« السابقةمتابعة »
Heitical situation in topper Silesia
a theoretical shutting out of mere num. its terms." Even General Korfanty, ment a bill providing that the workers bers; it is in particular a shutting out who has led the Polish insurgents move- should share in the technical and finanof the kind of people we want.
ment, is reported to have declared that cial management of the factories. At
he would withdraw as soon as the Allies the same time he reduced the Italian THE ALLIES MUST ACT
reach a decision. But, unfortunately, he budget deficit. IN ACCORD
followed this remark with the statement Though the industrial disorders CHAT will be the outcome of the
that, if the decision is not just—that is, calmed down, enough trouble remained
as he went on to explain, "if it does to make the Prime Minister ask the depends upon the promptness of action
not give Poland the territory marked by King to dissolve Parliament and to call of the Supreme Council representing
the Korfantyline"-anarchy will fol. a general election to determine whether the leading Allied Powers of Europe.
low. The French declare, on the other the people approved or disapproved of The danger lies in the difficulty of pro
hand, that the Poles are not the only the Giolitti policies. So far there curing unity of purpose and unity of offenders.
seems to be no mistake in the reply. action. Neither German military forces
The situation is full of explosive pos- The Socialists, who had a greater nor Polish insurgents should be allowed
sibilities, but it more and more seems representation in Parliament than their to control in any part of Upper Silesia.
incredible that France and England party strength warranted, are now put It is all, legally, and should be actually,
should not realize the necessity of joint in a juster proportion. One reason for under the control of the Allies until a action following prompt and reasonable this has been the activities of the Facdecision is reached by the Supreme
decision as to the future of Upper sisti, the organization of extreme, antiCouncil as a result of the recent plebisSilesia.
Bolshevik Nationalists who take their cite and in accordance with the provis
Officially Poland disavows the Kor- name from their symbol, the fasces, ions of the Versailles Treaty. Delay in
fanty demonstration. Neither Poland borne by the Roman lictors, and signifybringing things to a point is dangerous. nor Germany nor, indeed, any single ing respect for law and justice. A decision once reached, however, it is
country has the right of decision. If It is impossible not to sympathize plainly for the Allies to enforce that
the Paris Conference had seen clearly with the sober section of the Italian decision, regardless of opposition.
and acted wisely, the trouble would not Socialists. They are in no wise repreLloyd George's recent utterance in the
have arisen. But it allowed itself to sented by the Communists, who are House of Commons has been mis- follow the idealistic plan of "self- simply a handle for Lenine-Trotsky interpreted both by the Poles and by the determination" by a popular vote in a propaganda. The conservative Social. French press. It is not the case, as
country in which more voters inclined to ists place patriotism before any obedi. French writers have assumed, that the
Germany and those voters inclined to ence to behests from Moscow; they English Prime Minister invited German Poland were massed largely in separate regard compliance with those requests troops to march against Poland, or even sections of the territory; the Paris Con- as treason. to march against Polish insurgents in
ference also confused the issue by pro- Out of the election there will, we beUpper Silesia. What Lloyd George said viding that the disposition of Upper lieve, arise a governmental administrain effect was that the Allies should in- Silesia should not rest on a total vote tion more decided with regard to law sist upon compliance with the Treaty of
but should be influenced by the vote of and order than its predecessor has been, Versailles by all parties concerned, and
"communities," as stated in one place in much as the “masterly neutrality" of that if they fail to make the Treaty the Treaty, or, as stated in another that administration during the past year respected they must not be surprised it place, by “population areas." The crisis has been admired in many quarters. Germany enforces its own rights under and dangers that have resulted illusthe Treaty in Upper Silesia. He said: trate perfectly the absurdity of this THE SPEAKER OF THE We must adhere to the Treaty, kind of "self-determination."
HOUSE OF COMMONS whether it is for or against us. I dis
HE . like the sort of trifling which says, THE ISSUE IN ITALY "After all, they are only Germans."
May 15 elections were held House of Commons. They are entitled to everything the bond either imposes upon them or
Strangers visiting the Houses of Par. gives them and we ought to judge was between the Constitutionalists and liament are always impressed by the impartially, with a stern sense of jus
the Socialists. The Constitutionalists Speaker of the House of Commons. His tice, whether it is for us or against
won handsomely according to the pres- power and his exercise of it are often Fair play is what Great Britain ent returns.
in striking contrast to what those stranstands for and I hope she will stand A significant feature of the elections gers have noted in their home Parlia. for it to the end. I hope that al
was that the Socialist vote, reasonably ments. though they are Germans we will show all the more that we will stand
decreased almost everywhere, was even As he sits in his wig and robes in his for fair play, and our authority will
smaller where Communist candidates chair on a raised dais in front of a high be all the greater for it. were on the ticket.
screen at the north end of the chamber Mr. Lloyd George might have added The main trouble in Italy has been and with the mace, signifying his authat likewise, in the event of failure by the agitation engendered by these Com- thority, on the table before him, he apthe Allies to maintain fair play, no one munists. A year ago Italy faced an in- pears, somehow, no longer an individual, should be surprised at the effort of the dustrial upheaval. The Communists but the symbol of English parliamenPoles to enforce what they regard as seized docks, railways, factories, and tarism. He even seems to that parliatheir rights.
banks. They had frequent clashes with mentarism what our written ConstituAs the discussion has gone on it is the troops. At this . moment Giolitti tion is to us. noteworthy that all parties concerned became Premier. Nearly eighty years When a new Parliament is opened, the declare their intention of abiding by the old, he combines a patriarch's patience members of the House of Commons are Treaty of Versailles. The French Pre- with a youth's dash. He called the em- summoned to the House of Lords to hear mier, M. Briand, has said: "France ployers and workers together and the Speech from the Throne. In the bases her position on the Treaty of brought the latter to agree to a truce Sovereign's name, they are then asked Versailles, and has no wish to escape by promising to introduce into Parlia- to choose a Speaker. They retire to the
This the new Speaker of the British
O throughout Italyti onhe main fight
House of Commons to do so. The next Lowther is an aristocrat; Whitley, a
The Speaker's power is enormous.
HOUSE OF COMMONS mainder of the session.
The Speaker's power over debate is as As a merchandising nation, England great as it is over discipline; he decides, may, it would seem, appropriately select for instance, whether a motion to close
as the first commoner of the realm a debate may be put or whether it in
man of business. fringes the rights of the minority; he can refuse to entertain any motion if he considers it an abuse of the rules of the
CLERGYMAN'S AND DAY. House; from his decisions on any points
LABORER'S SALARIES of order there is no appeal.
T has been said that less than 1 per Members of the House of Commons cent of our active pastors receive have therefore been careful in choosing $4,000 or more salary. The statement a man with such powers—a man who is further tells us that hardly 142 per cent justly regarded as the “first commoner receive from $3,000 to $4,000; that only a of the realm."
little over 41/2 per cent receive $2,000 to The outgoing speaker, the Rt. Hon. $3,000; that less than 10 per cent receive James William Lowther, was Deputy $1,500 to $2,000; that something over Speaker for ten years before he became 3212 per cent receive $1,000 to $1,500; Speaker, sixteen years ago. He is a that somewhat less than 39 per cent typical English Conservative (the receive $500 to $1,000; and that about 13 Speaker is always selected by the Gov- per cent receive $500 or less. It is interernment of the day, but it has now be- esting to compare the average of clergycome the invariable custom to re-elect men's salaries with the average yearly him as long as he is willing to serve), wages of day-laborers. educated at Eton and at Trinity Col- These figures may not be altogether lege, Cambridge, and belonging to the reliable. Athenæum and Carlton Clubs. He must But it is certain that clergymen's now move from his official residence in salaries are altogether too low. This the Houses of Parliament and will no explains why many men have had longer enjoy his Speaker's salary of to seek employment outside of their $25,000 a year and perquisites in addi- profession while endeavoring to fulfill tion to his official residence. The reason their duties as clergymen. A clergyis that Mr. Lowther is about to be man in a neighboring State declared elevated to the peerage, and therefore that he could not live on his salary. So he can no longer hold office as a com- for the past ten years he has been sellmoner.
ing bonds. He now makes a comfortHe is succeeded, as is appropriate, by able income. the man who for ten years has been If the parishes which are served Deputy Speaker, John Henry Whitley. really call for a man's full work, and The new Speaker, while representing yet the clergymen do go out into busithe careful training for the office which ness and put quarter or half their time a Deputy Speaker must needs have, is into the distinctive work of the minisin striking contrast to his predecessor. try, is evident that, as long as they
can do this, so long will salaries be kept low.
In his Diocesan Convention address the other day in Boston Bishop Law. rence, of Massachusetts, made this. declaration:
A clergyman ordained consecrates himself fully and wholly to the work of the Church. It may be that, after some years, he discovers it is impossible for him and his family to live upon his salary. Under that necessity, while it is to be regretted, he may be justified in retiring from the ministry and earning his living in some secular pursuit. When he gives the six days towards earning the living of himself and his family in business or other secular pursuit, he has become a business man, and obtains thereby the higher wage and the advantages of a business man. When, however, he still remains officially in the ministry and uses his Sundays to earn more wages, he is claiming the privileges both of the business man and of the clergyman. Consistency would, it seems to me, move such a man to make his choice between one or the other. The number of clergymen holding this double relation is on the increase throughout the Church, and I believe that, unless there is a bracing up of public sentiment, respect for Holy Orders will decline both in the Church and in the business world. Because the clergy, as a whole, are devoted, heart and soul, to the work of the ministry, we are the more jealous of their good name.
The problem is indeed a difficult one. There are two sides to it. But all the churches, we think, need a toning up in regard to the calling of the men whose chief duty is to serve them.
A MEMORY AND A MEMORIAL
N the island of Molokai in the
Hawaiian Archipelago is a settlement of lepers in the two villages of Kalaupapa and Kalauao. It was in this latter village that Father Damien lived, labored, and died in the service of the afflicted settlers.
The shore of the part of the island where these villages are located is precipitous, a great massive wall of stone two thousand feet high, made so by the splitting and sinking of another portion now under the sea. The only land route to this, the south and southeastern part of the island, is by a precarious trail which leads over the cliff. Residents of both sides may communicate with one another by telephone; but it is much easier to pass to another island and reach the villages by sea than to come over the mountain between. The Hawaiian name, “Molokai nui a hina," means "The Lonely Isle." Molokai is, and always has been, out of the travei route, little frequented even by residents of the other islands, and to many of them a terra incognita. The island is about forty miles long, and averages ten
the Church, who confessed that it had left an indelible impression on his mind:
The small church, dimly lit by smoky strips of wood (wax candles being no longer obtainable), was as crowded as on a church holiday. The people all belonged to the working class, the women with shawls on their heads, the men in working clothes. Men were in the majority. On the raised dais before the altar stood Professor Lossky, small in stature, powerful in speech. He spoke of the soul of the universe, of the knowledge of God, his philosophic intuition closely interwoven with the doctrine of the Orthodox religion. He
spoke clearly and simply. A SCENE IN KALAUAO
After he had finished there was a The figure on the left is that of the late Brother Joseph Dutton.
long silence. Then a Communist, a
His assistant, Dr. W. J. Goodhue, is the resident physician at Kalauao and is also the editor of the memorial volume
young man of about twenty, the referred to in the accompanying editorial comment
President of the Local Union of Com
munist Youths, rose up and began to miles in width; it is volcanic, built by the old. He is a strong adherent to the
speak, vehemently attacking God and lava flows, and is geologically older than idea of an independent church, and
And suddenly, as if at a given sig. Hawaii and its near neighbors. holds himself aloof from all politics in
nal, the whole congregation began to In 1908 the American battleship fleet the sense of mixing in political plots sing a hymn. A group of young peowas on its way around the world, and, and organizations. At the same time he
ple-a small one-in their turn at the request of President Roosevelt, it is a stanch democrat and in most cases
started the "Internationale." And for
a long while the two tunes-the made a special deviation from its course opposed to the Soviet Government. He
prayer and the “Internationale"in order that a salute might be fired in frequently speaks openly against the were blended together, until the “Inhonor of the stricken men and women abuses of the existing régime, and the
ternationale" was drowned by the of the leper villages. The great battle- Bolsheviki are obliged to tolerate such
mighty swell of the hymn. After
that Lossky spoke again, and when ships steaming under the shadow of the speeches. For the struggle between the he had finished the whole crowd fell mountains of Molokai as they reverber- Bolsheviki and the Church has ended in on their knees and prayed long and ated with the thunder of this unprece- the definite and obvious victory of the fervently. ... And the majority of dented salute made a picture which no latter. The Bolsheviki no longer dare
that crowd were working men. . . witness of the incident has forgotten.
To me it was a strange and uncanny attack religion. More than that, verified
sight. That is one of the reasons why, when facts prove that ever-increasing num. the time came for raising money for a bers of Communists observe religious
Professor Berdiaiev, the well-known
on National Roosevelt Memorial, the resi
philosopher and expert rites—such
getting married dents of Molokai not only contributed church, having their children baptized,
Church questions, expressed the followtheir full quota, but also felt moved to
ing opinion on the spiritual evolution and receiving Holy Communion on their create a memorial of their own. They death-bed. At the demand of Red Army
now going on in the Russian Church: have purchased several acres of land in
"A new Orthodox Church is in process men a religious service was held at the a central location and have called it the
of construction. It will be free and opening of a military hospital. The “Roosevelt Memorial Children's Park," Orthodox Church, our correspondent
more Christian. The revolution has dedicating it “to Theodore Roosevelt, avers, has conquered in her blood
brought liberty to the Russian Church American." A volume containing many less struggle against Bolshevism and
and broken her chains of slavery." tributes to Theodore Roosevelt has been emerged purified by her trial and has prepared, and from the sale of this vol- become more Christian and more truly
NEW JERSEY MUST LOOK TO ume it is expected that enough money a Church.
HER LAURELS will be raised to erect a memorial tower
A great number of Christian brother- MHE OUTLOOK has repeatedly comin this Roosevelt Park.
hoods have of late sprung up in Petro- mented on the promptness of “JerIt was an act of poetic imagination to
grad. They are established locally, and, sey justice." A good deal can be done order the battleships to salute the leper including as they do all the religiously in the courts of other States than New villages. It was an act characteristic of
inclined persons of the neighborhood, Jersey. It is being done. Theodore Roosevelt.
form a kind of community of the early The “Daily Star," of Norwich, New
Christian type, founded on charity and York, recounts the speeding up of a A RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT IN
brotherly love, everything being shared trial in that place. On January 30 SOVIET RUSSIA
in common. They hold frequent prayer- Herbert Smith was alleged to have shot LL persons recently escaped from meetings and religious philosophic de- and killed Lewis Johnson. Smith was
Soviet Russia bear testimony to the bates. At their head usually stands the not arrested until February 19. On strong religious movement, with a pecu- parish priest of the new type. Cases of February 20 Judge Abraham L. Kellogg, liar character of its own, which has laymen cntering Holy Orders are becom- of the Supreme Court, called Governor developed in Moscow and Petrograd ing more and more frequent.
Miller over the telephone and asked for during the last year. Its leaders, a Religious debates are taking place a special Grand Jury to consider the well-informed Russian correspondent more and more frequently in the
The request was granted. Under tells The Outlook, are mostly young churches after service, especially in the New York State laws three weeks' parish priests and members of the labor districts. One such debate has notice had to be given (and very propintelligentzia. The new type of priest, been described by an eye-witness—a erly so) of the calling of a special Grand it is explained, differs essentially from man completely alien to religion and Jury as well as an extraordinary term
of the Supreme Court. The Governor detailed Justice Kellogg to preside. The Grand Jury met on March 17. Smith was indicted on March 18. After indictment he was brought to trial at the earliest possible date. The work of securing a jury was accomplished within twenty-four hours. On March 31 the trial was directed to proceed. On April 5 Smith was convicted of murder in the first degree. Thus, only thirteen days elapsed from the date of his indictment to the day his trial was begun, and only eighteen days elapsed from the date of his indictment to the date of his conviction. New York State courts have, we believe, few, if any, parallels of a conviction secured, in a first-degree murder case, eighteen days after the indictment was returned.
By his quick action and speedy trial Justice Kellogg did much to correct “the law's delay," of which we often hear a good deal.
If such records are repeated, New Jersey may have to look well to her laurels.
SOMETHING OLD AND
Tot a few letters have drifted into
N'The Outlook's "editorial rooms this
past week of a similar tenor to the following:
How delightful was your article on "Accuracy," page 52 of The Outlook of Wednesday, May 11, 1921. I enjoyed every word of it. . . . On page 48 of the same issue there is a picture of the new Field Museum in Chicago. The very last paragraph of the article describing this Museum says, "At present there is not only not a tree, but not even a blade of grass within a half-mile of the Museum." I distinctly see three trees, to say nothing of the one in the foreground, staring me in the face! And grass? Et autour des deux arbres sur l'autre côté du lac; si-non herbe, quoi donc?
One correspondent bursts into verse to the following effect:
I'd never seen a treeless tree,
I'd never hoped to see one; But here we have grass and tree,
Where we're told there be none. The explanation of all this is to be found in the fact that these readers have strained at a tree and swallowed a Museum. The truth of the matter is that the wrong picture slipped into The Outlook's pages—the picture of the old Field Museum instead of the new one. As one Chicago Outlook reader (his name, we may add for the benefit of those who remember our editorial on accuracy, is Mr. Glen Buck) writes in quite pardonable satisfaction:
We were always proud of the old building, for it is truly the most beau
tiful structure in America. But we are scribed by the Federal Government. We
principle of Federal financial co-operabuilding really looks like. I am at
tion with the States underlies a law taching hereto a clipping showing the already enacted and in operation, that present Field Museum for purposes is to say, the Good Roads Bill. Thus we of information and accuracy.
have four great measures, either enacted For the benefit of Mr. Buck and others or about to be enacted, which provide we present herewith a picture of the for Federal direction or stimulation of new Field Museum, properly labeled. State activities through the purse.
The advantages of this form of legis
lation are many. It would enable the FEDERAL CONTROL OF central authority to formulate a broad
and general plan in which the interests EDUCATION AND
and welfare of various parts of the counHEALTH
try are co-ordinated. It would establist.
high standards of universal excellence WOMAN reader of The Outlook, and application. It would foster Na
informing us that the wɔmen of tional sentiment on questions of public A the country are greatly inter
welfare. It would enable prosperous ested in them, pro and con, asks our and highly developed States to aid, opinion of two bills now before Congress through the Federal Treasury, less proswith which the name of the Hon. Horace
perous and more backward States. M. Towner, Representative from Iowa, is Since a chain can be no stronger than closely associated. One is known as the its weakest link, it is of vital interest Smith-Towner Bill and would create a to New York that the roads, timber, and Federal Department of Education, with a children of every other State in the Secretary in the Cabinet and with cer- Union shall be conserved and well detain appropriations of money from the veloped. Federal treasury to those States which Of all these bills the most appealing appropriate suitable sums and maintain to human sympathy ,and progressive suitable standards in their public school social instincts is the Maternity Bill. It systems. The second bik', iztroduced in has been under consideration for two the House of Representatives by Mr. years. Statistics and experience show Towner last April, is known as the that the kind of maternal supervision Sheppard-Towner Maternity Bill because provided in this bill might save annuSenator Sheppard is its sponsor in the ally the lives of some 23,000 mothers Senate. Under it money would be ap- and nearly 250,000 infants less than a propriated from the Federai ireasury to year old. According to the Metropolitan the several States maintaining stan- Life Insurance Company's bulletin more dards set by the Federal Government women between the ages of fifteen and for taking proper medical of forty-five years die from causes incimothers in childbirth and of infants, dental to childbirth than from any other and for the promotion of education in cause except tuberculosis. infant and maternal hygiene. There The general policy of co-operation beis still a third bill which our corre- tween the National Government and the spondent does not mention, but which State Governments in social welfare is based upon the principle of Federal legislation is too firmly established to be financial co-operation with the States attacked or changed on fundamental that live up to certain standards pre- grounds; but there are three objections
Bill would require $1,480,000 expendi- was much like that immediately pre ture by the National Government in ceding the signing of the Treaty of 1921. No sane person would begrudge Versailles. As then, so now there was the expenditure of this last amount if a change of Ministry and Germany there were positive assurance that this nominally at least did what was de appropriation were the best way to save manded of her. After certain elements the lives of mothers and children now had had their chance to express defiance needlessly sacrificed. There enter into and welcome invasion rather than sur the question, however, the thought that render, and after considerable political the States can effect a more permanent coquetry, Dr. Wirth, leader of the Cenreform in this matter by individual trists, formed a coalition Cabinet, comeffort, and the fear that these bills may posed of representatives of different mark too long a step away from a vital parties so selected that no one party principle of our Government. Certainly could be held responsible. Thereupon the expenditures required by these three the new German Government announced bills taken together are a factor to be itself as "fully resolved” to carry out carefully considered by a people already "without reserve" the obligations and taxed almost to the breaking point. guaranties prescribed by the ReparaThe third objection is one not of prin.
tions Commission, the measures of disciple but of timeliness.
armament notified to Germany by the In a recent admirable address before Allies, and the trial of war criminals the American Newspaper Publishers' and the other unfulfilled portions of the
Association Postmaster-General Hays treaty. (C) Harris & Ewing
outlined the plans of the Administration When the word to this effect was anHORACE M. TOWNER
for a reorganization of the Cabinet De- nounced in the British Parliament, it
partments of the National Government. was greeted as a great triumph for Mr. to the immediate passage of the Towner
Among these plans are the change of the Lloyd George, the British Prime MinisEducation Bill, the Sheppard Maternity
Department of the Interior to the De- ter. No one grudges him or M. Briand, Bill, and the Snell Forestry Bill which
partment of Public Works and "the con- the French Premier, any credit for this ought to be carefully considered. centration in that Department of all
result that is due them; but it is imporFirst, the danger that the pendulum
civil, public works of the Government as tant that the free nations of the world may have swung too far in the National well as all those services which have to
should not be deceived as to the nature direction, and that individuals and or
do with the administration and utiliza- of what has happened. So far as actual ganizations are too prone to turn to the
tion of the public domain.” At the same deeds of reparation, disarmament, and power of the Federal Government to
time there would be created a new de- performance of other acts of compliance establish reforms rather than to the partment, with a Cabinet Secretary,
with the Treaty are concerned, the situpower of education within the States.
called the Department of Public Welfare. ation now is precisely what it was beThe Outlook is temperamentally Na“In this Department would be placed
fore the twelfth of May. This is not to tionalist and is not a believer in the
those bureaus which deal with health say that no progress has been made. In sanctity of the philosophical doctrine of questions generally and with education
two respects at least there has been apStates' rights. But the American people
and social welfare.” This reorganization preciable gain. In the first place, Gerought not to become indifferent to the
plan seems to us excellent and desirable, many obviously puts herself on record as function and powers of the State Gov
and we therefore think that Congress appreciating rather more definitely than ernments and shield their indifference
would do well to wait until the Admin- heretofore the fact that she did not win by turning to the National Government istration has time to put this reorgani
the war. That is some gain. It helps in the frame of mind of one who says:
zation into effect before passing any far"Oh, let George do it." The local
reaching legislation on public education processes of educational evolution are
and public hygiene.
acquiescence in the terms pre
(C) Keystone sury in 1921-1922, increasing to $8,000,- then in power in Berlin could not, for
DR. WIRTH, GERMANY'S NEW 000 at a future date. The Maternity political reasons, yield. The situation