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Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company*


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Anna C. Pat/es, Ph.d.

Lecturer in Germanic Philology at Newnham College, Cambridge. Formerly"
Fellow of Newnham College. Author of A Fourteenth Century Biblical Version;-Sic.

Algernon Charles Swinburne. J

See biographical article: Swinburne, Algernon C.

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hisr.Soc.

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls'
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-
1901. Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1892; Arnold prizeman, 1898. Author of
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry 1 /'.'/,; Life of Thomas Cmnmer; &c.

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M. A.

Lecturer on CKurch History in the University of Manchester.

Sir Alfred George Greenhill, M.A., F.R.S.

Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author
of Di/erenlial and Integral Calculus milk Applications; Hydrostatics; Notes on
Dynamics; &c.

Asthur Hassall, M. A.

Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Author of A Handbook of European
History; The Balance of Power; &c. Editor of the jrd edition of T. H. Dyer's
History of Modern Europe.

Albert Henry Newiuh, LL.D..D.D. \

Professor of Church History, Baylor University, Texas. Professor at McMaster I
University, Toronto, 1881-1901. Author of The Baptist Churches in Ike United]
States; Manual of Church History; A Century of Baptist Achievement.


General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak,

Bible, English. .

Beaumont and Fletcher.

I Balnavcs;

•j Barnes, Robert;

[ E ito y.

•j Ballistics.

J A'Hina-Hungary: History (in

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Baptists: American.

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Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.Lrrr., I.L.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.

Andrew Jackson Lamoubeux.

| Babylon; Babylonia and
I Assyria; Belsbauar;
I Beiossus.


Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio New; 1 Bahia: Slate;
(Riode Janeiro), 1879-1901. [ Bahia: Cily.

Andrew Lang. /

See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew. \

AtntED Newton, F.R.S.

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.

Alfred Peter Hiluer, M.D., M.P.

President, South African Medical Congress, 1893. Author of South African Studies;

Birds ol Paradise.

&c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical •
practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and
Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for llitchin division of Herts, 1910.

Basntoland: History (in part);
Bechuanaland (in part).

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Archibald Sharp.

Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent.

Alfred St Hill Gibbons. i

Major. East Yorkshire Regiment. Explorer in South Central Africa. Author of < Barotse, Barotseland.
Africa from Soulk to North through llarotseland. (.

AlTHrrR Willey, F.R.S., D.Sc. f B»i.nofflossn^

Director of Colombo Museum, Ceylon. \ "^' ">'

r Austria-Hungary: History (in

Asthor William Holland. \ part);

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. I Bavaria: History (in part).

1A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

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Aured \Vti UAM Pollard, M.A. r

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College,

London. Hon. Secretary Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books; 4 Bibliography and BlbUoIofT
and BMiographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the "Globe"
Chaucer. L

Prince Bojidar Karaceorgevttch (d. 1908).

Artist, art critic, designer ^nd goldsmith. Contributor to the Paris Figaro, the
Magazine of Art, &C. Author of Enchanted India. Translator of the works of Tolstoi
and Jokai, &C.

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The Earl Of Crewe, K.G., F.S.A.

Sec the biographical article: Crewe, isi Earl or.

Charles Arthur Conant.

Member of Commission on International Exchange of U.S., 1903. Treasurer,
Morton Trust Co., New York, 1902-1906. Author of History of Modern Banks
of Issue; The Principles of Money and Banking; &c.

Charles Bemont, D. is L , Lrrr.D. (Oion.).
Sec the biographical article: Bbmoni, C.

Charles Francis Atkinson.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal ,
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Colt Harbour. \

Charles Francis Bastable, M.A.. LL.D.

Trade ;&<:.

Cdthbert Hamilton Turner, M.A.

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; Fellow of the British Academy. Speaker's
Lecturer in Biblical Studies in the University of Oxford, 1906-1909. First Editor

, Banvllle.

Banks and Banking:
A mcrican.

Bahiie; Beam.
f Austrian Succession War:



Bible: New 1 alameiu

Rev. Claude Hermann Walter Johns, M.A., Lrrr.D.

Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Assyriology, Queens' I

College, Cambridge, and King's College, London. Author of Assyrian Deeds and \ Babylonian Law.

Documents of the ?lh Century B.C.; The Oldest Code of Laws; Babylonian and Assyrian f

Laws; Contracts and Letters; &C.

Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (EdinJ.

Secretary, Judicial and Public Department. India Office. Fellow of King'» I

College, London. Secretary to Government^ India in Home Department, 1889- -I BIhSrT LKI.

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Chedouille Mijatovich. ,

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- I
potentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900. and 1902-1
'903. [

Rev. Charles Pluiimer, M.A. r

Fellow and Chaplain of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901. J Bed*.

Charles Raymond Beatley, M.A., D.Lrrr., F.R.G.S., F.R.HiST.S. ,

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow I i , ,ju5
of Merlon College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. J -,'
Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1889, Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of I Beh»lm.
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

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of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korli to Khartoum; Life of
Lord Clm-.SK.

Duncan Black Macdonald, D.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U3.A.

Demetrius Charles Boulger.

Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life o) Gordon;
India in Ike lath Century; History of Belgium; Belgian Life in Town and Country; &c.

Donald Francis Tovey.

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis—comprising The
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical

David George Hogarth, M.A.

Keeper'of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; N'aukratis, 1899 and
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens,
1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.

David Hannay.

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short Hittory of Royal Kan,
1117-1688; Lift of Emilia Caitelar; &c

Beirut (in part).

J Balram.

f Belgium: Geography an4 i Statistic!.

| Each. J.S.:
i Beethoven.

r Baalbek;

1 Beirut (in fart);

| Bengazl.

i Austrian Succession War:

J Natal;

1 AvilM; Balnbrldge, William;

iBarhary Pirates.

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Rev. DiiOALD Mactadyen, M.A. I

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London , Berry, Charles Albert.
Missionary Society. I

David Sav Fi. Marcououth, M.A., D.Lrrr. f

Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford; Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic \
Papyri of Ike Bodleian Library; Uakammed and Ike Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem }
and Damascus. {,

Daytd Seth-suith, F.Z.S.

Curator of Birds to the Zoological Society of London. Formerly Presii

Avicultural Society. Author of Parrakeets, a Practical Handbook to those

kept in Captivity. Edward Breck, PH.D.

Formerly Forei;

Author of Wit

Ernest Barker, M.A.

Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Ti
of Merton College. Craven Scholar (Oxford), 1895.

Edward Clodd. (

Viee-PreMdent of the_ FoHe-Lore Society. Author of_ Story of Primitive Man;!


ident of the J .
lux Species 1

, Pb.d. r

reign Correspondent of the Net, York Herald and the New York Times. < Base-Ball.
Udemess Pets. I

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Primer of Evolution; Tom Til Tot; Animism; Pioneers of Evolution

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Right Rev. Edward Cutrbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litr. (Dubl.).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.

Edward Fairbrother Strange.

Assistant-Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of
Council. Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects; Joint-editor'
of Bell's " Cathedral ''Series.

Ediiund Gosse, LI. n

See the biographical article: GOS5E, Edmund.

Edward Granville Browne, M.A., M.R.C.S., M.R.A.S.

Sir Thomas Adams's Professor of Arabic and Fellow of Pembroke College, Cam-
bridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of A Traveller's Narrative,
written to Illustrate Ike Episode of Ike Bab; Tkt Nm History of Hind Ali iluhammcd
tht Bdb; Literary History of Persia; &C.

Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.

Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fdlow of Pembroke College,
Cambridge. University Lecturer in Palaeography.

Eddard Meyer, D.litt. (Oxon.), 11. I).. PH.D.

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Cesckickle del
AUertkxms; Cesihukle da aUaiA&ptau; Die JsratlHen md Hire Nackbarslainme; &c.

Edward Manson.

Barrister-at 1 < Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation, Author of
Skort Vim of Ike Lam of Bankruptcy; &C,

Su Edward Madnde Thompson, G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Lrrr.D. f

Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1888-1900. Fellow of the British
Academy. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France and of the Royal I
Prussian Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Creek and Latin Pojaeo-1
'hy. Editor of the Ckronicon Angliae, Ac. Joint-editor of Publications of Ike
apkital Society. \

E. N. Stockley.

Captain, Royal Engineers. Instructor in Construction at the School of Military

Engineering, Chatham. For some time in charge of the Barracks Design Branch of

the War Office. Edgar Prestage.

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Com

mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal

Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society.
Rev. Eihelked Leonard Taunton (d 1907). J*

Author of The English Black Monks of Si Benedict; History of the Jesuits England. I
Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1810-1895). f

Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England. \

Francis Crawford Burkitt, M.A., D.D. r

Norrisian Professor of Divinity, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy.
Part-editor of The Four Gospels in Syriac transcribed from Ike Sinailic i
Palimpsest. Author of Tke Gospel History and ill Transmission; Early Eastern
Ckrislianily; &C. I

Frederick Cornwalus Conybeare, M.A., D.Tn. (Giessen). f

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. <,
Author of lot Andtnl Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Uytk, Mafic tnd Morals; Ac. I

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See the biographical article:GREENwood, FREDERick. {Baconstan, Earl of.

FREDERIck George MEEson BEck, M.A. {Berniola.
Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge.

See the biographical article:LUGARD, SIRF. J.D.

FRANK PopMoRE, M.A. (d. 1910).
Pembroke College, &io Author of Studies in Psychical Research: Modern {* Writing.
Spiritualism; &c.

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.

FRANCIs Richard MAUNSELL, C.M.G. - burt:
Lieut.-Col., Royal Artillery. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurd- Baiburt;
istan), 1897-1898. Military Attaché, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. Bashkala.
Author of Central Kurdistan; &c.

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. Beryl
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. -

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In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Batrachia.
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.

George BuchanaN GRAY, M.A., D.D., D.LITT. (Oxon.) o: Old Testament,


Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Mansfield o; Oxford. Textual Criticism, and
Examiner in Hebrew, University of Wales. Author of The Divine

iscipline of - -- -
Israel; &c. pl Higher Criticism.

Rev. George EDMUNDson, M.A., F.R.HistS.

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. Belgium: History.

Hon. Member Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa-

tion of Literature.

G. F. ZIMMER, A.M.Inst.C.E. s
Author of Mechanical Handling of Material. {Biscuit.
Georce Grecony SMITH, M.A.
Professor of English Literature, Queen's University, Belfast. Author of The Days Barbour, John.
of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal §: Science, Dublin. President of the . Bee.
Association of Economic Biologists. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. Author
of Insects: their Structure and Life; &c.

GEorce Edward BATEMAN SAINTsbury, LL.D., D.Litt.

see the biographical article: Saintsovay, G. E. B. {*. H. de.

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HENRY Bradley, M.A., Ph.D.
Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy.
Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.

Hugo Chisholm, M.A.

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of Balfour, A. J.

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the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the toth edition.

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