars and arcading. This temple owes its preservation to its use as a church of St Barbara, a local martyr, also claimed by the Egyptian Hcliopolis. Hence the building is known as Barbarat aJ-alika. Considerable remains of the N. gate of the city have also been exposed.

Bibliography.—These vast ruins, more imposing from their immensity than plcasine in detail, have been described by tcotrs of travellers and tourists: but it will be sufficient here to refer to thf following works:—(First discoverers) M. von Baumgarten. Per** frittatio in . . . Syriam (1594); P. Belon. De admirabili »Pcrt~ antiquorum pratstontia U553); and ObsermKtons. &c. (155, (Before earthquake of 1750) R- Wood, Ruins of Baalbce (17* (Before excavation) H. Fraubcrger, Die Akropotis wm B&ili (1802). (After excavation) O. Puchstetn, Fuhrtr dvrck dit Rttinen v. Saaibek (1905), (with Th. v. Lupke) Ansichttn, &c. (1905). Se« also R. Pheni Spiers, Quart. StaL Pal. Exp. Fund. 1904, pp. 58-64. and the Builder, n Feb. 1905. (D. O. H.)

BAARN, & small town in the province of Utrecht, Holland, 5 m. by rail E. of Hilvcrsum, at the junction of a branch line to Utrecht. Like Hilversum it is situated in the midst o( picturesque and wooded surroundings, and is a favourite summer re* sort of people from Amsterdam. The Baarnschc Bosch, or wood, stretches southward to Soestdyk, where there is a royal country. Kit, orip'nally acquired by the state in 179$. Louis Bonaparte, Ling of Holland, who was very fond of the spot, formed a zoological collection here which was removed to Amsterdam in iSocj. In 1816 the estate was presented by the nation to the prince of Orange (afterwards King William II.) in recognition of his Kivices at the battle of Quatrc Bras. Since then the palace and grounds have been considerably enlarged and beautified. Close to Bun in the south-west were formerly situated the ancient castles of Drakcnburg and Drakenstein, and at Vuursche there is a remarkable dolmen.

BABADAG, or Babmag, a town in the department of Tulcea, Rumania, situated on a small lake formed by the river Taitza among the densely wooded highlands of the northern Dobrudja. Pop. dooo) about 3500. The Taiua lake is divided only by a imp of marshland from Lake Razim, a broad landlocked sheet of water which opens on the Black Sea. Babadag is a market lor the wool and mutton of the Dobrudja. It was founded by Bayciid 1.. sultan of the Turks from 1389 to 1403. It occasionilly served at the winter headquarters ol the Turks in their wan with Russia, and was bombarded by the Russians in 1854.

CABBAGE. CHARLES (1701-1871), English mathematician ud mechanician, was bom on the 36th of December 1792 at Teigamouth in Devonshire. He was educated at a private school, ud afterwards entered St Peter's College, Cambridge, where he piduated in 1814. Though he did not compete in the malhemjlictl tripos, he acquired a great reputation at the university 1« toe years 1815*1817 he contributed three papers on the "Calculus of Functions " to the Philosophical Transactions, and in 1816 was nude a fellow of the Royal Socieiy. Along with Sir John Herscbel and George Peacock he laboured to raise the standard of mathematical instruction in England, and especially endeavoured to supersede the Newtonian by the Lcibnitzian ioution in the infinitesimal calculus. Babbngc's attention teems to hax'e been very early drawn to the number and importance of the errors introduced into astronomical and other calculations through inaccuracies in the computation of tables. He contributed to tie Royal Society some notices on the relation 1 -la-eon notation and mechanism; and in i8aj, in a letter to Sir H. Davy on the application of machinery to the calculation lad printing of mathematical tables, he discussed the principles of I calculating engine, to the construction of which be devoted «n«y years of his life. Government was induced to grant its lid, tad the inventor himself spent a portion of his private fortune >' Ike prosecution of his undertaking. He travelled through *voil of the countries of Europe, examining different systems '! machinery; and some of the results of his investigations were poiilisnrd in the admirable little work, Economy of Machines j=J Manufactures (1834). The great calculating engine was vvrr completed; the constructor apparently desired to adopt 'new principle when the first specimen was nearly complete, lri make it not a difference but an analytical engine, and the JWrmnenl declined to accept the further risk (see Calculating U*c8»ts). From 1828 to 1839 Babbage was Lucasian professor of rathematics at Cambridge. He contributed largely to several Kientinc periodicals, and was instrumental in founding the Astronomical (1820) and Statistical (1834) Societies. He only •''.iip endeavoured to enter public life, when, in 1831, he stood msnccessfully for the borough of Finsbury. During the later )'«"> ol his life he resided in London, devoting himself to the construction of machines capable of performing arithmetical ud even algebraical calculations. He died at London on the lltb of October 1871. He gives a few biographical details in ka Fwafet from the Lift of a Philosopher (1(64), a work which throw considerable light upon his somewhat peculiar character. Ho works, pamphlets and papers were very numerous; in the fount he enumerates eighty separate writings. Of these the not important, besides the few already mentioned, are ToMes of kranrtmi (fgj6); Comparative Vim of tlu Various Institutions fa tkt Assurance of Lives (1826); Decline of Seifncf in England Mjo); Ninlh Brid(tval<-r Treatise (1837); The Exposition of <*fl (1851).

Sb UmlU} Kotitts. Rtjal Ailrinamial Socieiy. vol. 32.

BABEL, the native name of the city called Babylon (q.t.) by the Greeks, the modern Hiilah. It means "gate of the god," not"gate of the gods," corresponding to the Assyrian Bab-ili. According to Gen. xi. 1-9 (J), mankind, after the deluge, travelled from the mountain of the East, where the ark had rested, and settled in Shinar. Here they attempted to build a city and a tower whose top might reach unto heaven, but were miraculously prevented by their language being confounded. In this way the diversity of human speech and the dispersion of mankind were accounted for; and in Gen. xi. 9 (J) an etymology was found for the name of Babylon in the Hebrew verb id/a/, " to confuse or confound," Babe) being regarded as a contraction of Balbcl. In Gen. x. 10 it is said to have formed part of the kingdom of Nimrod.

The origin of the story has not been found in Babylonia. The tower was no doubt suggested by one of the temple towers of Babylon. W. A. Bcnnct (Genesis, p. 169; cf. Hommcl in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible) suggests E-Saggila, the great temple of Merodach (Marduk). The variety of languages and the dispersion of mankind were regarded as a curse, and it is probable that, as Prof. Cheyne (Encyclopaedia Biblica, col. 411) says, there was an ancient North Semitic myth to explain it. The event was afterwards localized in Babylon. The myth, as it appears in Genesis, is quite polytheistic and anthropomorphic. According to Cornelius Alexander (frag. lo) and Abydenus (frags. 5 and 6) the tower was overthrown by the winds; according to Yaqut (i. 448 f.) and the Lisan cl-'Arab (xiii. 72) mankind were swept together by winds into the plain afterwards called "Babil," and were scattered again in the same way (see further D. B. Macdonald in the Jeu<ish Encyclopaedia). A tradition similar to that of the tower of Babel is found in Central America. Xclhua, one of the seven giants rescued from the deluge, built the great pyramid of Cholula in order to storm heaven. The gods, however, destroyed it with fire and confounded the language of the builders. Tracts of a somewhat similar story have also been met with among the Mongolian Tharus in northern India (Report of the Census of Bengal, 1872, p. 160), and, according to Dr Livingstone, among the Africans of Lake Ngami. The Esthonian myth of " the Cooking of Languages " (Kohl, Reisen in die Ostsffprovinzcn, ii. 251-255) may also be compared, as well as the Australian legend of the origin of the diversity ol speech (Gcrstacker, Keisen, vol. iv. pp. 381 seq.).

BAB-EL-MANDEB (Arab, for" The Gate of Tears "), the strait between Arabia and Africa which connects the Red Sea (g.f.) with the Indian Ocean. It derives its name from the dangers attending its navigation, or, according to an Arabic legend, from the numbers who were drowned by the earthquake which separated Asia and Africa. The distance across is about set m. from Ras Menheli on the Arabian coast to Ras Siyan on the African. The island of Pcrim (»-.».), a British possession, divides the strait into two channels, of which the eastern, known as the Bab Iskender (Alexander's Strait), is 2 m. wide and 16 fathoms deep, while the western, or Dact-cl-Mayun, has a width of about 16 m. and a depth of 170 fathoms. Near the African coast lies a group of smaller islands known as the "Seven Brothers." There is a surface current inwards in the eastern channel, but a strong under-current outwards in the western channel.

BABENBERG. the name of a Franconian family which held the duchy of Austria before the rise of the house of Habsburg. Its earliest known ancestor was one Poppo, who early in the 9th century was count in Grapfeld. One of his sons, Henry, railed margrave and duke in Franconia, fell fighting against the Normans in 886; another, Poppo, was margrave in Thuringia from 880 to 892, when he was deposed by the German king Arnulf. The family had been favoured by the emperor Charles the Fat, but Arnulf reversed this policy in favour of the rival family ol the Conradines. The leaders of the Babenbergs were the three sons of Duke Henry, who called themselves after their castle ol Babenberg on the upper Main, round which their possessions centred. The rivalry between the two families was intensified by their efforts to extend their authority in the region of the middle Main, and this quarrel, known as the " Babenberg feud," came to a head at the beginning of the tolh century during the troubled reign of the German king, Louis the Child. Two of Ihe Babcnberg brothers were killed, and the survivor Adalbert was summoned before the imperial court by the regent Hatto I., archbishop of Mainz, a partisan of the Conradines. He refused to appear, held his own for a time in his castle at There* against the king's forces, but surrendered in 006, and in spite of a promise of safe-conduct was beheaded. From this time the Babcnbergs lost their influence in Franconia; but in 976 Leopold, a member of the family who was a count in the Donnegau, is described as margrave of the East Mark, a district not more than 60 in. in breadth on the eastern frontier o( Bavaria which grew into the duchy of Austria. Leopold, who probably received the mark as a reward for his fidelity to the emperor Otto II. during the Bavarian rising In 976, extended its area at the expense of the Hungarians, and wai succeeded in 994 by his son Henry I. Henry, who continued his father's policy, was followed in 1018 by his brother Adalbert and in 1055 by his nephew Ernest, whose marked loyalty to the emperors Henry III. and Henry IV. was rewarded by many tokens of favour. The succeeding margrave, Leopold II., quarrelled with Henry IV., who was unable to oust him from the mark or to prevent the succession of his son Leopold 111. in 1096. Leopold supported Henry, Sod of Henry IV., in his rising against his father, but was soon drawn over to the emperor's side, and in nod married his daughter Agnes, widow of Frederick I., duke of Swabia. He declined the imperial crown in n>j. His seal in founding monasteries earned for him his surname "the Pious," and canonization by Pope Innocent VIII. in 1485. He is regarded as the patron saint of Austria. One of Leopold's sons was Otto, bishop of Freising (?.».). His eldest son, Leopold IV., became margrave in 1136, and in 1139 received from the German king Conrad III. the duchy of Bavaria, which had been forfeited by Duke Henry the Proud. Leopold's brother Henry (surnamed Jasomirgott from his favourite oath, " So help me God!") was made count palatine of the Rhine in 1140, and became margrave of Austria on Leopold's death in 1141. Having married Gertrude, the widow of Henry the Proud, he was invested in 1143 with the duchy of Bavaria, and resigned his office as count palatine. In 1147 he went on crusade, and after his return renounced Bavaria at the instance of the new king Frederick L As compensation for this, Austria, the capital of which had been transferred to Vienna in 1146, was erected into a duchy. The second duke was Henry's son Leopold I., who succeeded him in 1177 and took part in the crusades of 1182 and 1190. In Palestine he quarrelled with Richard I., king of England, captured him on his homeward journey and handed him over to the emperor Henry VI. Leopold increased the territories of the Babenbergs by acquiring Styria in 1192 under the will of his kinsman Duke Ottakar IV. He died in 1194, and Austria fell to one son, Frederick, and Styria to another, Leopold; but on Frederick's death in 1198 they were again united by Duke Leopold II., sumamed " the Glorious." The new duke fought against the infidel in Spain, Egypt and Palestine, but is more celebrated as a lawgiver, a patron of letters and a founder of towns. Under him Vienna became the centre of culture in Germany and the great school of Minnesingers (?.».). His later years were spent in strife with his son Frederick, and he died in 1230 at San Gcnnano, whither he had gone to arrange the peace between the emperor Frederick II. and Pope Gregory IX. His son Frederick II. followed as duke, and earned the name of " Quarrelsome " by constant struggles with the kings of Hungary and Bohemia and with the emperor. He deprived his mother and sisters of their possessions, was hated by his subjects on account of his oppressions, and In 1236 was placed under the imperial ban and driven from Austria. Restored when the emperor was excommunicated, he treated in vain with Frederick for the erection of Austria into a kingdom. He was killed in battle in 1246, when the male line of the Babenbergs became extinct. The city of Bambcrg grew up around the ancestral castle of the family.

Sec G. Juritsch, GcschicJile der Babertberger vnd ikrer /••..'(Innsbnick, 1894); M. Schmitl, Ofstareichi SihtjcrifWiUtlibtuktr tilt iu Djtmlu der Babexbtrger (Munich, iMo).

BABER. or Dabak (1483-1530), a famous conqueror of India and founder of the to-called Mogul dynasty. His name was Zahir ud-din-Mahomet, and he was given the surname of Baber, meaning the tiger. Born on the uth of February 1483, he was a descendant of Timur, and his father, Omar Sheik, was king of Ferghana, a district of what is now Russian Turkestan. Omar died in 1495, and Baber, though only twelve years of age, succeeded to the throne. An attempt made by his uncles to dislodge him proved unsuccessful, and no sooner was the young sovereign firmly settled than he began to meditate an extension of his own dominions. In {497 he attacked and gained posscs&ion of Samarkand, to which he always seems to have thought be had a natural and hereditary right. A rebellion among his nobles robbed him of his native kingdom, and while marching to recover it his troops deserted him, and he lost Samarkand also. After some reverses he regained both these places, but in 1501 his most formidable enemy, Shaibani (Sheibani) Khan, ruler of the Uzbegs, defeated him in a great engagement and drove him from Samarkand. For three years he wandered abou t trying in vain to recover his lost possessions; at last, in 1504, he gathered some troops, and crossing the snowy Hindu Kush besieged and captured the strong city of Kabul. By this dexterous stroke he gained a new and wealthy kingdom, and completely re-established his fortunes. In the following year he united with Hussain Mirza of Herat against Shaibani. The death of Hussain put a stop to this expedition, but Baber spent a year at Herat, enjoying the pleasures of that capital. He returned to Kabul in time to quell a formidable rebellion, but two years later a revolt among some of the leading Moguls drove him from his city. He was compelled to take to flight with very few companions, but his great personal courage and daring struck the array of his opponents with such dismay that they again returned to their allegiance and Baber regained hi* kingdom. Once again, in 1510, after the death of Shaibani, he endeavoured to obtain possession of his native country. He received considerable aid from Shah Ismael of Persia, and in 1511 made a triumphal entry into Samarkand. But in Ism he was utterly defeated by the Uzbcgs and whh difficulty reached Kabul. He seems now to have resigned all hopes of recovering Ferghana, and as he at the same time dreaded an invasion of the Uzbcgs from the west, his attention was more and more drawn towards India. Several preliminary incursions had been already made, when in 1521 an opportunity presented itseU for a more extended expedition. Ibrahim, emperor of Delhi, had made himself detested, even by his Afghan nobles, several of whom called upon Uabcr for assistance. He at once assembled his forces, 12,000 strong, with some pieces of artillery and marched into India. Ibrahim, with 100,000 soldiers and numerous elephants, advanced against him. The great battle was fought at Panipat on the 2ist of April 1526, when Ibrahim was slain and his army routed. Baber at once took possession of Agra. A still more formidable enemy awaited him; the Rana Sanga of Mewar collected the enormous force of 210,000 men, with which he moved against the invaders. On all sides there was danger and revolt, even Dabcr's own soldiers, worn out with the heat of this new climate, longed for Kabul. By vigorous measures and inspiriting speeches he restored their courage, though his own heart was nearly failing him, and in his distress he abjured the use of wine, to which he had been addicted. At Kanwaha, on the loth of March 1527, he won a great victory and made himself absolute master of northern India. The remaining years of his life he spent in arranging the affairs and revenues of his new empire and in improving his capital, Agra. He died on the 26th of December 1530 in his forty-eighth year. Baber was above the middle height, of great strength and an admirable archer and swordsman. His mind was as well cultivated as his bodily powers; he wrote well, and his observations arc generally acute and accurate; he was brave, kindly and generous.

Full material! for his life are found in his Memoirs, written by

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